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Black pride is a movement encouraging people to take pride in being black. In the United States, it was a direct response to racism during the Civil Rights Movement. Related movements include black power, black nationalism, Black Panthers and Afrocentrism.
Arts and music
The black pride is a major theme in some works of African American popular musicians. Civil Rights Movement era songs such as The Impressions's hit songs "We're a Winner" and "Keep on Pushing" and James Brown's "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" celebrated black pride. Beyoncé's half-time performance at Super Bowl 50, which included homages to Malcolm X and the Black Panthers, has been described by the media as a display of black pride.
Beauty and fashion
Beauty standards are a major theme of black pride. Black pride was represented in slogans such as "black is beautiful" which challenged white beauty standards. Prior to the black pride movement, the majority of black people straightened their hair or wore wigs. The adoption natural hair styles such as the afro, cornrows, and dreadlocks were seen as expressions of black pride.
In the 1960s-1970s, kente cloth and the Black Panthers uniform were worn in the U.S. as expressions of black pride. Headscarves were sometimes worn by Nation of Islam and other Black Muslim Movement members as an expression of black pride and a symbol of faith. Other women used scarves with African prints to cover their hair.
The black pride movement is very prevalent in Brazil, especially throughout their poorer population, and it is found in the Brazilian funk music genre that began to arise in the late 1960s, as also in the called Funk carioca, that emerged in late 1980s. Both the origin of Brazilian funk and Funk carioca reflects Brazilian black resistance. Ethnomusicologist George Yúdice states that youths were engaging black culture mediated by a U.S. culture industry met with many arguments against their susceptibility to cultural colonization. Although it borrows some ingredients from hip hop, its style still remains unique to Brazil (mainly Rio de Janeiro and also São Paulo).
Black pride has been a central theme of the originally Jamaican Rastafari movement since the second half of the 20th century. It has been described as "a rock in the face of expressions of white superiority."
The slogan has been used in the United States by African Americans to celebrate heritage and personal pride. The black pride movement is closely linked with the developments of the civil rights movement and Black Power movement, during which figures such as Martin Luther King, Jr., A. Philip Randolph, Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael spoke out against the conditions of the United States' segregated society, and lobbied for better treatment for people of all races.
Gary Kamiya has criticized the black pride movement, saying that to the extreme, black pride would cause people of African descent to fail to separate their personal identities from their race.
- White pride
- Gay pride
- Asian pride
- Black Arts Movement
- Black genocide conspiracy theory
- Black Power movement
- Wayne C. Glasker (1 June 2009). Black Students in the Ivory Tower: African American Student Activism at the University of Pennsylvania, 1967-1990. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 28. ISBN 1-55849-756-0.
In 1966 the Black Power-black nationalist-black pride movements emerged as equal and opposite reactions to white racism as a reaction of the biracial civil rights movement.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- Noliwe M. Rooks (1996). Hair Raising: Beauty, Culture, and African American Women. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2312-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Maxine Leeds Craig (24 May 2002). Ain't I a Beauty Queen? : Black Women, Beauty, and the Politics of Race: Black Women, Beauty, and the Politics of Race. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803255-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- Yúdice 1994
- Rastafari and slavery
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- "Rising Black Consciousness". Virginia Historical Society. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
As the civil rights movement gained ground, removing the stigma of inferiority not only in schools but throughout society, black pride increased.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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