1st Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union)

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1st Mechanized Corps (1940-1946)
1st Mechanized Division (1946-1957)
19th Motor Rifle Division (1957-1965)
35th Motor Rifle Division (1965-1992)
Active 1940-Aug 1941, 1942-46
Country  USSR
Branch Armed Forces
Role Mechanized Corps (Soviet)
Size Corps
Engagements World War II
Major General M. L. Cherniavsky

The 1st Mechanized Corps was a formation in the Soviet Red Army during World War II. Initially formed in March 1940 it was attached to the Leningrad Military District, & held in reserve near Pskov Fortified Region in Soviet Union[1] It was under the command of Major General M. L. Cherniavsky[2] when the German Operation Barbarossa began in June 1941. It initially comprised the 1st and 3rd Tank Divisions, and the 168th Mechanized Division.[3] On 22 June 1941, 1st Mechanized Corps consisted 31,439 Men, 1037 Tanks, 239 Armoured Cars, 148 Artillery Pieces, 146 Mortars, 4730 Vehicles, 246 Tractors & 467 Motorcycles including lighter models T-26, Bt 7, & T-28's.[4]

Great Patriotic War

1st Formation

After the invasion began the Leningrad Military District was renamed Northern Front, Commanded by Lieutenant General Markian M. Popov. The front fielded 14th, 7th Armies, 23rd Armies, the 65th Rifle Corps & the Leningrad Military District forces including the 2nd Division of NKVD troops. The 1st Mechanized Corps was heavily engaged in the first battles of Operation Barbarossa, particularly during the Baltic Operation (1941). On 29 June 1941 the 1st Mechanized Corps was ordered to reinforce new defences anchored on the Velikaya River near Ostrov on the former Stalin Line After the spectacular advances by Georg-Hans Reinhardt's XLI Panzer Corps which had crossed the Daugava River. However it was unable to hold the line. On 11 July 1941 Col P Poluboiarov, Northwestern Front armoured directorate reported that the 1st Mechanized Corps had at the present moment fewer than 100 Tanks remaining.[5] Pskov and Ostrov were captured within weeks & Leningrad invested. On 2 August 1941 Colonel Limarenko, Chief of Staff of the 1st Mechanized Corps reported that the Corps 'possessed no T-34 or Kv-1s when sent into action 20 were delivered only after combat began. The 1st Mechanized Corps was disbanded in August 1941, although 1st Tank Division remained in 14th Army.[citation needed]

2nd Formation

Reformed August 1942.[citation needed]

It took heavy casualties during the Battle in Berlin.[citation needed]

Cold War

In 1946, the corps became the 1st Mechanized Division. The division became the 19th Motor Rifle Division in Olympisches Dorf as part of the 2nd Guards Tank Army. In June 1964, it was subordinated to the 20th Guards Army.[6] On 1 January 1965, it became the 35th Motor Rifle Division. On 22 February 1968, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. In May 1983, it relocated to Krampnitz. In May 1989, the 219th Tank Regiment was moved to the Soviet Union and disbanded. It was replaced by the 32nd Guards Tank Division's 69th Motor Rifle Regiment. During the Cold War, the division was maintained at full strength. In December 1991, the division moved to Chebarkul and became part of the Volga–Urals Military District. The division was disbanded in April 1992.[7]

Sources & References

  1. Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 120.
  2. David Glantz, The Battle for Leningrad 1941-1944, 2002, p. 34.
  3. Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 229.
  4. Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 127.
  5. Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p. 126.
  6. Steven J. Zaloga (1989) Tank War-Central Front – NATO vs. Warsaw Pact. Osprey Elite Series No 26. ISBN 0-85045-904-4
  7. Holm, Michael. "35th Motorised Rifle Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 7 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading