Close central unrounded vowel

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Sound

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i. In American tradition this symbol (and the name "barred i") denote a slightly different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's;[1] see also near-close central unrounded vowel.

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, but does occur as an allophone in many Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (e.g. proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although this is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨə] 'to know' Asyik[2] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[3] describe this sound as such while Durie[4] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
Angor hüfᵻ [xɨβə] 'hot'
Czech Some dialects był [bɨɫ] 'he was' Found in some eastern Moravian, Lach and Silesian dialects. See Czech phonology
Chinese Mandarin rì About this sound [ɻɨ̹˥˩]  'day' See Mandarin phonology
English Southeastern English[5] rude [ɹɨ̹ːd] 'rude' May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Hausa[6] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[6]
Irish Munster[7] caora [kɨ̟ːɾˠə] 'sheep' Somewhat fronted;[7] allophone of /i/ between broad consonants.[7] See Irish phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Mongolian[8] хүчир [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Muisca Hycha[9] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Romanian înot [ɨˈn̪o̞t̪] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[10] ты About this sound [t̪ɨ]  'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[11] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sema[12] sü [ʃɨ̀] 'to hurt' Also described as near-close [ɨ̞].[13]
Sirionó[14] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish bi [bɨː] 'bee' Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg. See Swedish phonology
Tamil[15] ஆனால் [äːnäːlɨ] 'but' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be rounded [ʉ] instead.[15] See Tamil phonology
Tera[16] zu [zɨ] 'said'
Udmurt[17] ургетэ, ыргетэ[18] [ɨrgete] 'it growls'
Uzbek qiz [qɨz] 'girl' Allophone of /i/.
Vietnamese trưa [ʈɨə˧] 'noon' See Vietnamese phonology
Võro sysar [sɨsarʲ] 'sister'
Welsh Northern dialects[19] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[20] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

Polish ⟨y⟩ is often transcribed as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟].[21] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed ⟨e⟩, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded).[22]

See also

References

  1. Flemming, E., Johnson, S. (2007), "Rosa’s roses: reduced vowels in American English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37/1, pp. 83–96.
  2. Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies, 11: 1–33, retrieved 9 November 2012<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities, 15: 9–21<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Mid-vowels in Acehnese
  5. Lodge (2009:174)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Schuh & Yalwa (1999:90)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Ó Sé (2000)
  8. Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  9. González de Perez (2005:50)
  10. Jones & Ward (1969:33)
  11. Hargus & Beavert (2002)
  12. Teo (2014:28)
  13. Teo (2012:368)
  14. Firestone (1965:?)
  15. 15.0 15.1 Keane (2004), p. 114.
  16. Tench (2007:230)
  17. Iivonen & Harnud (2005:64, 68)
  18. ургетыны (in Russian) Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Ball (1984:?)
  20. Merrill (2008:109)
  21. Jassem (2003:105)
  22. Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)

Bibliography

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica (16), London: Mouton & Co<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Schuh, Russell G.; Yalwa, Lawan D. (1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>