Archibald Hill

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Archibald Vivian Hill
Archibald Vivian Hill.jpg
Born (1886-09-26)26 September 1886
Bristol, England
Died 3 June 1977(1977-06-03) (aged 90)
Cambridge, England
Nationality United Kingdom
Fields Physiology and biophysics
Institutions Cambridge University
University of Manchester
University College, London
Alma mater Cambridge University
Academic advisors Walter Morley Fletcher
Notable students Bernard C. Abbott
Te-Pei Feng
Ralph H. Fowler
Bernard Katz
Known for Mechanical work in muscles
Muscle contraction model
Founding biophysics
Hill equation (biochemistry)
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1922)
Royal Medal (1926)
Copley Medal (1948)
Notes
He is notably the father of Polly Hill, David Keynes Hill, Maurice Hill, and the grandfather of Nicholas Humphrey.

Archibald Vivian Hill, CH, OBE, FRS[1] (26 September 1886 – 3 June 1977), known as A. V. Hill, was an English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research. He shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his elucidation of the production of heat and mechanical work in muscles.[2][3]

Biography

Born in Bristol, he was educated at Blundell's School and graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge as third wrangler in the mathematics tripos before turning to physiology. His early work involved the characterisation of what came to be known as Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the use of the Hill coefficient. Hill's first paper, published in 1909[4] while working under the supervision of John Newport Langley, is a landmark in the history of receptor theory.

Hill made many exacting measurements of the physics of nerves and muscles. His earliest experiments on the heat production of contracting muscles used equipment obtained from the Swedish physiologist Magnus Blix. Both before and after World War I he worked on a range of topics in physiology in co-operation with colleagues in Cambridge, Germany and elsewhere.

Hill is regarded, along with Hermann Helmholtz, as one of the founders of biophysics.

In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, Hill joined the British army and assembled a team working on ballistics and operations research. The team included many notable physicists including Ralph H. Fowler, Douglas Hartree and Arthur Milne.

Hill returned to Cambridge in 1919 before taking the chair in physiology at the Victoria University of Manchester in 1920 in succession to William Stirling. Parallelling the work of German Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Hill elucidated the processes whereby mechanical work is produced in muscles. The two shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for this work.

In 1923 he succeeded Ernest Starling as professor of physiology at University College, London, a post he held until his retirement in 1951. He used to keep a toy figure of Adolf Hitler with a movable saluting arm, in gratitude for all the scientists Germany had expelled and who were now working with him.[5]

He was President of the Marine Biological Association from 1955 to 1960. He continued work as an active researcher until 1966.

World War II saw the beginning of Hill's extensive public service. Already in 1935 he was working with Patrick Blackett and Sir Henry Tizard on the committee that gave birth to Radar. In 1933, he became with Lord Beveridge and Lord Rutherford a founder member and vice-president of the Academic Assistance Council (which became the Society for the Protection of Science and Learning in 1936). By the start of the Second World War, the organisation had saved 900 academics (18 of whom went on to win Nobel Prizes) from the Nazi persecution. He served as an independent Member of Parliament (MP) for Cambridge University from 1940 to 1945. He took part in many scientific missions to the US.

Personal life

In 1913 he married Margaret Keynes (1885-1974), daughter of the economist John Neville Keynes, and sister of the economist John Maynard Keynes and the surgeon Geoffrey Keynes. They had two sons and two daughters:

Honours and awards

Blue plaque

On 9 September 2015 an English Heritage Blue plaque was erected at Hill's former home, 16 Bishopswood Road, Highgate, where he had lived from 1923-1967. Since then the house had been divided into flats and owned by Highgate School, where Hill was a Governor from 1929-1960. It has now been sold, redeveloped and renamed as Hurstbourne. In Hill's time, according to his grandson Nicholas Humphrey, regular guests at the house included 18 exiled Nobel laureates, his brother-in-law, the economist John Maynard Keynes, and friends Stephen Hawking and Sigmund Freud. After-dinner conversations in the drawing room would inevitably involve passionate debates about science or politics. “Every Sunday we would have to attend a tea party at grandpa’s house and apart from entertaining some extraordinary guests, he would devise some great games for us, such as frog racing in the garden or looking through the lens of a (dissected) sheep’s eye.” Sir Ralph Kohn FRS who proposed the Blue plaque, said: “The Nobel Prize winner A. V. Hill contributed vastly to our understanding of muscle physiology. His work has resulted in wide-ranging application in sports medicine. As an outstanding Humanitarian and Parliamentarian, he was uncompromising in his condemnation of the Nazi regime for its persecution of scientists and others. A. V. Hill played a crucial role in assisting and rescuing many refugees to continue their work in this country.”[7] [8] [9]

Publications

By Hill:

  • Gray, C. H. (1947). "The significance of the van den Bergh reaction". The Quarterly journal of medicine. 16 (63): 135–142. PMID 20263725.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hill, A. V.; Long, C. N. H.; Lupton, H. (1924). "Muscular Exercise, Lactic Acid, and the Supply and Utilisation of Oxygen". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 96 (679): 438. doi:10.1098/rspb.1924.0037.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hill, A.V. (1924–25). Textbook of Anti-Aircraft Gunnery, 2 vols
  • - (1926). "The scientific study of athletics". Scientific American. 224 (April).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • - (1926a). Muscular Activity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8493-5494-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • - (1926b). Muscular Activity: Herter Lectures – Sixteenth Course. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • - (1927a). Muscular Movement in Man
  • - (1927b). Living Machinery
  • Hill, A. V. (1928). "Myothermic apparatus". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 103 (723): 117. doi:10.1098/rspb.1928.0029.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • - (1931). Adventures in Biophysics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • - (1932) Chemical Wave Transmission in Nerve
  • - (1960). The Ethical Dilemma of Science, and Other Writings. New York: Rockefeller Institute Press,.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • - (1965). Trails and Trials in Physiology: A Bibliography, 1909–1964; with reviews of certain topics and methods and a reconnaissance for further research. London: Arnold.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

References

  1. Katz, B. (1978). "Archibald Vivian Hill. 26 September 1886-3 June 1977". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 24: 71–149. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1978.0005. JSTOR 769758. PMID 11615743.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Scientific contributions of A. V. Hill: exercise physiology pioneer". doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01246.2001. Retrieved 10 June 2013. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31230. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Hill, A. V. (1909). "The mode of action of nicotine and curari, determined by the form of the contraction curve and the method of temperature coefficients". The Journal of physiology. 39 (5): 361–373. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1909.sp001344. PMC 1533665. PMID 16992989.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Medawar & Pyke. Page 122.
  6. Presidential Address to the British Association Meeting, held at Belfast in 1952
  7. "A.V.Hill, Nobel Prize Winner and Sports Medicine Pioneer, receives English Heritage Blue Plaque". Retrieved 8 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Rowlinson, Liz (18 September 2015). "Houses stamped with a mark of prestige". Times online. Retrieved 8 October 2015. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Hurstbourne, Highgate" (PDF). Retrieved 8 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Bibliography

  • Lusk, G. (1925). Lectures on nutrition: 1924–1925. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Medawar, Jean: Pyke, David (2012). Hitler's Gift: The True Story of the Scientists Expelled by the Nazi Regime (Paperback). New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-709-4.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Stevenson, L.G. (1953). Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology: 1901–1950. New York: Henry Schuman.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Nobel biography

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sir Kenneth Pickthorn, Bt.
Sir John James Withers
Member of Parliament for Cambridge University
1940 – 1945
With: Sir Kenneth Pickthorn, Bt.
Succeeded by
Sir Kenneth Pickthorn, Bt.
Wilson Harris