# Cylinder (geometry)

A **cylinder** (from Greek κύλινδρος – *kulindros*, "roller, tumbler"^{[1]}) is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given straight line, the **axis** of the cylinder. The solid enclosed by this surface and by two planes perpendicular to the axis is also called a cylinder. The surface area and the volume of a cylinder have been known since deep antiquity.

## Contents

## Common use

In common use a *cylinder* is taken to mean a finite section of a * right circular cylinder*, i.e., the cylinder with the generating lines perpendicular to the bases, with its ends closed to form two circular surfaces, as in the figure (right). If the ends are not closed, one obtains an open cylinder, whose surface is topologically equivalent to an open annulus.

### Volume

If the cylinder has a radius *r* and length (height) h, then its volume is given by

*V*= π*r*^{2}*h*

Having a right circular cylinder with a height *h* units and a base of radius *r* units with the coordinate axes chosen so that the origin is at the center of one base and the height is measured along the positive x-axis. A plane section at a distance of *x* units from the origin has an area of *A*(*x*) square units where

or

An element of volume, is a right cylinder of base area *Aw _{i}* square units and a thickness of Δ

_{i}

*x*units. Thus if V cubic units is the volume of the right circular cylinder, by Riemann sums,

Using cylindrical coordinates, the volume can be calculated by integration over

### Surface area

Still using a radius *r* and length (height) h, the surface area of a cylinder is made up of three parts:

- the area of the top: π
*r*^{2} - the area of the bottom: π
*r*^{2} - the area of the side: 2π
*rh*

The area of the top and bottom is always the same, and is also called the base area, *B*. The area of the side is also known as the lateral area, *L*.

An **open cylinder** does not include either top or bottom elements, and therefore has surface area (lateral area)

*L*= 2π*rh*.

The surface area of a **closed cylinder** is made up the sum of all three components: top, bottom and side. Its surface area is

*A*= 2π*r*^{2}+ 2π*rh*= 2π*r*(*r*+*h*) = π*d*(*r*+*h*)=*L*+2*B*,

where *d* is the diameter.

For a given volume, the closed cylinder with the smallest surface area has *h* = 2*r*. Equivalently, for a given surface area, the closed cylinder with the largest volume has *h* = 2*r*, i.e. the cylinder fits snugly in a cube (height = diameter).^{[2]}

### Cylindric sections

Cylindric sections are the intersections of cylinders with planes. For a right circular cylinder, there are four possibilities. A plane tangent to the cylinder meets the cylinder in a single straight line segment. Moved while parallel to itself, the plane either does not intersect the cylinder or intersects it in two parallel line segments. All other planes intersect the cylinder in an ellipse or, when they are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder, in a circle.^{[3]}

Eccentricity *e* of the cylindric section and semi-major axis *a* of the cylindric section depend on the radius of the cylinder *r* and the angle between the secant plane and cylinder axis *α* in the following way:

## Other types of cylinders

In differential geometry, a cylinder is defined more broadly as any ruled surface spanned by a one-parameter family of parallel lines. A cylinder whose cross section is an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola is called an **elliptic cylinder**, **parabolic cylinder**, or **hyperbolic cylinder** respectively.

An **elliptic cylinder** is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates:

This equation is for an **elliptic cylinder**, a generalization of the ordinary, **circular cylinder** (*a* = *b*). Elliptic cylinders are also known as **cylindroids**, but that name is ambiguous, as it can also refer to the Plücker conoid. The volume of an elliptic cylinder with height h is . Even more general than the elliptic cylinder is the **generalized cylinder**: the cross-section can be any curve.

The cylinder is a *degenerate quadric* because at least one of the coordinates (in this case z) does not appear in the equation.

An **oblique cylinder** has the top and bottom surfaces displaced from one another.

There are other more unusual types of cylinders. These are the *imaginary elliptic cylinders*:

the *hyperbolic cylinder*:

and the *parabolic cylinder*:

## About an arbitrary axis

Consider an infinite cylinder whose axis lies along the vector

We make use of spherical coordinates:

These variables can be used to define A and B, the orthogonal vectors that form the basis for the cylinder:

With these defined, we may use the familiar formula for a cylinder:

where *R* is the radius of the cylinder. These results are usually derived using rotation matrices.

## Projective geometry

In projective geometry, a cylinder is simply a cone whose apex is at infinity.

This is useful in the definition of degenerate conics, which require considering the cylindrical conics.

## Related polyhedra

A *cylinder* can be seen as a polyhedral limiting case of an n-gonal prism where *n* approaches infinity. It can also be seen as a dual of a bicone as an infinite-sided bipyramid.

Polyhedron | ||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Coxeter | ||||||||||

Tiling | ||||||||||

Config. | 3.4.4 | 4.4.4 | 5.4.4 | 6.4.4 | 7.4.4 | 8.4.4 | 9.4.4 | 10.4.4 | 11.4.4 | 12.4.4 |

## See also

- Cylindrical coordinate system
- Rotation of axes
- Steinmetz solid, the intersection of two or three perpendicular cylinders
- Translation of axes

## References

- ↑ κύλινδρος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott,
*A Greek-English Lexicon*, on Perseus - ↑ Lax, Peter D.; Terrell, Maria Shea (2013),
*Calculus With Applications*, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer, p. 178, ISBN 9781461479468<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>. - ↑ "MathWorld: Cylindric section".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

## External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to .Cylinder (geometry) |

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article .Cylinder |

Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.cylinder |

- Surface area of a cylinder at MATHguide
- Volume of a cylinder at MATHguide