Saint Thomas Christians
St Thomas Cross
|Regions with significant populations|
|India (Kerala, Bangalore, Mumbai); UAE (Dubai); Oman; Kuwait; USA (New York City metropolitan area, Chicago, Houston, Dallas, Tampa, Detroit, Atlanta, Philadelphia, New Jersey, Los Angeles); Canada (Toronto, Edmonton)|
|Vernacular: Malayalam Liturgical: Syriac (Aramaic)|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians or Nasrani, is a community of Christians from Tamilakam in present-day Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Saint Thomas in the 1st century, and is one of the oldest Christian communities of the world. The community was historically united in leadership and liturgy, but since the 17th century have been split into several church denominations and traditions.
Historically the Saint Thomas Christian community was part of the Church of the East, centred in Mesopotamia. They were organised as the Ecclesiastical Province of India in the 8th century, served by bishops and a hereditary Archdeacon. In the 16th century the overtures of the Portuguese padroado to bring the Saint Thomas Christians into the Catholic Church led to the first of several rifts in the community and the establishment of Catholic and Malankara Church factions. Since that time further splits have occurred, and the Saint Thomas Christians are now divided into several Eastern Catholic, Oriental Orthodox, and independent bodies, each with their own liturgies and traditions.
The Saint Thomas Christians represent a single ethnic group. Saint Thomas Christian culture is Hindu in origin with influences from East Syrian, West Syrian, Jewish and later European sources. Their language is Malayalam, the language of Kerala, and Syriac is used for liturgical purposes. Syriac is a dialect of Aramaic, the language Jesus spoke.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Socio-cultural and religious identity
- 4 Church architecture
- 5 Nasrani symbol
- 6 Saint Thomas Christians today
- 7 Caste status
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The Saint Thomas Christians are so called due to their reverence for Saint Thomas the Apostle, who is said to have brought Christianity to India. The name dates to the period of Portuguese colonization. They are also known, especially locally, as the Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila. "Nasrani" is a term meaning "Christian"; it appears to be a local pronunciation of Nazarine, derived from Nazareth, the home town of Jesus. Mappila is an honorific applied to members of non-Indian faiths, including Muslims (Mappila) and the Cochin Jews (Yuda Mappila). Some Syrian Christians of Travancore continue to attach this honorific title to their names. The Indian government designates members of the community as "Syrian Christians", a term originating with the Dutch colonial authority distinguishing the Saint Thomas Christians, who used Syriac as their liturgical language, from newly evangelized Christians who followed the Latin liturgy. The term Syrian relates not to their ethnicity but to their historical, religious and liturgical connection to the Church of the East, or East Syrian Church.
Early history and tradition
|Part of a series on|
|Saint Thomas Christians
|Nasrani · Mar Thoma Nasrani · Syrian Christians|
|Saint Thomas · Thomas of Cana · Mar Sabor and Mar Proth · Tharisapalli plates · Synod of Diamper · Coonan Cross Oath|
|Ancient crosses · Churches · Shrines · Liturgical language · Church music|
|Abraham Malpan · Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar · Kayamkulam Philipose Ramban · Kuriakose Elias Chavara · Mar Thoma I · Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly · Sadhu Kochoonju Upadesi · Kariattil Mar Ousep · Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril · Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala · Geevarghese Mar Ivanios · Saint Alphonsa · Yeldho Mar Baselios · Euphrasia Eluvathingal · Thoma of Villarvattom|
According to longstanding tradition, St. Thomas, one of the 12 apostles, came to Muziris, Tamilakam around AD 52 which is in the present day Pattanam, Kerala). As per most recorded versions of the legend, the community began with Thomas's conversion of Brahmin Gramams or families, which are named in some sources as Pakalomattom, Sankarapuri, Kaliyankal, Kalli, Kalikay, Kottakali, Kayakkam, Madeipur, Muttal, Nedumpally, and Panakkamattam. The four families Sankarapuri, Pakalomattam, Kalli, and Kaliyankal were considered the most preeminent.
Though Cochin Jews are known to have existed in Kerala around that time, and it was possible for a Jew such as St. Thomas from Galilee to make a trip to Kerala in the 1st century, there is no contemporary evidence for this tradition. The earliest known source connecting the apostle to India is the Acts of Thomas, likely written in the early 3rd century, perhaps in Edessa.
Further, a number of 3rd- and 4th-century Roman writers also mention Thomas' trip to India, including Ambrose of Milan, Gregory of Nazianzus, Jerome, and Ephrem the Syrian, while Eusebius of Caesarea records that his teacher Pantaenus visited a Christian community in India in the 2nd century.
The tradition of origin of the Christians in Kerala is found in a version of the Songs of Thomas or Thomma Parvam, written in 1601 believed to be a summary of a larger and older work. Thomas is described as arriving in or around Maliankara and founding Seven Churches, or Ezharapallikal: Kodungallur, Kollam, Niranam, Nilackal (Chayal), Kokkamangalam, Kottakkavu (Paravur), Palayoor (Chattukulangara) and Thiruvithamcode Arappally (a "half church").
The Thomma Parvam also narrates the conversion of 40 Jews, along with the 3000 Hindus, and the local King at Kodungallur by St Thomas The Thomma Parvam further narrates St Thomas's mission in the rest of South India and states that before his martyrdom at Mylapore in present-day Chennai, Tamil Nadu, he had converted 6,850 Brahmans, 2,800 Kshatriyas, 3,750 Vaishiyas, and 4,250 Shudras. Legends tend to claim that many of the converts in other parts of South India reverted to Hinduism.
The tradition of the coming of a foreigner by the name Thoman who debated with the Brahmins and converted many "prominent people" including a king is part of Nambudiri Brahmin folklore and is found in the important Nambudiri Brahmin 17th Century tract, the Keralolpathi. However, in this Brahmin version of the legend, the "Thoman" referred to is Thomas of Cana.
Though historians doubt the historicity of the Brahmin conversion legend, there is evidence that some St Thomas Christians observed Brahmin customs and were granted privileges usually reserved for Brahmins in the Middle Ages, i.e. after the 9th century A.D., including the wearing of the sacred thread and having a kudumi.
The medieval historian Pius Malekandathil believes these were customs adopted and privileges won during the beginning of the Brahmin dominance of medieval Kerala. He argues that the Christians in Kerala, integrated with Persian Christian migrant merchants, in the 9th century had become a powerful trading community and were granted the privileges by the Hindu rulers to promote revenue generation and to undermine Buddhist and Jain traders who rivaled the Hindus for religious and political hegemony in Kerala at the time.
An organised Christian presence in India dates to the arrival of East Syrian settlers and missionaries from Persia, members of what would become the Church of the East, in around the 3rd century. Saint Thomas Christians trace the further growth of their community to the arrival of the Thomas of Cana from the Middle East, which is said to have occurred sometime between the 4th and 8th century. The subgroup of the Saint Thomas Christians known as the Knanaya or Southists trace their lineage to Thomas of Cana, while the group known as the Northists claim descent from Thomas the Apostle's indigenous converts.
|Part of a series on|
|Christianity in India|
|Indian Christianity portal|
|Part of a series on|
Two possibly Nestorian monks were preaching Christianity in India in the 6th century before they smuggled silkworm eggs from China to the Eastern Roman Empire.
As the community grew and immigration by East Syrians increased, the connection with the Church of the East, centred in the Persian capital of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, strengthened. From the early 4th century the Patriarch of the Church of the East provided India with clergy, holy texts, and ecclesiastical infrastructure, and around 650 Patriarch Ishoyahb III solidified the Church of the East's jurisdiction over the Saint Thomas Christian community. In the 8th century Patriarch Timothy I organised the community as the Ecclesiastical Province of India, one of the church's Provinces of the Exterior. After this point the Province of India was headed by a metropolitan bishop, dispatched from Persia, the "Metropolitan-Bishop of the Seat of Saint Thomas and the Whole Christian Church of India". His metropolitan see was probably in Cranganore, or (perhaps nominally) in Mylapore, where the shrine of Thomas was located. Under him were a varying number of bishops, as well as a native Archdeacon, who had authority over the clergy and who wielded a great amount of secular power.
Some contact and transmission of knowledge of the Saint Thomas Christians managed to reach the Christian West, even after the rise of the Islamic empires. Byzantine traveller Cosmas Indicopleustes wrote of East Syrian Christians he met in India and Sri Lanka in the 6th century. In 883 the English king Alfred the Great reportedly sent a mission and gifts to Saint Thomas' tomb in India. During the Crusades, distorted accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians and the Nestorian Church gave rise to the European legend of Prester John.
The great distances involved and the geopolitical turmoil of the period caused India to be cut off from the church's heartland in Mesopotamia at several points. In the 11th century the province was suppressed by the church entirely, as it had become impossible to reach, but effective relations were restored by 1301. However, following the collapse of the Church of the East's hierarchy in most of Asia later in the 14th century, India was effectively cut off from the church, and formal contact was severed. By the late 15th century India had had no metropolitan for several generations, and the authority traditionally associated with him had been vested in the archdeacon.
In 1491 the archdeacon sent envoys to the Patriarch of the Church of the East, as well as to the Coptic Pope of Alexandria and to the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, requesting a new bishop for India. The Patriarch of the Church of the East Shemʿon IV Basidi responded by consecrating two bishops, Thoma and Yuhanon, and dispatching them to India. These bishops helped rebuild the ecclesiastical infrastructure and reestablish fraternal ties with the patriarchate, but the years of separation had greatly affected the structure of the Indian church. Though receiving utmost respect, the metropolitan was treated as a guest in his own diocese; the Archdeacon was firmly established as the real power in the Nasrani community.
The Saint Thomas Christians first encountered the Portuguese in 1498, during the expedition of Vasco da Gama. At the time the community was in a tenuous position: though thriving in the spice trade and protected by their own militia, the local political sphere was volatile and the Saint Thomas Christians found themselves under pressure from the rajas of Calicut and Cochin and other small kingdoms in the area. The Saint Thomas Christians and the Portuguese newcomers quickly formed an alliance.
The Portuguese had a keen interest in implanting themselves in the spice trade and in spreading their version of Christianity, which had been forged during several centuries of warfare in the Reconquista. Facilitating their goals was the Padroado Real, a series of treaties and decrees in which the Pope conferred upon the Portuguese government certain authority in ecclesiastical matters in the foreign territories they conquered. They set up in Goa, forming a colonial government and a Latin church hierarchy under the Archbishop of Goa, and quickly set to bringing the Saint Thomas Christians under his authority.
The Portuguese subjection of the Saint Thomas Christians was relatively measured at first, but they became more aggressive after 1552, the year of the death of Metropolitan Mar Jacob and of a schism in the Church of the East, which resulted in there being two rival Patriarchs—one of whom entered communion with the Catholic Church. Both patriarchs sent bishops to India, but the Portuguese consistently managed to outmaneuver them, and effectively cut off the Saint Thomas Christians from their hierarchy in 1575, when the Padroado legislated that neither patriarch could send representatives to India without Portuguese approval.
By 1599 the last Metropolitan, Abraham, had died, and the Archbishop of Goa, Aleixo de Menezes, had secured the submission of the young Archdeacon George, the highest remaining representative of the native church hierarchy. The Archbishop convened the Synod of Diamper, which implemented various liturgical and structural reforms in the Indian church. The Synod brought the parishes directly under the Archbishop's purview; anathematised certain "superstitious" social customs characteristic of their Hindu neighbors, including untouchability and a caste hierarchy; and purged the indigenous liturgy, the Malabar Rite, of elements deemed unacceptable according to the Latin protocol. A number of texts were condemned and ordered burnt, including the Peshitta, the Syriac version of the Bible.[page needed] Some of the reforms, especially the elimination of caste status, reduced the Saint Thomas Christians' standing with their socially stratified Hindu neighbors. The Synod formally brought the Saint Thomas Christians into the Catholic Church; however, the actions of the Portuguese over the ensuing years fueled resentment in segments of the community, and ultimately led to open resistance to their power.
Division and defiance
Over the next several decades, tensions seethed between the Portuguese and the remaining native hierarchy, and after 1641 Archdeacon Thomas, the nephew and successor to Archdeacon George, was often at odds with the Latin prelates. In 1652, the escalating situation was further complicated by the appearance in Mylapore of a mysterious figure named Ahatallah, who claimed to have been sent by the Pope to serve as "Patriarch of the Whole of India and of China".
Ahatallah made a strong impression on the native clergy, but the Portuguese quickly decided he was an impostor, and put him on a ship bound for Europe by way of Goa. Archdeacon Thomas, desperate for a new ecclesiastical leader to free his people from the Padroado, travelled to Cochin and demanded to meet Ahatallah and examine his credentials. The Portuguese refused, stating the ship had already left for Goa. Ahatallah was never heard from in India again, inspiring rumours that the Portuguese had murdered him and inflaming anti-Portuguese sentiments even more.
This was the last straw for the Saint Thomas Christians, and in 1653 Thomas and community representatives met at the Church of Our Lady in Mattancherry to take bold action. In a great ceremony before a crucifix and lighted candles, they swore a solemn oath that they would never obey Garcia or the Portuguese again, and that they accepted only the Archdeacon as their shepherd. The Malankara Church and all its successor churches regard this declaration, known as the Coonan Cross Oath after the outdoor cross in the churchyard, as the moment when their church regained its independence. Shortly after, the leaders of this newly independent church decided Thomas should be elevated to bishop. Thomas was consecrated in a ceremony in which twelve priests laid hands on him, and he became the metropolitan of Malankara.
After the Coonan Cross Oath the Portuguese missionaries attempted for reconciliation with Saint Thomas Christians but was not successful. Later Pope Alexander VII sent the Roman bishop Joseph Sebastiani at the head of a Carmelite delegation who succeeded in coercing some of Saint Thomas Christians, including Palliveettil Chandy Kathanar and Kadavil Chandy Kathanar. As a reward for his submission, Palliveettil Chandy Kathanar was consecrated as the bishop for the Latinized Syrian Catholics. This led to the first permanent split in the Saint Thomas Christian community. Thereafter, the faction affiliated with the Catholic Church under Parambil Mar Chandy was designated the Pazhayakuttukar, or "Old Party", while the branch affiliated with Mar Thoma was called the Puthankuttukar, or "New Party". These appellations have been somewhat controversial, as both groups considered themselves the true heirs to the Saint Thomas tradition, and saw the other as heretical.
After the Coonan Cross Oath, between 1661 and 1662, out of the 116 churches, the Latinized Syrian Catholics claimed eighty-four churches, and Archdeacon Mar Thoma I thirty-two churches. The eighty-four churches and their congregations were the body from which the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and Chaldean Syrian Church have descended. The other thirty-two churches and their congregations were the body from which the Syriac Orthodox (Jacobites & Orthodox), Thozhiyur (1772), Mar Thoma (1874), Syro-Malankara Catholic Church have originated.[full citation needed]
In 1665, Mar Gregorios Abdul Jaleel, a Bishop sent by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch arrived in India and the St.Thomas Christians who stayed loyal to the Coonan Cross Oath, under the leadership of the Archdeacon, welcomed him.[full citation needed] This visit gradually introduced the West Syrian liturgy, customs and script to the Malabar Coast.
The "Old Party", who continued with the Latin theological and liturgical tradition and stayed faithful to the Roman Catholic Church were given the name Syro-Malabar Catholic Church by the Roman masters from the second half of the 19th century onward. They were finally granted a Hierarchy was established on 21 December 1923 with the Metropolitan Mar Augustine Kandathil as the Head of their Church.
The Jacobite prelate Mar Gregorios who came to Kerala in 1751 AD, consecrated Rev. Kurian Kattumangat as bishop Abraham Mar Koorilose in 1772 AD at Mattancherry church, Cochin. He was driven into exile from the states of Travancore and Cochin where the majority of St. Thomas Christians lived, to Anjoor in the state of Malabar. He spent his days in prayer and meditation in a hut. A few relatives and friends joined him there. This group was known as Thozhyoor Church later named as Malabar Independent Syrian Church, after a court verdict on 28 May 1863.
In 1795, the kings of Travancore and Cochin entered into tributary alliance with the British East Indian Company to repel the attacks from Tipu Sultan. The states soon became client regimes of the Company: both were forced to disband their military. The political order of the states also began to collapse. Saint Thomas Christians were hit hard by the loss of their privileged military role, their kalari network was dissolved and many families lost their livelihood. The trading class, as well as the office bearers, also suffered the setback and many Europeans who visited the states between 1801 and 1820 noted the poor and depressed condition of Saint Thomas Christians of the Puthiyakoottukar . Some partisan fund allocation for the churches by the British officials triggered a breakdown in the relationship between Saint Thomas Christians and prominent Hindu castes, at least temporarily. In 1815, the British Resident, Colonel John Munro, founded a seminary in Kottayam, for the theological education of Jacobite Christian priests and invited the Anglican missionaries to teach there. This could be regarded as the beginning of the relationship between the CMS (Church Mission Society) and the Saint Thomas Christians of the Puthiyakoottukar.
As a protest against the interference of the Anglican Church in the affairs of the Puthiyakoottukar faction of the Malankara Church, the Metropolitan, Cheppad Mar Dionysius, convened a Synod at Mavelikara on 16 January 1836. There it was declared that Malanakara Church (Puthencoor faction) would be subject to the Syrian traditions and Patriarch of Antioch. The declaration resulted in the separation of the CMS missionaries from the communion with the Malankara Church (Puthencoor faction). However a minority from the Church, who were in favor of the reformed ideologies of the missionaries, stood along with them and joined the CMS. These Syrian Anglicans, were the first Reformed group from among the Saint Thomas Christians. In 1879, the Anglican diocese of Travancore and Cochin was established, in Kottayam. On 27 September 1947, a little over a month after the Indian independence, the Anglican Church in South India united with similar other reformed Churches in the region and formed the Church of South India (CSI); an autonomous Indian church within the Anglican Communion. Though the CSI group largely follows the religious practices of their parent groups the all world over, linguistically, socially and culturally they have much in common with the Kerala Syrian Christian groups. The liturgy of the Church of South India combines elements from the liturgy of St. James (same as that of Syrian Christians) and that of the western liturgy of Protestant Churches. The sister concern of the CSI church in the North is called the Church of North India (CNI).
By June 1875, there were two factions in the Malankara Church (Puthencoor faction); Jacobite Party (Bava) and Reform (Methran) Party. Mathews Mar Athanasius was the Malankara Metropolitan approved by the Governments of Travancore and of Cochin and the group with him was known as "Reform Party" since Mathews Mar Athanasius was supportive to the reformation of Jacobite church with evangelistic ideologies. The Syrian faction, under the leadership of Metropolitan Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II, opposed the attempts to do away with age-old traditions of the church, which resulted in a stir in the community. Being invited by this faction, the Antiochene Patriarch Moran Mar Ignatius Peter III arrived in Kerala. In June 1876, at the synod of Mulanthuruthy, presided over by the Patriarch, the Syrian faction formally came under the Antiochene Patriarchate. The synod condemned Mathews Mar Athanasius for abstaining from it, but his followers stayed firm with him. His successor Thomas Mar Athanasius and the bishop’s faction lost the lawsuit to the Patriarchal faction in the Royal Court of Travancore on 12 July 1889. Nonetheless, the Reform Party continued as an independent, Malankara Church and thereafter a series of suits arose on the rights over churches and associated properties. Later they chose the name Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church.
In 1912, due to attempts by the Antiochean Patriarch to gain temporal powers over the Malankara Church (Puthencoor faction), there was another split in the West Syrian community when a section declared itself an autocephalous church and announced the re-establishment of the ancient Catholicate of the East in India. This was not accepted by those who remained loyal to the Patriarch, and this group, popularly known as Patriarch's Party recognized the temporal power of the Patriarch over the assets of their church, while the other side, known as Metropolitan Party, accepted the supremacy of Patriarch only over the spiritual matters. The two sides filed a series of lawsuits in the civil courts and some parallel attempts to reconcile both the parties also took place. In 1958, bishops of both the parties sealed their reconciliation and signed a treaty which in turn recognized the autonomy of reunited factions, with its own synod of bishops under the presidency of the Catholicos. The verdict of Supreme Court of India in 1959, legitimizing the autonomy of Kerala church, was also instrumental to keep this formal reconciliation between two sides. Nonetheless, in 1975, both the parties split again with the decision of Universal Syrian Synod, held in Damascus, to depose the Catholocos in Kerala. Today the East Syrian community is divided into Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (in Oriental Orthodox Communion, autocephalous), Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church (in Oriental Orthodox Communion, under Antioch).
In 1930 a section of the Malankara Church (Puthencoor faction) under the leadership of Mar Ivanios and Mar Theophilus left the Church and came into communion with the Catholic Church. They are known as Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.
Since the later 20th century, neo-charismatic churches have attracted some St. Thomas Christians. These are typically churches with doctrines and practices similar to traditional Pentecostal or Charismatic churches but without a formal denominational tie. The neo-charismatic movement can be found both within established St. Thomas Christian churches, such as the Charismatic and gospel ministries of Syro-Malabar, Syro Malankara & Mar Thoma Syrian Church, and in newer independent denominations, including the New Apostolic Church, the Assemblies of God, the Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPC), the New Life Fellowship, and the Manna Full Gospel Churches.
Involvement in politics
Participation based on caste and community divisions and sympathies has been a feature of politics in the present day state of Kerala and its predecessor entities. Until the mid-20th century the primary cause of the divisions between the various communities was competition for rights and resources, rather than any dislike of each other, but in more recent times there has been a rise in violence and antagonism that has coincided with a promotion of Hindu politics.
Like other communities, Saint Thomas Christians have been involved in regional politics on a community basis. In 1888, Travancore became the first princely state in India to establish a Legislative Council, which was reformed as the Sree Moolam Popular Assembly in 1904. A few Saint Thomas Christian leaders were elected to the Legislative Council but there was resentment that their share of the available seats was proportionately less than that of other prominent castes. This resentment led to a series of campaigns for equal representation both in the legislature and in government positions. Newspapers such as Malayala Manorama and Nasrani Deepika disseminated the grievances.
In 1918, Saint Thomas Christians formed the League for Equal Civic Rights, which sought the opening of all branches of government service to Christians, Muslims and avarna Hindus, as well as an end to the practice of untouchability. Their demands were partially met in 1922 when the Revenue Department was separated from the Devaswom, a semi-government organization that managed the Hindu temples, thus removing the restriction on non-Hindus and avarnas in the executive service. In the 1920s, Saint Thomas Christian leaders such as George Joseph were advised by Mahatma Gandhi to detach from Vaikom Satyagraha, an agitation for the temple entry rights of avarna Hindus, as he considered the issue to be one of concern to Hindus alone.
With the institution in 1932 of a bicameral legislature in Travancore, four Saint Thomas Christians found a place in among the 24 seats of the lower house, but not comparable with other forward castes. The partisan and oppressive behaviour of Diwan Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer, especially towards the Saint Thomas Christians, further provoked the community members. Iyer reflected a concern among Hindus that the Christian population was rising and that there was a consequent danger of Travancore becoming a Christian state. The 1931 census recorded over 31 per cent of the population as being Christian, compared to around 4 per cent in 1820. Some restrictions were imposed on Saint Thomas Christian parishes to start new schools and later on the Diwan attempted to take over the schools owned by the community. In 1933, some prominent Saint Thomas Christians, including T. M. Varghese, worked to organize other communities on a common platform called the Joint Political Congress, which then decided to abstain from participation in the assembly elections, an action that has become known as the Abstention Movement. There followed a period of fierce confrontation between the Diwan and Saint Thomas Christians—many leaders were arrested, prominent news papers were banned and large banks owned by the community members were liquidated. But the agitations continued and to resolve the issue, government appointed a franchise and delimitation commissioner to solve the problem of representation in the legislator with special reference to backward communities. Though there was no definite assurance to Saint Thomas Christians, Joint Political Congress decided to withdraw the agitation. According to the recommendations of commissioner, franchise power was extended beyond the caste bars. In 1937, general elections were held and Joint Political Congress played a significant role to attain much better representation for allied communities. T.M. Varghese was elected as the Deputy President of the Assembly where Iyer was the ex officio President. But in 1938, he was ousted by Iyer for cooperating with rebels, which led to a worsening of relation between the Saint Thomas Christians and Iyer. On the collapse of Joint Political Congress due to internal conflicts, Saint Thomas Christian leaders allied with Nairs in a common platform- Travancore State Congress where they fought together for responsible government and also to oust Iyer. Many Saint Thomas Christian bishops like Metropolitans Abraham Mar Thoma, Yuhanon Marthoma,Mar James Kalaserry supported the nationalistic movements in 1930s and 1940s.Abraham Marthoma mobilised Syrian Christians against divans move not to unite with free India. Following intense agitations by the Travancore State Congress, the Maharaja of Travancore announced plans to establish a responsible Government. As per the announcement on 4 September 1947, the new Assembly called the Representative Body was formed to function as a Constituent Assembly. The Assembly held its first sitting on 20 March 1948 with President A. J. John, Anaparambil, a Saint Thomas Christian leader in the chair. In the three-member Cabinet of Travancore formed after the first general elections in 1948, Varghese was a Cabinet Minister. However the first Saint Thomas Christian to become a minister in the central government of India was Padma Vibhushan John Mathai, who served as India's first Railway Minister and subsequently as India's Finance Minister, taking office shortly after the presentation of India's first Budget, in 1948. Thevarthundiyil Titus was the only Christian among the 72 persons whom Gandhiji selected for Dandi march to break salt law.He served as the secretory in Sabarmathi ashram for a long period along with Gulzarilal Nanda. Barrister george Joseph was the person who mobilised the masses to break caste laws in Guruvayoor. Later he himself withdrew from the leadership on wishes of Gandhiji. He was also instrumental in upliftment of many tribes in Madhurai which were earlier derogated as KALLARS by British legislation. He was called affectionately as Rosappu Dorai by them.
On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed and the Communist Party formed the first government of the state in 1957 on winning the assembly elections. Though the government initiated the legislation process for reforming the land and the education sectors, these were considered as infringements over the rights by the school managements and landowners, who were predominantly Saint Thomas Christians and Nairs. The disagreements of the Saint Thomas Christians further widened and they allied with Nair Service Society to mobilize against the government, which culminated in a violent struggle, called the Liberation Struggle, in 1958. The Communist government was dismissed on 31 July 1959 and the President's rule was imposed in the state under Article 356 of the Constitution of India.
Socio-cultural and religious identity
St. Thomas Christians are a distinct community, both in terms of culture and religion. Though their liturgy and theology remained that of East-Syrian Christians of Persia, their life-style customs and traditions were basically Indian. It is oft-quoted: "Nazranis are Indian in culture, Christian in faith and Syrian in liturgy".
Jewish influence has been observed in Malabar Nasrani liturgy and traditions. The community maintained some of the original Jewish rituals, such as covering their heads while in worship. Their ritual services were and still are called the Qurbana, which is derived from the Aramaic term Qurbana (ܩܘܪܒܢܐ), meaning "sacrifice". Nasrani Qurbana used to be held in Syriac.
Saint Thomas Christians typically followed the social customs of their Hindu neighbors, and the vestiges of Hindu symbolism could be seen in their devotional practices. Social sins like Untouchability entered their practices and the Synod of Diamper abolished it. The rituals related to birth, Vidyarambham, marriage, pregnancy, death etc. were also similar in both communities. Now also, tying Thaali, a Hindu symbol of marriage is the most important rite in the Christian marriages too. They used to learn temple arts like Kathakali, Kooth and Thullal and their own art forms like Margam Kali and Parichamuttukali have some resemblance to Yathra kali Pattu of Brahmins in Kerala. In 1519, a Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa on his visit to Malabar commented on the practice of Saint Thomas Christian priests using Kudumi similar to that of Hindus, in his manuscript "Book of Duarte Barbosa".
In the social stratification of medieval Malabar, Saint Thomas Christians succeeded in relating their social status with that of upper-caste Hindus on account of their numerical strength and influence and observance of many Brahmin and upper caste customs. In the 13th and 14th centuries, many Saint Thomas Christians were involved in the pepper trade for the local rulers and many were appointed as port revenue officers. The local rulers rewarded them with grants of land and many other privileges. With growing numerical strength, a large number of Saint Thomas Christians settled in the inland pepper-growing regions. They had the right to recruit and train soldiers and Christian trainers were given with the honorary title "Panikkar" like their Nair counterparts. They were also entitled with the privilege to collect the tax, and the tax-collectors were honored with the title "Tharakan". Like Brahmins they had the right to sit before the Kings and also to ride on horse or elephant, like the royals. They were protectors of seventeen underprivileged castes and communities and hence they were called Lords of Seventeen Castes. They did not allow the lower-castes to join their community for fear that it could imperil their upper-caste status. Between the 9th and 15th centuries, Saint Thomas Christians had a kingdom of their own, Villarvattom, but this regal period ended when the community fell under the power of the Rajas of Cochin and Travancore. They owned a large number of Kalaripayattu training centers and the Rajas of Travancore and Cochin, including the renowned Marthanda Varma, recruited trained Christian warriors to defend their kingdom. The upper-caste Hindus and Saint Thomas Christians took part in one another's festival celebrations and in some places in Kerala, the Hindu Temples and Saint Thomas Christian Churches were built on adjoining sites by the Hindu Kings. Until the 19th century, Saint Thomas Christians had the right of access to Hindu temples and some leading Saint Thomas Christians held the status of sponsors at Hindu shrines and temple festivals. But in the 19th century, Saint Thomas Christian integration with the Hindu caste system was disrupted: their clean-caste status was questioned in some localities and they were denied access to many Hindu temples. They tried to retaliate by denouncing Hindu festivals as heathen idolatry. Clashes between upper-caste Hindus and Saint Thomas Christians occurred from the late 1880s, especially when festivals coincided. Internecine violence among various Saint Thomas Christian denominations aggravated their problems.
The earliest documentary evidence is Tharisapally Copper Plate, which refers to the construction of the church of Tharisapally in Quilon between 823 and 849 AD. Antonio Gouvea, Portuguese envoy to Malabar, mentions in his 16th-century work Jornada that almost all the churches of Saint Thomas Christians followed the models of Hindu temples of that period, but were distinguished by the huge granite cross in the front yard of the church. Despite the external similarity with temples, the structuring of the interior space of the church always followed the East Syrian architectural theology. Thus the contemporary style is formed as an amalgamation of Indian architecture and Chaldean liturgical concepts. The church is arranged east-to-west, with the interior structured into three levels: the madbaha (sanctuary), the qestroma (choir) and the haykla (nave).
The madbaha, arranged in the topmost platform at the eastern side of the building, represents Heaven. The primary altar is attached to the eastern wall. To the north of the madbaha is the diaqonikon (sacristry); to the south is the baptistery. The madbaha is protected with rails and is veiled by a red curtain most of the time; this is opened during the Holy Qurbana (Eucharist). An oil lamp within the sanctuary is kept glowing at all times to represent the presence of God. The madbaha is connected to the qestroma and haykla by a low-walled path called the sqaqona. The qestroma contains seats for the choir and lower clergy. The haykla contains an elevated platform or bema, which includes an altar, two lecterns for reading, and chairs for higher clergy. Worshipers stand before the altar, with separate seating for men and women. The main entrance is on the western side of the building; a vestibule, pillars, pilasters, and other architectural ornaments adorn the front end, and a flag mast stands in the front yard. One or two bells are installed in the back yard to signal the timing of ritual services, the death of a church member, or to inform the public of calamities.
The Latinized faction of the St. Thomas Christians have accepted the Saint Thomas Cross as their symbol. They call it the Nasrani Menorah or Mar Thoma Sliba. There are several interpretations for the Latinized St. Thomas Christian Symbol. The interpretation based on Christian Jewish tradition assumes that its design was based on Jewish menorah, an ancient symbol of the Hebrews, which consists of seven branched lamp stand (candelabra).
The interpretation based on local culture states that the Cross without the figure of Jesus and with flowery arms symbolizing "joyfulness" points to the resurrection theology of St. Paul, the Holy Spirit on the top represents the role of Holy Spirit in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The lotus symbolizing Buddhism and the Cross over it shows that Christianity was established in the land of Buddha. The 3 steps indicate Calvary and the rivulets, channels of grace flowing from the Cross.
Note that the Christian cross was not adopted as a symbol by Mediterranean and European Christianity until several centuries had passed.
Saint Thomas Christians today
Writing in 2010, Devika and Varghese noted that "[The St. Thomas Christians] are at present a substantial minority, a powerful presence in all fields of life in Kerala."
Even though the Saint Thomas Christians had to compromise their social and religious privileges in the aftermath of Portuguese subjugation, they started reemerging as a powerful community from the 19th century onward. They played a pioneering role in many spheres such as Banking, Commerce, Cash crops etc. Among Saint Thomas Christians, 17.4% of the adult population are self-employed - the highest rate statistically among all the communities in the state of Kerala. Saint Thomas Christians lead all others with respect to per capita ownership of land, with many of them owning large estates. With changing conditions, they have shifted from the agriculture of rice and coconut to plantation based agriculture and the trading of rubber, spices and cash crops. They also take a prominent role in the educational institutions of Kerala and throughout India. They were quick to understand the benefits of academic education and in their educational achievements Saint Thomas Christians stand second to none. The educational accomplishments of the community have helped its members to attain a good proportion of the Central and State Government jobs. With their level of education and limited employment opportunities within the state of Kerala, they became the community with the highest rate of migration. Their resultant foreign remittances have also helped the socioeconomic progress of the community. According to the Kerala Migration Survey (1998) by the Center for Developmental Studies, Kerala, Saint Thomas Christians top all other communities in Kerala with respect to the Socioeconomic Development Index which is based on parameters such as the possession of land,housing & consumer durables, education and employment status.
Saint Thomas Christians still retain many of their ancient traditions and rituals, both in their social and religious life. Saint Thomas Christian services have many unique characteristics compared to others. Until the 1970s the Nasrani Qurbana was sung in Syriac. Many of the tunes of the Saint Thomas Christian worship in Kerala are remnants of ancient Syriac tunes of antiquity. The Baptism is still known by the Aramaic term Mamodisa among Saint Thomas Christians and follows many of the ancient rituals of the ceremony. It is referred to in Malayalam as Njana Snanam ("Bath of Wisdom").
- Saint Thomas Christians observe Holy Thursday with high reverence. This day is referred to as Pesaha, a Malayalam word derived from the Aramaic or Hebrew word for Passover—Pasha or Pesah—commemorating the Last Supper of Jesus Christ during Passover in Jerusalem. The tradition of consuming Pesaha Appam after the church service is observed by the entire community under the leadership of the head of the family. Special long services followed by the Holy Qurbana are conducted during the Pesaha eve in the churches.
- The community observes Lent, locally called the fifty days' fast, from Clean Monday to the day before Easter, abjuring all meat, fish and egg. They also traditionally observe the 25 days' fast which ends on the day of Christmas.
- Generally, footwear is removed before entering the church and women cover their heads during worship.
- The ritual service (liturgy) is called the Holy Qurbana, which is derived from the Hebrew Korban (קרבן), meaning "sacrifice".
- The Holy Qurbana is mostly conducted and prayers recited in Malayalam. However, some parts of the Holy Qurbana are sung in Syriac. During the 20th century, the 'Qurbana-kramam' i.e. the 'book containing the order of worship', was translated into English, for the benefit of worshipers who lived outside Kerala, and did not know to read or write Malayalam.
- Another surviving tradition is the use of muthukoda (ornamental umbrella) for church celebrations, marriages and other festivals. Traditional drums, arch decorations and ornamental umbrellas are part of the church celebrations. Their use has become popular all over Kerala.
- The rituals and ceremonies of Saint Thomas Christians related to house building, astrology, birth and marriage have close similarity with those of Hindus in Kerala. Death rituals express Christian canonical themes very distantly and the influence of Hindu culture is quite noticeable. Much stress is given to ideas concerning life after death and the anticipation of final judgment.
- Saint Thomas Christians do not marry close relatives. The rule is that the bride and groom must not be related for at least five generations.
- Saint Thomas Christians generally prefer arranged marriages and the prospective partners see each other in the Pennukanal (Bride Viewing) ceremony at bride’s home.
- Saint Thomas Christians did not use any iconography or statues of Jesus or the saints in their churches until after the arrival of the Portuguese, prior to which time the use of such symbols was deemed idolatrous.
- Saint Thomas Christians widely use Nilavilakku (a lighted metal lamp) in their houses and churches.
- Saint Thomas Christians use terms like "Eeesho" (Jesus' name in Aramaic), "Yeshu" (Hebrew name Yeshua) to denote Jesus Christ.
- The traditional dress of a Saint Thomas Christian woman is the Chatta and Mundu, a seamless white garment, which is now limited to older female adherents. Following the general trend, the Sari and Churidar have become predominant among the younger generations.
Kunniparampil Zachariah notes that the 20th century was period of significant transition for the Saint Thomas Christians in terms of its demographic and socioeconomic status. Around 1900, the community was concentrated in a few areas, was geographically static and "... was characterised by very high death rate, very high birth rate, very early age at marriage, and 10 to 12 children per married woman". The population had increased eight-fold during the preceding century, from a base figure of about 100,000, and comprised nearly 50 per cent children. But, the population growth of Saint Thomas Christians came down drastically after 1960s, with the lowest birth rate, highest age at marriage, highest family planning user rate, and lowest fertility rate compared to other communities in Kerala. The proportion of children has come down to less than 25%. The absolute and relative size of the community is in a diminishing trend and is approaching a Zero Population Growth regime.
As of 2001[update], in Kerala, more than 85 per cent of the Saint Thomas Christian population live in the six central districts of the state - Pathanamthitta, Alapuzha, Kottayam, Idukki, Ernakulam and Trissur. They have also migrated to other cities in India like Ooty, Mangalore, Bangalore, Chennai, Pune, Delhi, Mumbai, Coimbatore, Hyderabad and Kolkata. Migration steeply increased in the post-independence period and major destinations were United States of America, Canada, Western Europe, Australia and the Middle East. According to a rough estimate, 20–25% of the Saint Thomas Christians live outside the state of Kerala.
Saint Thomas Christians historically have claimed a high caste status on the basis of the tradition that they are descended from the upper-caste Hindus, particularly Nambudiri Brahmins. Historically in the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore and other Kingdoms in Kerala, they were granted caste privileges that put them at least on the same level as Savarna Hindus, such as the Nairs. Anthropologist, L.K. Ananthakrishna Iyer, recorded they were given privileges in addition to those granted to groups such as Nairs, such as the right to have enclosures in front of their houses, which was otherwise only granted to the Brahmins, and were placed "almost on par with the Sovereigns".
Historically, Saint Thomas Christians followed the same rules of caste and pollution as that of Hindus and sometimes they were even considered as pollution neutralizers. Decree II of Action IX of the Synod of Diamper enforced by the Portuguese Inquisition in 1599 prohibited the practice of untouchability by the St Thomas Christians except in practical circumstances when required by law and when it was necessary to ensure social contact with the Savarna Hindus such as Nairs. The same decree noted that some St Thomas Christians in the southern regions practiced untouchability against the Nairs even though this was not required by the law. This practice was abolished by the decree.
They tend to be endogamous, and tend not to intermarry even with other Christian groupings.
Internal division of Saint Thomas Christians into Northists and Southists and also into a number of sects based on the ecclesiastical orientation makes the pattern of segmentation an exceedingly complex one.
Forrester suggests that the Northist-Southist division forms two groups within the Saint Thomas Christian community which are closely analogous to sub-castes.
At the same time, different Saint Thomas Christian denominations like Catholic, Jacobite, Mar Thomite, etc. are better regarded as sects, rather than sub-castes, since the recruitment to these sects cannot be strictly ascribed to birth. Also, internal mobility is allowed among these Saint Thomas Christian sects and the caste status is kept even if the sect allegiance is switched (for example, from Syrian Orthodox to Syrian Catholic).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Thomas Christians.|
- List of Saint Thomas Christians
- Suriyani Malayalam
- Rock crosses of Kerala
- Saint Thomas Christian Churches
- Throne of St. Thomas
- Marthoma Metrans
- "Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Chicago (Syro-Malabarese)". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 23 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ross, Israel J. (1979) "Ritual and Music in South India: Syrian Christian Liturgical Music in Kerala." Asian Music. 11 (1): 80–98
- The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2.
- The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities by Orpa Slapak. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 2003. p. 27. ISBN 965-278-179-7.
- Tharoor, Ishaan (2014-05-27). "What language did Jesus speak? The pope and Israel's prime minister disagree". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-09-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Županov, Ines G. (2005). Missionary Tropics: The Catholic Frontier in India (16th–17th centuries), p. 99 and note. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11490-5
- Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2 page 300
- The Mappila fisherfolk of Kerala: a study in inter-relationship between habitat, technology, economy, society, and culture (1977), P. R. G. Mathur, Anthropological Survey of India, Kerala Historical Society, p. 1
- Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique, p. 52. Media House Delhi.
- L.Krishna Ananthakrishna Iyer: Anthropology of Syrian Christians
- Leslie Brown, The Indian Christians of St. Thomas
- Thoma, P. J. "The South Indian Tradition of the Apostle Thomas." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series) 56.S1 (1924): 213-223.
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 101. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5
- Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur.
- Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 103. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Bayly, Susan Saints, Goddesses and Kings in South Indian Society Cambridge University Press 22 April 2004 ISBN 978-0-521-89103-5 
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present], p. 99. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Bornkamm, G. "The Acts of Thomas" in E. Hennecke, New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 2. London: Lutterworth, 1965.
- Klijn, Albertus Frederik Johannes (2003). The Acts of Thomas: Introduction, Text, and Commentary. BRILL. p. 15. ISBN 90-04-12937-5. Retrieved 7 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 103. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Baum, Wilhelm; Dietmar W. Winkler (2003). The Church of the East: A Concise History. Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 0-415-29770-2. Retrieved 6 February 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 92. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- "The Song of Thomas Ramban" in Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol. I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. [ISBN 81-87133-05-8]
- James Arampulickal (1994). The pastoral care of the Syro-Malabar Catholic migrants. Oriental Institute of Religious Studies, India Publications. p. 40.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Orientalia christiana periodica: Commentaril de re orientali ...: Volumes 17–18. Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum. 1951. p. 233.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Adrian Hastings (15 August 2000). A World History of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-8028-4875-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mundadan, A. Mathias, and Joseph Thekkedath. History of christianity in India. Published for Church History Association of India by Theological Publications in India, 1982. pages 30-32
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present], p. 99. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5
- Leslie Brown, The Indian Christians of St. Thomas.
- "Nazrani Christians and the Social Processes of Kerala, 800-1500 | Nasranis". Nasrani.net. Retrieved 2015-09-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- MLA Malekandathil, Pius. Maritime India: trade, religion and polity in the Indian Ocean. Primus Books, 2010. pp.38-61
- "Nazrani Christians and the Social Processes of Kerala, 800-1500 | Nasranis". Nasrani.net. Retrieved 2015-09-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- MLA Malekandathil, Pius. Maritime India: trade, religion and polity in the Indian Ocean. Primus Books, 2010. pp38-61
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, pp. 102–107; 115.. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Burjor Avari – India, the ancient past, Taylor & Francis, 2007, p.221, ISBN 0-415-35615-6
- S.G. Pothan (1963) The Syrian Christians of Kerala, Bombay: Asia Publishing House pp.102–105
- Werner Sundermann; Almut Hintze; François de Blois (2009). Exegisti Monumenta: Festschrift in Honour of Nicholas Sims-Williams. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 38. ISBN 978-3-447-05937-4. Retrieved 11 August 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Baum, Wilhelm; Dietmar W. Winkler (2003). The Church of the East: A Concise History. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 0-415-29770-2. Retrieved 5 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 112. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 105 & 110. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- # Silverberg, Robert (1996). The Realm of Prester John, pp. 29–34. Ohio University Press. ISBN 1-84212-409-9.
- Fiey, J. M. (1993). Pour un Oriens Christianus novus; répertoire des diocèses Syriaques orientaux et occidentaux, p. 96. Beirut: Orient-Institut.
- Wilmshurst, D. J. (2000). The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318–1913, p. 343 and 391. Louvain.
- Baum, Wilhelm; Dietmar W. Winkler (2003). The Church of the East: A Concise History. Routledge. p. 105. ISBN 0-415-29770-2. Retrieved 6 February 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique, p. 274. Media House Delhi.
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, 122–124. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, 125–127. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, pp. 127–128. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, pp. 130–134. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Neill, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. pp. 208–210. ISBN 0-521-54885-3. Retrieved 27 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Neill, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 0-521-54885-3. Retrieved 27 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Prasad, Rajendra (2009). A Historical-Developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals. History of Science, Philosophy, and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume XII, part 2. Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company. p. 484. ISBN 81-8069-595-6. Retrieved 1 February 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique, p. 78. Media House Delhi.
- Van der Ploeg, J. P. L., O.P. The Christians of St. Thomas in South India and their Syriac Manuscripts. Rome and Bangalore: Center for Indian and Inter-Religious Studies and Dharmaram Publications, 1983.[page needed]
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 136. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present, p. 367. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Neill, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. pp. 316–317. ISBN 0-521-54885-3. Retrieved 27 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Neill, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 319. ISBN 0-521-54885-3. Retrieved 27 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Neill, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. pp. 320–321. ISBN 0-521-54885-3. Retrieved 27 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Joseph Thekkedathu, pous cit pp96-100
- Rev Dr Placid Podipara, The Hierarchy of Syro Malabar Church, in Collected works of Rev Dr Placid Podipara CMI, Vol I p 719
- "Christians of Saint Thomas (Christian groups, India) - Encyclopedia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-11-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Vadakkekara, p. 84; 86. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Vadakkekara86" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Vadakkekara86" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Vadakkekara86" defined multiple times with different content
- Frykenberg, p. 361.
- Fernando, p. 79.
- Chaput, pp. 7–8.
- Vadakkekara, p. 84 and note.
- Catholic Encyclopedia- "St. Thomas Christians" The Carmelite Period, Dr. Thekkedath, History of Christianity in India"
- Claudius Buchanan 1811; Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956; Tisserant, E. 1957; Michael Geddes, 1694;
- Dr. Thekkedath, History of Christianity in India"
- Fr. George Thalian: The Great Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D.: the Outline of a Vocation, Mar Louis Memorial Press, 1961.
- "History of Ernakulam Diocese". Ernakulamarchdiocese.org. Retrieved 2012-06-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Puthezhathu Ramon Menon, Sakthan Thampuran, (Malayalam) Kozhikode, Mathrubhumi, 1989 (3rd ed.) p.286.
- N. M. Mathew, History of the Marthoma Church (Malayalam), Volume 1.(2006). Page 205-207.
- Kochumon M.P. Saintly bishops of Kattumangat (Malayalam) p. 42-44.
- K.C. Varghese Kassessa. History of Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Malayalam) p.45
- John Fenwick. The Forgotten Bishops, Georgias Press, NJ, USA. 2009. p.200-246.
- Michael Burgess – The Eastern Orthodox Churches, McFarland, 2005, ISBN 0-7864-2145-2, p.175
- Susan Bayly – Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society – ISBN 0-521-89103-5, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 281–286
- George Joseph, The life and times of a Kerala Christian nationalist, Orient Blackswan, 2003, pp. 33–39, ISBN 81-250-2495-6
- Stephen Neill (2 May 2002). A History of Christianity in India: 1707-1858. Cambridge University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-521-89332-9. Retrieved 31 August 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cherian, Dr. C.V., Orthodox Christianity in India. Academic Publishers, College Road, Kottayam. 2003.p. 254-262.
- Eyre Chatterton
- Dr.Juhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan. Christianity in India and a Brief History of the Marthoma Syrian Church. Pub: K.M. Cherian. 1993.
- Author:Sushil Mittal, Gene Thursby -Religions of South Asia: An Introduction
- "Anglican Communion official website – The Church of South India (United)". Retrieved 2008-06-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Agur, C.M. Church History of Travancore.1903.
- Varghese A.P. – India: History, Religion, Vision and Contribution to the World, Atlantic Publishers 2008, ISBN 978-81-269-0903-2, pp, 376–378
- M.P. Varkey, Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II, Metropolitan of Jacobite faction of Malankara Church.(Malayalam), Malayala Manorama. 1901.
- Cheriyan, Dr. C.V., Orthodox Christianity in India. Academic Publishers, College Road, Kottayam. 2003. p. 294.
- N.M. Mathew, History of the Marthoma Church (Malayalam), Volume II.(2007). Page 125.
- A History of Eastern Christianity – Taylor & Francis, pp. 372–374
- Cherian, Dr. C.V., Orthodox Christianity in India. Academic Publishers, College Road, Kottayam. 2003.p. 354.
- Rev. Thomas, P.T. & Rev. P.C. Zachariah. It Happened in The Mar Thoma Church. 1961.
- Thomas, K.T. & Rev. T.N. Koshy. Faith On Trial. Ernakulam. 1965.
- Burgess M., Stanley (January 2001). "PENTECOSTALISM IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW" (PDF). Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies. 4 (1): 95–96. Retrieved 3 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Devika, J.; Varghese, V. J. (March 2010). To Survive or to flourish? Minority rights and Syrian Christian assertions in 20th century Travancore (PDF). Trivandrum: Centre for Development Studies. pp. 5–8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Thomas Johnson Nossiter, Communism in Kerala: a study in political adaptation, University of California Press, 1982, pp. 78- 82, ISBN 0-520-04667-6
- Devika, J.; Varghese, V. J. (March 2010). To Survive or to flourish? Minority rights and Syrian Christian assertions in 20th century Travancore (PDF). Trivandrum: Centre for Development Studies. Retrieved 27 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Jeffrey, Robin (March 1976). "Temple Entry Movement in Travancore". Social Scientist. 4 (8): 11–12. Retrieved 15 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Devika, J.; Varghese, V. J. (March 2010). To Survive or to flourish? Minority rights and Syrian Christian assertions in 20th century Travancore (PDF). Trivandrum: Centre for Development Studies. pp. 19–20. Retrieved 27 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Donald Eugene Smith et al.- South Asian politics and religion, Princeton University Press, 1966, p.190
- George Mathew – Communal Road To A Secular Kerala, Concept Publishing Company, 1989, ISBN 81-7022-282-6, pp.91–103
- PR Saraswati – The Impact of Indian Christianity on Indian Society 
- "www.keralaassembly.org". www.keralaassembly.org. Retrieved 2012-06-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Reflections on Finance Education and Society. Motilal Banarsidass Publication. p. 114. ISBN 9788120830752. Retrieved 2009-07-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Plunkett, Cannon & Harding 2001, p. 24
- Thomas Johnson Nossiter (1982). Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation. University of California Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 978-0-520-04667-2. Retrieved 17 August 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Amaladass, Anand (1993) [1989 (New York: Orbis Books)]. "Dialogue between Hindus and the St. Thomas Christians". In Coward, Harold. Hindu-Christian dialogue: perspectives and encounters (Indian ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 16. ISBN 81-208-1158-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Rajendra Prasad: A Historical-developmental study of classical Indian philosophy of morals – pp. 484–487, ISBN 81-8069-595-6 
- Rajendra Prasad: A Historical-developmental study of classical Indian philosophy of morals – pp. 482–483, ISBN 81-8069-595-6
- Paul M. Collins: Christian inculturation in India – Page 142 ISBN 0-7546-6076-1
- L.Krishna Ananthakrishna Iyer: Anthropology of Syrian Christians – pp. 205–219
- Susan Bayly – Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society – ISBN 0-521-89103-5, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 246–247
- S. G. Pothan – The Syrian Christians of Kerala, p. 58 Asia Pub. House, 1963
- Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique, pp. 325–330. Media House Delhi.
- Amaladass, Anand (1993) [1989 (New York: Orbis Books)]. "Dialogue between Hindus and the St. Thomas Christians". In Coward, Harold. Hindu-Christian dialogue: perspectives and encounters (Indian ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 15–19. ISBN 81-208-1158-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Travancore State Manual. II. Kerala Gazetteers Dept. ISBN 9788185499321.
|last1=in Authors list (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Census of India, 1961, India. Office of the Registrar General, p. 290
- Susan Bayly – Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, Cambridge University Press, 2004 – ISBN 0-521-89103-5, p. 273
- Susan Bayly – Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, Cambridge University Press, 2004 – ISBN 0-521-89103-5, p. 274-279
- Susan Bayly – Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society – ISBN 0-521-89103-5, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 310–315
- Malekandathil, Pius (2010). Maritime India: Trade, Religion and Polity in the Indian Ocean. Delhi: Primus Books. pp. 48–50. ISBN 978-93-8060-701-6. Retrieved 15 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mateer, Samuel (1871). The Land of Charity: A Descriptive Account of Travancore and its People. London: J. Snow & Co. pp. 241–243. Retrieved 15 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bradshaw, Paul F. (2003). The New Westminster Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship. Westminster John Knox. p. 160. ISBN 0664226558. Retrieved 27 July 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Paul M. Collins – Christian inculturation in India, pp.119, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007, ISBN 0-7546-6076-1
- "NSC NETWORK: Saint Thomas Cross- A Religio Cultural Logo of Saint Thomas Christians". Nasrani.net. Retrieved 2012-06-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Paul M. Collins: Christian inculturation in India – Page 119 ISBN 0-7546-6076-1
- Dr. Geo Thadikkatt – Liturgical Identity of the Mar Toma Nazrani Church
- Devika, J.; Varghese, V. J. (March 2010). To Survive or to flourish? Minority rights and Syrian Christian assertions in 20th century Travancore (PDF). Trivandrum: Centre for Development Studies. p. 11. Retrieved 27 April 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- A Kumar — Social Reforms in Modern India, p. 180, Sarup and Sons 2001, ISBN 81-7625-227-1
- Kunniparampil Curien Zachariah et al. – Dynamics of migration in Kerala: dimensions, differentials, and consequences, pp. 85 – 89, Orient Blackswan, 2003, ISBN 81-250-2504-9
- ('The Hindu' Syrian Christians are in a class of their own South Indian newspaper article 31 August 2001
- K.C. Zachariah — The Syrian Christians of Kerala: demographic and socio-economic transition in the twentieth century, Orient Longman, 2006
- Palackal, Joseph J. Syriac Chant Traditions in South India. Ph.d, Ethnomusicology, City University of New York, 2005.
- "NSC Network – Passover". Nasrani.net. Retrieved 2012-06-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Weil, S. (1982)"Symmetry between Christians and Jews in India: The Cananite Christians and Cochin Jews in Kerala. in Contributions to Indian Sociology,16.
- "Syrian Christians in India". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily. 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- Rowena Robinson: Christians of India, p.106, ISBN 0-7619-9822-5
- Anthropologica Vol 46, 2004, Canadian Anthropology Society, p. 258
- Paul M. Collins – Christian inculturation in India, p.120, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007, ISBN 0-7546-6076-1
- "Eashoa Msheekhah (Aramaic), Jesus the Messiah (English) or the Christ (Greek)". V-a.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Anthropologica Vol 46, 2004, Canadian Anthropology Society, p. 262
- Zachariah, Kunniparampil Curien (November 2001). The Syrian Christians of Kerala: Demographic and Socioeconomic Transition in the Twentieth Century (PDF). Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Development Studies. p. 3. Retrieved 20 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Forrester, Duncan (1980). Caste and Christianity. Curzon Press. pp. 98, 102.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- L.Krishna Ananthakrishna Iyer: Anthropology of Syrian Christians, pages 55-56
- Geddes, Michael. The History of the Church of Malabar Together with the Synod of Diamper 1599. Pages 394-395. Published in 1694
- Aprem, Mar. (1977) The Chaldaean Syrian Church in India. Trichur, Kerala, India: Mar Narsai, 1977.
- Brown, Leslie (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
- Iyer, K.V. Krishna, Kerala’s Relations with the Outside World, pp. 70, 71 in "The Cochin Synagogue Quatercentenary Celebrations Commemoration Volume", Kerala History Association, Cochin, 1971.
- Joseph, T. K. The Malabar Christians and Their Ancient Documents. Trivandrum, India, 1929.
- Landstrom, Bjorn (1964) "The Quest for India", Double day English Edition, Stockholm.
- Mariamma Joseph (1994).Marriage Among Indian Christians.Jaipur: Rawat Publications
- Mathew, N. M. St. Thomas Christians of Malabar Through Ages. CSS Tiruvalla. 2003.
- Menachery, Professor George. (2000) Kodungallur – The Cradle of Christianity In India, Thrissur: Marthoma Pontifical Shrine.
- Menachery, Professor George(Ed.). (1982) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, VOL.I, Thrissur.
- Menachery, Professor George(Ed.). (1973) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, VOL.II, Thrissur.
- Menachery, Professor George(Ed.). (2010) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, VOL.III, Ollur,Thrissur.
- Menachery, Professor George(Ed.with Ponnumuthan, Aerath). (2006) Indian Christians and Nation Building, CBCI-KCBC Kochi-Alwaye.
- Menachery, Professor George(Ed.with Snaitang). (2011) India's Christian Heritage, Church History Assn. of India, Bangalore (DVK).
- Menachery George & Chakkalakal Werner (1987) "Kodungallur: City of St. Thomas", Azhikode
- Miller, J. Innes. (1969). The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford University Press. Special edition for Sandpiper Books. 1998. ISBN 0-19-814264-1.
- Mundadan, A. Mathias. (1984) History of Christianity in India, vol.1, Bangalore, India: Church History Association of India.
- Philip, E.M. (1908) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas (1908; Changanassery: Mor Adai Study Center, 2002).
- Podipara, Placid J. (1970) "The Thomas Christians". London: Darton, Longman and Tidd, 1970. (is a readable and exhaustive study of the St. Thomas Christians.)
- Poomangalam C.A (1998) The Antiquities of the Knanaya Syrian Christians; Kottayam, Kerala.
- Puthur, B. (ed.) (2002): The Life and Nature of the St Thomas Christian Church in the Pre-Diamper Period (Cochi, Kerala).
- Rawlinson, H. (1926) Intercourse between India and the Western World from the Earliest Times to the Fall of Rome
- Susan Visvanathan (1993) The Christians of Kerala: History, Belief and Ritual Among the Yakoba. New Delhi/Madras/New York: Oxford University Press
- Susan Visvanathan (1989) "Marriage, Birth and Death-Property Rights and Domestic Relationships of the Orthodox Jacobite Syrian Christians of Kerala", Economic and Political Weekly,Vol - XXIV No. 24, 17 June 1989.
- Susan Visvanathan (1986) "Reconstructions of the Past among the Syrian Christians of Kerala", Contributions to Indian Sociology (Sage Publishers), July 1986; vol. 20, 2: pp. 241–260.
- Susan Visvanathan (2010)."The Status of Christian Women in Kerala",in 'World Christianity:Critical Concepts in Religious Studies', edited by Elizabeth Koepping, London: Routledge, 2010.
- Susan Visvanathan (2011) "The Eucharist in a Syrian Christian Church", in T.N.Madan (edited) 'India's Religions : Perspectives from Sociology and History'.New Delhi: Oxford University Press
- Tamcke, M. (ed.) (2001) : Orientalische Christen zwischen Repression und Migration (Studien zur Orientalischen Kirchengeschichte 13; Münster: LIT).
- Thayil, Thomas (2003). The Latin Christians of Kerala: A Study on Their Origin. Kristu Jyoti Publications. ISBN 81-87370-18-1
- The Land of the Perumals, or Cochin, Its Past and Present – Madras: Gantz Brothers – 1863.
- Thomas, P. J; (1932) "Roman Trade Centres in Malabar", Kerala Society Papers, II.
- Tisserant, E. (1957) Eastern Christianity in India: A History of the Syro-Malabar Church from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Trans. and ed. by E. R. Hambye. Westminster, MD: Newman Press.
- Vellian Jacob (2001) Knanite community: History and culture; Syrian church series; vol. XVII; Jyothi Book House, Kottayam
- Veluthat, K. (1978). Brahmin settlements in Kerala: Historical studies. Calicut: Calicut University, Sandhya Publications.
- Jacobite Syrian Christian Church
- The Syro Malabar Church
- Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (Indian Orthodox Church)
- Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church
- Christians of Kerala
- Population of Christians in India and Kerala based on 2001 report of Indian census
- Syrian christians are in a class of their own South Indian newspaper 31 August 2001
- The Nasrani Syrian Christian Network
- Project for preserving the manuscripts of the Syrian Christians of Kerala