Acetyl-CoA

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Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA-2D.svg
Acetyl-CoA-3D-balls.png
Names
IUPAC name
S-[2-[3-[[(2R)-4-[[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl]amino]propanoylamino]ethyl] ethanethioate
Identifiers
72-89-9 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:15351 YesY
ChemSpider 392413 YesY
3038
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
Interactive image
MeSH Acetyl+Coenzyme+A
PubChem 444493
Properties
C23H38N7O17P3S
Molar mass 809.57 g/mol
Vapor pressure {{{value}}}
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. Its main function is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. Structure of coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a β-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid through an amide linkage. The acetyl group of acetyl-CoA is linked by a "high energy" thioester to the sulfhydryl portion of the β-mercaptoethylamine. It is this thioester bond that makes acetyl-CoA one of the "high energy" compounds. Hydrolysis of the thioester bond is highly exergonic (-31.5 kJ). Acetyl-CoA is produced during breakdown of carbohydrates through glycolysis as well as fatty acid oxidation and enters the citric acid cycle.

Acetyl-CoA is also an important component in the biogenic synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and a Coenzyme A byproduct.

Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen were awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for their discoveries linking acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Fritz Lipmann won the Nobel Prize in 1953 for his discovery of the cofactor Coenzyme A.

Functions

Pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase reactions

The oxidative conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA is referred to as the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It is catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Other conversions between pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are possible. For example, pyruvate formate lyase disproportionates pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and formic acid.

Direct synthesis

The two components of acetyl-CoA—the acetyl, supplied via acetate, and Coenzyme-A groups—can be linked directly, catalyzed by the enzyme acetyl—CoA synthetase. This process is involved in metabolism of carbon sugars. As a starting point for the citric acid cycle, the acetyl—Co-A synthetase route is less common than the pyruvate dehydrogenase route.

Fatty acid metabolism

In animals, acetyl-CoA and other acyl-CoA coenzymes are essential to the balance between carbohydrate metabolism and fat metabolism (see fatty acid synthesis). Under normal circumstances, acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism feeds into the citric acid cycle, contributing to the cell's energy supply. In the liver, when levels of circulating fatty acids are high, the production of acetyl-CoA from fat breakdown exceeds the cellular energy requirements. To make use of the energy available from the excess acetyl-CoA, ketone bodies are produced, which can then circulate in the blood.

In some circumstances, this can lead to the presence of very high levels of ketone bodies in the blood, a condition called ketosis, which is different from ketoacidosis, a dangerous condition that can affect diabetics.

In plants, de novo fatty acid synthesis occurs in the plastids. Many seeds accumulate large reservoirs of seed oils to support germination and early growth of the seedling before it is a net photosynthetic organism. Fatty acids are incorporated into membrane lipids, the major component of most membranes.

Other reactions

Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to visit Gene Wiki pages and related Wikipedia articles. The pathway can be downloaded and edited at WikiPathways.

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TCACycle_WP78 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to article go to article go to article
The image above contains clickable links
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=TCA Cycle edit]]
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Statin_Pathway_WP430 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article
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|px|alt=Statin Pathway edit]]

See also

References

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External links

de:Coenzym A#Acetyl-CoA