Donald L. Barlett

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Donald L. Barlett
Born (1936-07-17) July 17, 1936 (age 83)
Johnstown, Pennsylvania
Ethnicity Caucasian
Occupation Investigative journalist, non-fiction writer
Notable credit(s) The Philadelphia Inquirer, Time (magazine), Vanity Fair (magazine), books:Empire: The Life, Legend, and Madness of Howard Hughes (with James B. Steele), Forevermore: Nuclear Waste in America (with James B. Steele), America: What Went Wrong?(with James B. Steele), America: Who Really Pays the Taxes? (with James B. Steele), America: Who Stole the Dream (with James B. Steele), The Great American Tax Dodge (with James B. Steele), Critical Condition (with James B. Steele).
Spouse(s) Nancy Barlett
Website http://barlettandsteele.com/index.php

Donald L. Barlett (born July 17, 1936) is an American investigative journalist and author who often collaborates with James B. Steele. According to The Washington Journalism Review (Magazine) they were a better investigative reporting team than even Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein.[1] Together they have won two Pulitzer Prizes, two National Magazine Awards and six George Polk Awards. In addition, they have been recognized by their peers with awards from Investigative Reporters and Editors on five separate occasions. They are known for their reporting technique of delving deep into documents and then, after what could be a long investigative period, interviewing the necessary sources.[2] The duo has been working together for over 40 years and is frequently referred to as Barlett and Steele.

Life

Barlett was raised in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. After attending Pennsylvania State University, he served three years as a special agent with the US Army Counter Intelligence Corps until 1956, when he began his journalistic career as a reporter for the Reading (Pennsylvania) Times. Nine years later he become an investigative journalist for The Plain Dealer, and later took similar jobs with The Chicago Daily News and The Philadelphia Inquirer, where he was to join his collaborator James B. Steele. In 1997, Barlett and Steele became an editors-at-large for Time. In 2006, they moved to Vanity Fair as contributing editors. Over the years, Barlett and Steele wrote on such diverse topics as crime, housing, nuclear waste, tax loopholes, the decline of the middle class's standard of living, Howard Hughes, the role of big money in politics, oil prices, immigration and health care.

Barlett and Steele won two Pulitzers and were recognized for their contributions to American journalism for their work while at The Philadelphia Inquirer. In 1972, during one of their earliest collaborations for The Inquirer, Barlett and Steele pioneered the use of computers for the analysis of data on violent crimes.[citation needed] Barlett and Steele won their first Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 1975 for a series called "Auditing the Internal Revenue Service" published by The Inquirer.[3] They won their second Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 1989 at the Inquirer for their coverage of temporary tax breaks embedded in the Tax Reform Act of 1986.[4] Their 1991 Inquirer series America: What Went Wrong? was named by the New York University department of journalism as 51st on its list of the 100 best pieces of journalism of the 20th century.[5] Rewritten as a book it became a No. 1 New York Times bestseller. It is one of seven books Barlett and Steele have published, five of which were written while at the The Inquirer.

After 26 years as a team for The Inquirer, Barlett and Steele left to pursue investigative reporting at Time.[6] It was while they were at Time that the investigative reporting team won their two National Magazine Awards, as well at their record breaking 6th George Polk Award, although this time for excellence in magazine journalism.[7]

After leaving Time over monetary issues, Barlett and Steele were hired by Vanity Fair to be contributing editors on the understanding that they would contribute two articles in their signature long-form style each year.[8][9] In 2007, Barlett and Steele, while still working for Vanity Fair, were featured in the PBS documentary series, Exposé: America's Investigative Reports, in an episode entitled "Friends In High Places," which was about government contracts. When asked on the program how they have managed to work for so many years together, Barlett said, "We're both very boring. Who else reads the tax codes?" Their lifelong passion for documents have fueled their career and led to important and award winning journalism.

Barlett is married and has a son as well as a stepson.

Impact

Barlett and Steele are used as examples in investigative reporting textbooks as a model of technique and excellence in journalism. As career investigative journalists, Barlett and Steele have become well known for their teamwork,[10] "documents state of mind,"[11] consistent accuracy,[12] "replicability" for revealing their sources,[13] and ability to make their work relevant to ordinary people, such as in "America: What Went Wrong?". Their employers, especially Gene Roberts at The Inquirer,[14] provided them with the opportunity to spend a long period of time reviewing documents in pursuit of journalism with depth and gave them the space to publish their work in lengthy articles in newspapers and magazines.

About Barlett and Steele, fellow investigative reporter Bob Woodward said, "They're an institution. They have kind of perfected a method of doing their work, and I have the highest regard for it. Systematic, comprehensive - they take a long time, and they don't mind saying what their conclusions are."[15]

Both Pulitzer Prize Awards illustrate the auditing function of investigative journalism, whereby the press as "The Fourth Estate" watches over government. In 1975, they audited the Internal Revenue Service. In 1989, they acted as watchdogs over the House Ways and Means Committee Chair Dan Rostenkowski and the insertion by Democrats and Republicans of temporary tax breaks in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 that favored business and saved millions.[16]

Barlett and Steele are acknowledged as having had an impact on business investigative journalism throughout their four-decade career, and the Donald W. Reynolds National Center for Business Journalism established an annual award in their name in 2007.

Books

  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1979). Empire: The Life, Legend, and Madness of Howard Hughes. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-00025-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1985). Forevermore: Nuclear Waste in America. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-01920-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1992). America: What Went Wrong?. Andrews and McMeel. ISBN 0-8362-7001-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1994). America: Who Really Pays the Taxes?. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-87157-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996). America: Who Stole the Dream?. Andrews and McMeel. ISBN 0-8362-1314-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2000). The Great American Tax Dodge: How Spiraling Fraud and Avoidance are Killing Fairness, Destroying the Income Tax, And Costing You. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-81135-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2004). Critical Condition: How Health Care in America Became Big Business — and Bad Medicine. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50454-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2012). The Betrayal of the American Dream. PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-586-48969-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Newspaper articles

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-10). "How the Influential win Billions in Special Tax Breaks". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-10). "The Tax Chairmen Fail to Respond to Queries". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-10). "A Rich Texas Widow Could Save $4 Million". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-11). "A Millionaire Businessman and his Island Tax Shelter". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-11). "A Tax Favor for Backer of Conservative Causes". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-12). "How Businesses Influence the Tax-Writing Process". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-13). "Disguising Those who get Tax Breaks". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-13). "Investors take over a Vital Atomic Plant a Tax-Saving Strategy Develops". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-14). "Congress can't add, so the Taxpayer pays". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-14). "The Wall Street star who Started Catalyst Energy". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-14). "A $4 Billion Price Tag to Stop a Nuclear Plant". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-15). "One Firm's Huge Break". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-16). "Crusing, at Taxpayers' Expense". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-04-16). "A Big Bailouts for Steel Firms with the Assistance of Heinz". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-09-25). "The Tax-Break Sweepstakes". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-09-25). "The Tax War Between the Chickens and the Pigs". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-09-26). "Family Football Seeks Bonus Through Tax Bill". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1988-09-26). "A Historic Hotel and its Quest for a Tax Cut". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1990-11-04). "A Tax Increase for the Rich that's no Increase at all". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

"America: What Went Wrong?"

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-13-29). "How the Game was Rigged Against the Middle Class". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01. Check date values in: |date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-20). "Who -- and how many -- in America's Middle Class". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-20). "After 3 Decades, American Worker Loses out to Mexico". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-21). "The Lucrative Business of Bankruptcy". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-22). "Big Business Hits that Jackpot with Billions in Tax Breaks". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-23). "Why the World is Closing in on U.S. Economy". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-24). "The High Cost of Deregulation". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-25). "For Millions in U.S., a Harsh Reality". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-25). "How Death came to a Once-Prosperous Discount-Store Chain". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-26). "Raiders work their Wizardry on an All-American Company". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-27). "When you Retire, Will There be a Pension Waiting?". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-27). "Workers Saving for Their Retirement Lose on Junk Bonds". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1991-10-28). "How Special Interest Groups have their way with Washington". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1992-02-02). "The Politics of Tax Breaks in an Election Year". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

"America: Who Stole the Dream?"

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-08). "How U.S. Policies are Costing America Jobs". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-08). "Why the Series Came to be". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-09). "Importing Goods, Exporting Jobs". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-10). "Endangered Label: Made in the USA". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-11). "The "New" American Worker". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-12). "The Burden of the Working Woman". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-15). "Shortcut to U.S. Jobs". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-16). "Say Goodbye to High-Tech Jobs". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-17). "The Lobbying Game: Influence-Brokers in D.C.". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-18). "One American Industry that Thrives: Retraining". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1996-09-22). "A Nation in Search of Answers". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Magazine articles

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1998-11-09). "States At War". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1998-11-09). "Corporate Welfare". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1998-11-16). "Fantasy Islands". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1998-11-23). "Sweet Deal". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1998-11-23). "Paying A Price For Polluters". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1998-11-30). "The Empire Of The Pigs". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (1998-11-30). "Five Ways Out". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2000-02-07). "How The Little Guy Gets Crunched". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2000-02-07). "How to Become a Top Banana". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2000-05-15). "Soaked By Congress". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2000-09-25). "Throwing The Game". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2002-12-16). "Who Gets The Money?". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2002-12-16). "Wheel Of Misfortune". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2002-12-23). "Playing The Political Slots". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2003-02-03). "The Really Unfair Tax". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2003-05-19). "The Oily Americans". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2003-05-19). "Iraq's Crude Awakening". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2003-07-21). "The U.S. is Running Out of Energy". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2003-10-13). "The Great Energy Scam". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2003-10-13). "Asleep at the Switch". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2004-02-02). "Why We Pay So Much for Drugs". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2004-02-02). "Has Your Life Become Too Much A Game Of Chance?". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2004-09-20). "Who Left the Door Open?". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2005-10-23). "The Broken Promise". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (2005-10-31). "Where Pensions Are Golden". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (March 2007). "Washington's $8 Billion Shadow". Vanity Fair.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

References

References

Lovelady, Steve (2006-05-18). "Once There Were Giants". CJR Daily.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Notes
  1. Ponnuru, Ramesh (17 July 2000). "Time's Terrible Two: The perils of Barlett and Steele". National Review. LII (13). |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Alter, Jonathan (April 24, 1989). "Two Reporters You Don't Want on Your Tail". Newsweek. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "1975 Winners". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 30 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "1989 Winners and Finalists". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 30 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Barringer, Felicity (March 1, 1999). "Journalism's Greatest Hits: Two Lists of a Century's Top Stories". The New York Times. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. O'Reilly, David (Feb 2, 1997). "Barlett, Steele Leave Inquirer After 26 Years". The Philadelphia Inquirer. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Colford, Paul (March 16, 2001). "Time Pair Snare Record Sixth Polk". Daily News (New York). |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Seelye, Katharine (May 18, 2006). "Richard Stengel Is Chosen To Be Top Editor at Time". The New York Times. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Seelye, Katharine (August 7, 2006). "An Established Reporting Team Moves to Vanity Fair". The New York Times. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Meyer, Philip (April 28, 2011). "In Pulitzers, journalism's evolution is taking shape". USA Today. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Houston, Brant (2009). The Investigative Reporter's Handbook. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-312-58997-4. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Cox, James (April 14, 1992). "Stoking Fires of Debate". USA Today. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Marvin, Carolyn; Philip Meyer (2005). "What Kind of Journalism Does the Public Need?". In Geneva Overholser & Kathleen Hall Jamieson (ed.). The Press. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 400–411 [403]. ISBN 978-0-19-517283-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Cauchon, Dennis (August 1, 1990). "Roberts to leave 'Inquirer'". USA Today. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Cox, James (April 14, 1992). "Stoking Fires of Debate". USA Today. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Smith, Rosslyn (16 August 2010). "Two Cheers for Old-Fashioned Political Scoundrels". American Thinker. Retrieved 6 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links