Criticism of monarchy
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Criticism of monarchy may refer to the criticism of monarchy as a form of government, or to the criticism of particular monarchical governments, as controlled by hereditary royal families. In some cases, criticism of royalty carries serious limits, and beyond those limits critical speech is regarded as criminal speech. Monarchies were strongly criticized during the Age of Enlightenment, as well as the concepts that substained them, such as the Divine Right of Kings. This led to the French Revolution and the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy on 21 September 1792. As well as the American Revolution in 1775, when the Patriots suppressed the Loyalists and expelled all royal officials. Later in Russia in 1917 with the February Revolution resulting with abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. In this country and many others the monarchic governments were replaced by republics, and other countries replaced their absolute monarchy with a constitutional monarchy.
The reverse is also true with some brief return of the monarchy in France with the Bourbon Restoration, the July Monarchy and the Second French Empire. Or with the monarchy of Spain, which returned, but as a constitutional monarchy.
In the twenty-first century, monarchies are present in the world in many forms:
- Absolute monarchies in Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, the United Arab Emirates (inside the regional sphere of power) and the Vatican City.
- Constitutional monarchies in Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom and others.
Legitimacy of the current royal families
Modes designation of kings do not involve democratic principles, including the election of kings by universal suffrage by the people they govern. For hereditary monarchies royal power transmission is carried from generation to generation. Several royal families are criticized in the world and their legitimacy challenged for example:
Monarchy family of Belgium
The Belgian association Republican Circle (Cercle républicain / Republikeinse Kring, CRK asbl) launched the petition Abolition of Monarchy in Europe to the attention of the European Parliament in March 2008, highlighting the incompatibility of the monarchy with several international declaration: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Monarchy family in Canada
Debate between monarchists and republicans in Canada has been taking place since before the country's Confederation in 1867. Republican action has taken the form of protests on Victoria Day the Canadian sovereign's official birthday, lobbying of the federal and provincial governments to eliminate Canadian royal symbols, and legal action against the Crown, specifically in relation to the Oath of Citizenship and the Act of Settlement 1701.
Monarchy family of Morocco
The legitimacy of the king Mohammed VI is contested in 2011 with the February 20 Movement that attempted to undermine the functioning of the monarchic system for the first time in the history of this country.
Monarchy family of Bahrain
The Bahraini protests were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and equality for the majority Shia population, and expanded to a call to end the monarchy of Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa following a deadly night raid on 17 February 2011 against protesters at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama, known locally as Bloody Thursday. Population who are systematically discriminated against by the Sunni minority and Sunni royal family.
Monarchy family of Saudi Arabia
In August 2012 the Swedish Defense Minister Karin Enström said that Saudi Arabia could be called dictatorship. Protests against the royal dictatorship of Al Saud family and calling for prisoners held without charge or trial to be released in April and May 2011.In the early 2012 demonstrations, protestors chanted slogans against the House of Saud and Minister of Interior, Nayef, calling Nayef a "terrorist", "criminal" and "butcher". Crackdown on protesters prevents further expression of dissent.
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- "Canada's Republican Movement Presents Legal Case Against the Monarchy" (Press release). Citizens for a Canadian Republic. 24 September 2002. Retrieved 18 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Oath to Queen Costs Canada Citizens, Says Republican Movement" (Press release). Citizens for a Canadian Republic. 5 November 2002. Retrieved 18 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Bahrain Shia Leaders Visit Iraq". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Bahrain Protests: Police Break Up Pearl Square Crowd". BBC News. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Swedish defence Minister backs off and call the Saudi regime a Dictatorship Scancomark.se, 13 August 2012
- the Swedish Defense Minister Karin Enström said that Saudi Arabia could be called dictatorship. Le Point.fr 13 August 2012
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- Text of the UDHR
- Official translations of the UDHR
- Text of the Covenant
- Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (and in PDF format).
- Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union as adapted at Lisbon
- European Parliament’s explanation of the Charter
- Petition to the European Parliament.