Close-mid central rounded vowel

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Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɵ
ö
IPA number 323
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɵ
Unicode (hex) U+0275
X-SAMPA 8
Kirshenbaum @.<umd>
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɵ⟩, a lowercase barred letter o, and should not be confused with the Greek letter theta, ⟨θ⟩, which in IPA corresponds to a consonant sound, the voiceless dental fricative. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ö⟩.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Janalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE (HTML &#415;).

This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close near-front rounded vowel. For this reason, it may be sometimes transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩. An example of a language contrasting /ɵ/ with /ʏ/ is the Hamont dialect of Limburgish, although in phonemic transcription, these sounds are normally transcribed with, respectively, /ʏ/ and /y/.[1]

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Cantonese /ceot7 [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[2][3] hut [ɦɵ̟t] 'hut' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/. It corresponds to [ʊ̈] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English American foot [fɵt] 'foot' Some speakers. Centralized and lowered from [ʊ]. See English phonology
Canadian
Received Pronunciation[4] Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
Hull[5] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[6] bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Somewhat fronted. May be lower ([ø̞̈ː ~ œ̈ː]).
German Chemnitz dialect[7] Boden [ˈpɵːtn̩] 'floor' See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Hiw[8] yöykö [jөjkөŋ] 'forget'
Icelandic[9][10][11] vinur [ˈveːnөr] 'friend' Most often transcribed /ʏ/. See Icelandic phonology
Irish Munster[12] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠɰuːn̪ˠɰө̠˔] 'closing' Slightly raised and slightly retracted; allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[12] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[1] Rùs [ʀɵs²] 'a Russian' May be transcribed /ʏ/.[1][13] See Hamont dialect phonology
Maastrichtian[13] un [ɵn] 'onion'
Mongolian[14] өгөх [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[15] sjuts [ʃɵt͡s] [translation needed]
Tajik кӯҳ [kʰɵːh] 'mountain' Merges with /u/ in central and southern dialects.
Toda ? [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek tgʻri [t̪ɤɵʁˈɾɪ] 'true'
West Frisian Southwestern dialects[16] [example needed] Corresponds to [wo] in other dialects.[16] See West Frisian phonology
Standard[17] put [pɵ̜t] 'well' Also described as front [ø].[18] Only slightly rounded;[17] typically transcribed as /ø/ or /ʏ/. See West Frisian phonology
Xumi Lower[19] [RPʎ̟ɐtsɵ] 'to filter tea' Typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ʉ⟩.[19]
Upper[20] [Htɵ] 'way to do things' Allophone of /o/ after alveolar consonants; may be realized as [o] or [ɤ] instead.[20]

The vowel transcribed /ɵ/ in Central Standard Swedish and Standard Russian is actually mid ([ɵ̞]).[21][22][23]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  2. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  3. Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009), p. 68.
  4. "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  6. Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  7. Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  8. François (2013), p. 207.
  9. Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  10. Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  11. Haugen (1958), p. 65.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Ó Sé (2000).
  13. 13.0 13.1 Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  14. Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  15. Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
  17. 17.0 17.1 Sipma (1913), p. 10.
  18. Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369–370.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.
  21. Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  22. Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  23. Crosswhite (2000), p. 167.

Bibliography

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