Dietrich Hrabak

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Dietrich Hrabak
File:Dietrich Hrabak.jpg
Dietrich Hrabak
Nickname(s) "Dieter"
Born (1914-12-19)19 December 1914
Großdeuben, Saxony
Died 15 September 1995(1995-09-15) (aged 80)
Pfaffenhofen
Allegiance  Nazi Germany (to 1945)
 West Germany
Service/branch Kriegsmarine (1934–35)
Luftwaffe(1935–45), (1955–70)
Years of service 1934–45
1955–70
Rank Oberst (World War II)
Generalmajor (Bundeswehr)
Unit JG 138, JG 76, JG 54 , JG 52
Commands held II./JG 54, JG 54, JG 52
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
Other work Bundeswehr

Dietrich "Dieter" Hrabak (19 December 1914 – 15 September 1995) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1935 until the end of World War II on 8 May 1945 and again in the Bundeswehr from 1955 until his retirement on 30 September 1970. A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat.[1] During World War II he shot down 125 enemy aircraft achieved in over 1000 combat missions. 109 of his victories were claimed over the Eastern Front, with 16 against the Western Allies.

Early life and career

Hrabak was born on 19 December 1914 in Großdeuben, part of Böhlen, in the Kingdom of Saxony, a federated state of the German Empire, the son of a real estate developer. Following his graduation from the Königin-Carola-Gymnasium, a secondary school, he volunteered for military service. On 8 April 1934, Hrabak joined the Reichsmarine,[Note 1] the German navy of the Weimar Republic and in November 1935 transferred to the newly emerging Luftwaffe (German air force) as an Oberfähnrich (officer candidate). On 1 April 1936, Hrabak was promoted to Leutnant (second lieutenant).[2]

In 1938 Hrabak was posted to the Vienna Jagdgruppe, I./JG 138. This unit was later redesignated I./JG 76 during the Polish Campaign, before becoming II./JG 54 in April 1940.

World War II

During the Polish Campaign, Hrabak was shot down (the first of 11 times) on his first mission, making a belly landing. On 13 May 1940, he claimed his first victory, a French Potez 63 and he claimed five more victories before the armistice. During the Battle of Britain, Hrabak was a member of JG 54, becoming Gruppenkommandeur II./JG 54 on 26 August 1940. During the Battle of Britain he added ten victories against Royal Air Force (RAF) fighters and Field Marshal Hermann Göring personally decorated Hrabak with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes).

File:Hrabak-Rudel-Hentschel-Hitler.jpg
Hrabak (left), Rudel, Hentschel and Hitler, in Rastenburg

Hrabak served in the Balkans campaign and when Operation Barbarosa began in the Soviet Union, he flew on the northern front and over Leningrad. In November 1942, he left JG 54 to become Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 52 (JG 52—52nd Fighter Wing). Under Hrabak JG 52 became the highest scoring Geschwader with over 10,000 victories. On 2 August 1943 he claimed his 100th victory. He was the 48th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark.[3] In November 1943, Hrabak was awarded the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross, the 337th soldier to be thus awarded. He had 118 victories. The presentation was made by Adolf Hitler at the Wolf's Lair, Hitler's headquarters in Rastenburg, present-day Kętrzyn in Poland. Also presented with awards that day by Hitler were Hauptmann Hans-Ulrich Rudel, who received the Swords to his Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves. Rudel's air gunner and radio operator Oberfeldwebel (Master Sergeant) Erwin Hentschel was honored with the Knight's Cross.

On 20 September 1944, Hrabak scored the last of his 125 victories. In October 1944 Hrabak returned to JG 54, serving as its last Geschwaderkommodore until the end of the war. His greatest contribution to the Luftwaffe was not his combat record however but his command, tactical and leadership qualities, which endeared him to the men under his command and sealed his reputation within the Luftwaffe leadership.

Later life

After the war, he worked in the automotive and chemical industry until 1953 when Chancellor Konrad Adenauer asked him to help form the new German Air Force. In 1956 he commanded the Advanced Pilot Training Center at Fürstenfeldbruck. In 1962 he took charge of the air defense covering northern Germany and the Netherlands. In 1964 he was named NATO's Chief of Air Defense/Central Europe until becoming special manager for the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter programme. As a major general, he commanded the GAF's tactical command. General Hrabak died peacefully 15 September 1995 in Pfaffenhofen.

Quotes

Dietrich Hrabak was famous for saying: "If you return from a mission with a victory, but without your Rottenflieger [Wingman], you have lost your battle."

Awards

Wehrmachtbericht reference

Date Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording Direct English translation
3 September 1944 (addendum) Das auf allen Kriegsschauplätzen bewährte Jagdgeschwader 52 erzielte unter Führung seine Kommodore, Eichenlaubträger Oberstleutnant Hrabak, seinen 10 000 Luftsieg.[12] The on all theatres of war well proven 52nd Fighter Wing under the leadership of its Wing Commander, Oak Leaves bearer Oberstleutnant Hrabak, achieved its 10 000th aerial victory.

Notes

  1. The German Reichsmarine was renamed the Kriegsmarine on 1 June 1935.

References

Citations

  1. Spick 1996, pp. 3–4.
  2. Stockert 1998, p. 171.
  3. Obermaier 1989, p. 243.
  4. Obermaier 1989, p. 59.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Thomas 1997, p. 306.
  6. Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 200.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Scherzer 2007, p. 406.
  8. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 236.
  9. Von Seemen 1976, p. 174.
  10. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 75.
  11. Von Seemen 1976, p. 39.
  12. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, p. 231.

Bibliography

  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Schaulen, Fritjof (2003). Eichenlaubträger 1940 – 1945 Zeitgeschichte in Farbe I Abraham – Huppertz (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite. ISBN 978-3-932381-20-1. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN 978-0-8041-1696-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Stockert, Peter (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 4 (in German). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. ISBN 978-3-932915-03-1. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939-1945 Band 3, 1. Januar 1944 bis 9. Mai 1945 (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

  • "The Men of JG 54". Dietrich Hrabak. Retrieved 25 March 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "World War 2 Awards". Dietrich Hrabak. Retrieved 21 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Military offices
Preceded by
Major Herbert Ihlefeld
Commander of Jagdgeschwader 52
1 November 1942 – 30 September 1944
Succeeded by
Oberstleutnant Hermann Graf
Preceded by
Oberstleutnant Anton Mader
Commander of Jagdgeschwader 54 Grünherz
1 October 1944 – 8 May 1945
Succeeded by
none