Economy of Venezuela

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Economy of Venezuela
Currency Bolívar fuerte (VEF)
DICOM: Bs. 66,937.50=US$1[1]
Trade organizations
GDP $330.9 billion (2018, PPP)
$100.8 billion (2018, nominal)[2][3]
GDP rank 47th (nominal) / 47th (PPP)
GDP growth
Decrease −14% (2017)[3]
GDP per capita
$10,399 (2018, PPP)
$3,168 (2018, nominal)[3]
GDP by sector
Agriculture: 3.9%
Industry: 32.9%
Services: 63.2% (2015 est.)
Negative increase 41,838% (Hanke's methodology; annual; June 2018)[4]
Negative increase 13,779% (AN estimate; annual; April 2018)[5]
Population below poverty line
Negative increase 87.0% (2017 est.)[6]
Labor force
13.08 million (2016 est.)
Labor force by occupation
Communal, social and personal services: 31.4%
Commercial, restaurants and hotels: 23.4%
Manufacturing industry: 11.6%
Construction: 9.0%
Transport, storage and communications: 8.7%
Agriculture: 6.5%
Financial, insurance and real estate: 6.1% (2015)[7]
Unemployment Negative increase 33.3% (2018)[3]
Main industries
Petroleum, construction materials, food processing, iron ore mining, steel, aluminum; motor vehicle assembly, real estate, tourism and ecotourism
188th (2017)[8]
Exports $27.20 billion (2017 est.)[2]
Export goods
Petroleum, chemicals, agricultural products and basic manufactures
Main export partners
 United States 35.1%
 India 17.2%
 China 14.1%
 Netherlands Antilles 8.0%
 Singapore 5.3%
 Cuba 4.1% (2016)[9]
Imports $17.75 billion (2017)[2]
Import goods
Food, clothing, cars, technological items, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment and construction material
Main import partners
 United States 22.1%
 China 14.3%
 Brazil 7.4%
 Colombia 4.2% (2016)[10]
Public finances
28.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Revenues $42.2 billion (2016 est.)
Expenses $84.1 billion (2016 est.)
Standard & Poor's:[11]
SD (domestic)
SD (foreign)
Outlook: negative

Outlook: stable

CC (domestic)
RD (foreign)
Outlook: negative
Foreign reserves
Decrease $9.874 billion (26 April 2018)[14]

The economy of Venezuela is largely based on the petroleum sector and manufacturing.[15] Revenue from petroleum exports accounts for more than 50% of the country's GDP and roughly 95% of total exports.[16] Venezuela is the sixth largest member of OPEC by oil production. From the 1950s to the early 1980s, the Venezuelan economy experienced a steady growth that attracted many immigrants, with the nation enjoying the highest standard of living in Latin America. During the collapse of oil prices in the 1980s, the economy contracted the monetary sign, commenced a progressive devaluation and inflation skyrocketed to reach peaks of 84% in 1989 and 99% in 1996, three years prior to Hugo Chávez taking office.

Venezuela manufactures and exports heavy industry products such as steel, aluminum and cement. Production is concentrated around Ciudad Guayana, near the Guri Dam, one of the largest dams in the world and the provider of about three-quarters of Venezuela's electricity. Other notable manufacturing includes electronics and automobiles as well as beverages and foodstuffs. Agriculture in Venezuela accounts for approximately 3% of GDP, 10% of the labor force and at least one-fourth of Venezuela's land area. Venezuela exports rice, corn, fish, tropical fruit, coffee, pork and beef. The country is not self-sufficient in most areas of agriculture.

In spite of strained relations between the two countries, the United States has been Venezuela's most important trading partner. American exports to Venezuela have included machinery, agricultural products, medical instruments and cars. Venezuela is one of the top four suppliers of foreign oil to the United States. About 500 American companies are represented in Venezuela.[15] According to Central Bank of Venezuela, between 1998 and 2008 the government received around 325 billion USD through oil production and exports in general.[17] According to the International Energy Agency (as of August 2015), the production of 2.4 million barrels per day supplied 500,000 barrels to the United States.[18]

Since the Bolivarian Revolution half-dismantled its PDVSA oil giant corporation in 2002 by firing most of its 20,000-strong dissident professional human capital and imposed stringent currency controls in 2003 in an attempt to prevent capital flight,[17] there has been a steady decline in oil production and exports and a series of stern currency devaluations, disrupting the economy.[18] Further yet, price controls, expropriation of numerous farmlands and various industries, among other disputable government policies including a near-total freeze on any access to foreign currency at reasonable "official" exchange rates, have resulted in severe shortages in Venezuela and steep price rises of all common goods, including food, water, household products, spare parts, tools and medical supplies; forcing many manufacturers to either cut production or close down, with many ultimately abandoning the country as has been the case with several technological firms and most automobile makers.[19][20] In 2015, Venezuela had over 100% inflation—the highest in the world and the highest in the country's history at that time.[21] According to independent sources, the rate increased to 4,000% in 2017[22][23][24][25] with Venezuela spiraling into hyperinflation[26] while the population poverty rate was between 76%[27] and 87%.[6][22] On 14 November 2017, credit rating agencies declared that Venezuela was in default with its debt payments, with Standard & Poor's categorizing Venezuela as being in "selective default".[28][29]



When oil was discovered during Maracaibo strike in 1922, Venezuela's dictator Juan Vicente Gómez allowed American oil companies to write Venezuela's petroleum law.[30] However, oil history was made in 1943 when Standard Oil of New Jersey accepted a new agreement in Venezuela based on the 50–50 principle, "a landmark event".[31] Terms even more favorable to Venezuela were negotiated in 1945 after a coup brought to power a left-leaning government that included Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso.

From the 1950s to the early 1980s, the Venezuelan economy, which was buoyed by high oil prices, was one of the strongest and most prosperous in South America. The continuous growth during that period attracted many immigrants.

In 1958, a new government, again included Pérez Alfonso, devised a plan for the international oil cartel that would become OPEC.[32] In 1973, Venezuela voted to nationalize its oil industry outright, effective 1 January 1976, with Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) presiding over a number of holding companies. In subsequent years, Venezuela built a vast refining and marketing system in the United States and Europe.[33]

During Pérez Jimenez' dictatorship from 1952 to 1958, Venezuela enjoyed remarkably high GDP growth, so that in the late 1950s Venezuela's real GDP per capita almost reached that of West Germany. In 1950, Venezuela was the world's 4th largest wealthiest nation per capita.[34] However, Romulo Betancourt (President from 1959 to 1964) inherited from 1958–1959 onward an enormous internal and external debt caused by rampant public spending during the dictatorship. Nevertheless, he managed to balance Venezuela's public budget and initiate an unsuccessful agrarian reform.[35]


Buoyed by a strong oil sector in the 1960s and 1970s, Venezuela's governments were able to maintain social harmony by spending fairly large amounts on public programs including health care, education, transport and food subsidies. Literacy and welfare programs benefited tremendously from these conditions.[36] Because of the oil wealth, Venezuelan workers "enjoyed the highest wages in Latin America".[37] This situation was reversed when oil prices collapsed during the 1980s.

When world oil prices collapsed in the 1980s, the economy contracted and inflation levels (consumer price inflation) rose, remaining between 6 and 12% from 1982 to 1986.[38][39] The inflation rate peaked in 1989 at 84%,[39] the year the capital city of Caracas suffered from rioting during the Caracazo following the cut of government spending and the opening of markets by President Carlos Andrés Pérez.[40] After Pérez initiated such liberal economic policies and made Venezuelan markets more free, Venezuela's GDP went from a -8.3% decline in 1989 to growing 4.4% in 1990 and 9.2% in 1991, though wages remained low and unemployment was high among Venezuelans.[40]

Some state that neoliberalism was the cause of Venezuelan economic difficulties, though overreliance on oil prices and a fractured political system without parties agreeing on policies caused many of the problems.[41] By the mid-1990s, Venezuela under President Rafael Caldera saw annual inflation rates of 50–60% from 1993 to 1997 with an exceptional peak in 1996 at 100%.[39] The number of people living in poverty rose from 36% in 1984 to 66% in 1995,[42] with the country suffering a severe banking crisis (Venezuelan banking crisis of 1994). In 1998, the economic crisis had grown even worse. Per capita GDP was at the same level as 1963 (after adjusting 1963 dollar to 1998 value), down a third from its 1978 peak; and the purchasing power of the average salary was a third of its 1978 level.[43]


In 2016, Venezuela had the highest annual inflation in the world (Venezuela is the country colored pink in northern South America)
Venezuela's historic inflation rate beside annual oil revenues
Sources: EIA 1, EIA 2, International Monetary Fund: Data & Statistics (1980–2008; 2015), CIA: The World Factbook (2009–2014), Business Insider (2014, 2015)

Hugo Chávez was elected President in December 1998 and took office in February 1999. In 2000, oil prices soared, offering Chávez funds not seen since Venezuela's economic collapse in the 1980s.[38] Chávez then used economic policies that were more social democratic than those of his predecessors, using populist approaches with oil funds that made Venezuela's economy dependent on high oil prices.[38] Chávez also played a leading role within OPEC to reinvigorate the organization and obtain members' adherence to lower quotas designed to drive up the oil price. Alí Rodríguez Araque, the Venezuelan oil minister, gave an announcement in 1999 that his country would respect OPEC production quotas, which marked "a historic turnaround from the nation's traditional pro-US oil policy".[44]

In the first four years of the Chávez presidency, the economy grew at first (1999–2001), then contracted from 2001–2003 to GDP levels similar to 1997. At first, the economic decline was due to low oil prices, but it was fueled by the turmoil of the 2002 coup attempt and the 2002–2003 business strike. Other factors of the decline were an exodus of capital from the country and a reluctance of foreign investors. GDP was 50.0 trillion bolivares in 1998. At the bottom of the recession in 2003, it was 42.4 trillion bolivares (in constant 1998 bolivares).[45] However, GDP rebounded 50.1 trillion bolivares with a calmer political situation in 2004 and rose to 66.1 trillion bolivares in 2007 (both in constant 1998 bolivares).[46]

The government sought international assistance to finance reconstruction after massive flooding and landslides in December 1999 caused an estimated US$15 billion to $20 billion in damage.[citation needed]

The hardest hit sectors in the worst recession years (2002–2003) were construction (−55.9%), petroleum (−26.5%), commerce (−23.6%) and manufacturing (−22.5%). The drop in the petroleum sector was caused by adherence to the OPEC quota established in 2002 and the virtual cessation of exports during the PdVSA-led general strike of 2002–2003. The non-petroleum sector of the economy contracted by 6.5% in 2002. The bolivar, which had been suffering from serious inflation and devaluation relative to international standards since the late 1980s,[47] continued to weaken.

The inflation rate as measured by consumer price index was 35.8% in 1998, falling to a low of 12.5% in 2001 and rising to 31.1% in 2003. Historically, the highest yearly inflation was 100% in 1996. In an attempt to support the bolivar, bolster the government's declining level of international reserves and mitigate the adverse impact from the oil industry work stoppage on the financial system, the Ministry of Finance and the central bank suspended foreign exchange trading on 23 January 2003. On 6 February, the government created CADIVI, a currency control board charged with handling foreign exchange procedures. The board set the US$ exchange rate at 1,596 bolivares to the dollar for purchases and 1,600 to the dollar for sales.

The housing market in Venezuela shrunk significantly with developers avoiding Venezuela due to the massive number of companies who have had their property expropriated by the government.[48] According to The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal, Venezuela had the weakest property rights in the world, scoring only 5.0 on a scale of 100, with expropriation without compensation being common.[49] The shortage of housing is so significant that in 2007 a group of squatters occupied Centro Financiero Confinanzas, a cancelled economic center that was supposed to symbolize Venezuela's growing economy.[50]

The Venezuelan economy shrank 5.8% in the first three months of 2010 compared to the same period of 2009[51] and had the highest inflation rate in Latin America at 30.5%.[51] President Chávez expressed optimism that Venezuela would emerge from recession[51] despite the International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts showing that Venezuela would be the only country in the region to remain in recession that year.[52] The IMF qualified the economic recovery of Venezuela as "delayed and weak" in comparison with other countries of the region.[53] Following Chavez's death in early 2013, Venezuela's economy continued to fall into an even greater recession.


Shortages in Venezuela leave store shelves empty

According to the misery index in 2013, Venezuela ranked as the top spot globally with the highest misery index score.[54][55] The International Finance Corporation ranked Venezuela one of the lowest countries for doing business with, ranking it 180 of 185 countries for its Doing Business 2013 report with protecting investors and taxes being its worst rankings.[56][57] In early 2013, the bolívar fuerte was devalued due to growing shortages in Venezuela.[58] The shortages included necessities such as toilet paper, milk and flour.[59] Shortages also affected healthcare in Venezuela, with the University of Caracas Medical Hospital ceasing to perform surgeries due to the lack of supplies in 2014.[60] The Bolivarian government's policies also made it difficult to import drugs and other medical supplies.[61] Due to such complications, many Venezuelans died avoidable deaths with medical professionals having to use limited resources using methods that were replaced decades ago.[62][63]

An opposition protester during the 2014 Venezuelan protests holding a sign saying: "I protest for the scarcity. Where can we get these?"

In 2014, Venezuela entered an economic recession having its GDP growth decline to -3.0%.[64] Venezuela was placed at the top of the misery index for the second year in a row.[65] The Economist said Venezuela was "[p]robably the world’s worst-managed economy".[66] Citibank believed that "the economy has little prospect of improvement" and that the state of the Venezuelan economy was a "disaster".[67] The Doing Business 2014 report by the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank ranked Venezuela one score lower than the previous year, then 181 out of 185.[68] The Heritage Foundation ranked Venezuela 175th out of 178 countries in economic freedom for 2014, classifying it as a "repressed" economy according to the principles the foundation advocates.[69][70] According to Foreign Policy, Venezuela was ranked last in the world on its Base Yield Index due to low returns that investors receive when investing in Venezuela.[71] In a 2014 report titled Scariest Places on the Business Frontiers by Zurich Financial Services and reported by Bloomberg, Venezuela was ranked as the riskiest emerging market in the world.[72] Many companies such as Toyota, Ford Motor Co., General Motors Company, Air Canada, Air Europa, American Airlines, Copa Airlines, TAME, TAP Airlines and United Airlines slowed or stopped operation due to the lack of hard currency in the country,[73][74][75][76][77] with Venezuela owing such foreign companies billions of dollars.[78] Venezuela also dismantled CADIVI, a government body in charge of currency exchange. CADIVI was known for holding money from the private sector and was suspected to be corrupt.[79]

Venezuela again topped the misery index according to the World Bank in 2015.[80][81] The IMF predicted in October 2015 an inflation rate of 159% for the year 2015—the highest rate in Venezuelan history and the highest rate in the world—and that the economy would contract by 10%.[21][82] According to leaked documents from the Central Bank of Venezuela, the country ended 2015 with an inflation rate of 270% and a shortage rate of goods over 70%.[83][84]

President Nicolás Maduro reorganized his economic cabinet in 2016 with the group mainly consisting of leftist Venezuelan academics.[85] According to Bank of America's investment division Merrill Lynch, Maduro's new cabinet was expected to tighten currency and price controls in the country.[85] Alejandro Werner, the head of IMF's Latin American Department, stated that 2015 figures released by the Central Bank of Venezuela were not accurate and that Venezuela's inflation for 2015 was 275%. Other forecast inflation figures by IMF and Bank of America were 720%[86][87] and -1,000%[88] in 2016 and 4,500% in 2021.[89] Analysts believed that the Venezuelan government has been manipulating economic statistics, especially since they did not report adequate data since late 2014.[88] According to economist Steve Hanke of Johns Hopkins University, the Central Bank of Venezuela delayed the release of statistics and lied about figures much like the Soviet Union did, with Hanke saying that a lie coefficient had to be used to observe Venezuela's economic data.[90]

By 2016, media outlets said that Venezuela was suffering an economic collapse[91][92] with the IMF estimating a 500% inflation rate and 10% contraction in the GDP.[93] On 3 December 2016, monthly inflation exceeded 50 percent for the 30th consecutive day, meaning the Venezuelan economy was officially experiencing hyperinflation, making it the 57th country to be added to the Hanke-Krus World Hyperinflation Table.[94]

On 25 August 2017, it was reported that new United States sanctions against Venezuela did not ban trading of the country’s existing non-government bonds, with the sanctions instead including restrictions intended to block the government’s ability to fund itself.[95]

On 26 January 2018, the government ended the protected, subsidized fixed exchange rate mechanism that was highly overvalued as a result of rampant inflation.[96] The National Assembly (led by the opposition) said inflation in 2017 was over 4,000%, a level other independent economists also agreed with.[22] In February, the government launched an oil backed cryptocurrency called the petro.[97]

Bloomberg's Cafe Con Leche Index calculated the price increase for a cup of coffee to have increased by 718% in the 12 weeks before 18 January 2018. If the rate of increase remains the same, the annualized inflation rate was predicted to reach 448,025%.[98]

The country was heading for a selective default in 2017.[99] In early 2018, the country was in default, meaning it could not pay its lenders.[100]


Under the tenures of Hugo Chávez and his successor Nicolás Maduro, many businesses abandoned Venezuela. In 1999, there were 13,000 companies in the country. By 2016, less than a third of companies remained in Venezuela, with only 4,000 companies operating in the nation.[101]

Petroleum and other resources

Venezuela is a major producer of petroleum products, which remain the keystone of the Venezuelan economy. The International Energy Agency shows how Venezuela's oil production has fallen in the last years, producing only 2,300,000 barrels (370,000 m3) daily, down from 3.5 million in 1998. However, the oil incomes will double its value in local currency with the recent currency devaluation.[102] Venezuela has large energy subsidies. In 2015, the cost of petrol was just US$0.06 per gallon, costing 23% of government revenues.[103] In February 2016, the government finally decided to raise the price, but only to 6 bolivar (about 60¢ at the official rate of exchange) per litre for premium and just 1 bolivar (10¢) for lower-grade petrol.[104][105]

A range of other natural resources, including iron ore, coal, bauxite, gold, nickel and diamonds, are in various stages of development and production. In April 2000, Venezuela's president decreed a new mining law and regulations were adopted to encourage greater private sector participation in mineral extraction. During Venezuela's economic crisis, the rate of gold excavated fell 64.1% between February 2013 and February 2014 and iron production dropped 49.8%.[106]

Venezuela mostly utilizes hydropower resources to supply power to the nation's industries, accounting for 57% of total consumption at the end of 2016.[107] However, persistent drought has severely reduced energy production from hydropower resources.[108] The national electricity law is designed to provide a legal framework and to encourage competition and new investment in the sector.[citation needed] After a two-year delay, the government is proceeding with plans to privatize the various state-owned electricity systems under a different scheme than previously envisioned.[citation needed]


Manufacturing contributed 15% of GDP in 2009. The manufacturing sector is experiencing severe difficulties, amidst lack of investment and accusations of mismanagement.[109][110] Venezuela manufactures and exports steel, aluminum, transport equipment, textiles, apparel, beverages and foodstuffs. It produces cement, tires, paper, fertilizer and assembles cars both for domestic and export markets.

In 2014, General Motors Venezolana stopped automotive production after 65 years of service due to a lack of supplies[111][112] while the Central Bank of Venezuela announced that the shortage rate of new automobiles was at 100%.[113] By the first half of 2016, only 10 vehicles were manufactured per day in Venezuela with production dropping 86%.[114]

In 2015, estimates showed that Venezuela's industrial production fell about 8% that year alone.[2]


Agriculture in Venezuela accounts for approximately 3% of GDP, 10% of the labor force, and at least a quarter of Venezuela's land area. Venezuela exports rice, corn, fish, tropical fruit, coffee, beef and pork. The country is not self-sufficient in most areas of agriculture. Venezuela imports about two-thirds of its food needs. In 2002, American firms exported $347 million worth of agricultural products, including wheat, corn, soybeans, soybean meal, cotton, animal fats, vegetable oils and other items to make Venezuela one of the top two American markets in South America. The United States supplies more than one-third of Venezuela's food imports. Recent government policies have led to problems with food shortages.[17]


Venezuela private sector nonpetroleum exports in millions of US$ from 1997 to 2015 (orange=goods, yellow=services)[115]

Thanks to petroleum exports, Venezuela usually posts a trade surplus. From 2005, nontraditional (i.e. nonpetroleum) private sector exports have been declining rapidly. By 2015 ,they constitute 8% of total exports.[115] The United States is Venezuela's leading trade partner. During 2002, the United States exported $4.4 billion in goods to Venezuela, making it the 25th-largest market for the United States Including petroleum products, Venezuela exported $15.1 billion in goods to the United States, making it its 14th-largest source of goods. Venezuela opposes the proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas.

Since 1998, China–Venezuela relations have seen an increasing partnership between the government of the Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and the People's Republic of China. Sino-Venezuelan trade was less than $500m per year before 1999 and reached $7.5bn in 2009, making China Venezuela's second-largest trade partner[116] and Venezuela China's biggest investment destination in Latin America. Various bilateral deals have seen China invest billions in Venezuela and Venezuela increase exports of oil and other resources to China. China has demanded payment in oil for its exports to Venezuela because of its unwillingness to accept Venezuelan currency and the inability of Venezuela to pay in dollars or gold.


Under Chávez, Venezuela has also instituted worker-run "co-management" initiatives in which workers' councils play a key role in the management of a plant or factory. In experimental co-managed enterprises, such as the state-owned Alcasa factory, workers develop budgets and elect both managers and departmental delegates who work together with company executives on technical issues related to production.[117]

In November 2010, workers spent a week protesting outside factories in Valera and Valencia following the expropriation of the American bottle-maker Owens-Illinois.[118]

Labor disputes have continued to increase since the financial crisis in 2008. According to the World Economic Forum, Venezuela is ranked as 134th of the 148 countries for economic competitiveness. Many in the private sector attribute these findings to the inflexible labor market.

In recent years, a barrage of pro-worker decrees have been passed. The most significant could be the 2012 labor laws known as the LOTTT. These laws included the virtual ban on dismissal, shorter work week, improved holidays and enhanced maternity benefits. The LOTTT offers job security to most workers after the first month. Employers have reported an absenteeism rate of up to 40% which they blame on the leniency of these labor laws. As expected, employers have been less willing to recruit.[119]

On 17 November 2014, President Maduro issued a decree to increase the minimum salary for all workers by 15%. The decree became effective on 1 December 2014.[120] As part of the May Day celebrations in honor of workers' day, President Maduro announced on 28 April 2015 that the minimum wage would increase 30%; 20% in May and 10% in July, with the newly announced minimum wage for Venezuelans being only about $30 per month at the widely used black market rate.[121]

In September 2017, the National Union of Workers (UNETE) announced that Venezuela had lost 3,345,000 jobs since the election of President Maduro.[122] By December 2017, the number of lost jobs increased by 400,000 to over 3,850,000 lost jobs since the start of Maduro's tenure.[123]


In the 20th century when Venezuela benefitted from oil sales, infrastructure flourished in Venezuela.[38] However, in recent years Venezuela's public services and infrastructure has suffered, especially utilities such as electricity and water.[38][124]


Venezuela has an extensive road system that was initially created in the 1960s helped aid the oil and aluminum industries.[38] The capital Caracas had a modern subway system designed by the French that was finished in 1995, with the subway tunneling more than over 31.6 mi (51 km).[38]

In 1870, Antonio Guzmán Blanco helped create Venezuela's railway system.[38]

The Chavez government launched a National Railway Development Plan designed to create 15 railway lines across the country, with 8,500 miles (13,700 km) of track by 2030. The network is being built in cooperation with China Railways, which is also cooperating with Venezuela to create factories for tracks, railway cars and eventually locomotives. However, Venezuela's rail project is being put on hold due to Venezuela not being able to pay the $7.5 billion and owing China Railway nearly $500 million.[125]

Lufthansa said it would stop all flights to Venezuela on 18 June 2016, citing difficulties with currency controls.[126] Other airlines also cut back on flights and required that passengers pay fares in US$.[126]


The Venezuelan electrical grid is plagued with occasional blackouts in various districts of the country. In 2011, it had so many problems that rations on electricity were put in place to help ease blackouts.[124] On 3 September 2013, 70% of the country plunged into darkness with 14 of 23 states of Venezuela stating they did not have electricity for most of the day.[127] Another power outage on 2 December 2013 left most of Venezuela in the dark again and happened just days before elections.[128]

Energy statistics

Electricity – production by source:

  • Fossil fuel: 35.7% (2012 est.)
  • Hydroelectric 64.3 (2012 est.)
  • Nuclear: 0% (2012 est.)
  • Other: 0% (2012 est.)

Electricity production: 127.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity – consumption: 85.05 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity – exports: 633 million kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity – imports: 260 million kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity: 27.5 million kW (2012 est.)


Economy data

The blue line represents annual rates whereas the red line represents trends of annual rates given throughout the period shown (sources: International Monetary Fund, World Bank and Central Intelligence Agency)

The Macroeconomic Stabilization Fund (FIEM) decreased from US$2.59 billion in January 2003 to US$700 million in October, but central bank-held international reserves actually increased from US$11.31 billion in January to US$19.67 billion in October 2003. On the black market, the bolívar fell 28% in 2007 to Bs. 4,750 per US$[129] and declined to around VEF 5.5 (Bs 5500) per US$ in early 2009.[130]

The economy recovered and grew by 16.8% in 2004. This growth occurred across a wide range of sectors—the oil industry directly provides only a small percentage of employment in the country. International reserves grew to US$27 billion. Polling firm Datanalysis noted that real income in the poorest sectors of society grew by 33% in 2004.[citation needed]

On 7 March 2007, the government announced that the Venezuelan bolívar would be redenominated at a ratio of 1 to 1,000 at the beginning of 2008 and renamed the bolívar fuerte ("strong bolivar") to ease accounting and transactions. This was carried out on 1 January 2008, at which time the exchange rate was 2.15 bolívar fuerte per US$.[131] The ISO 4217 code for the bolívar fuerte is VEF.

Government spending as a percentage of GDP in Venezuela in 2007 was 30%, smaller than other mixed economies such as France (49%) and Sweden (52%).[132] According to official sources from the United Nations, the percentage of people below the national poverty line has decreased during the presidency of Hugo Chávez, from 48.1% in 2002 to 28% in 2008.[133][134]

With the 2007 rise in oil prices and rising government expenditures, Venezuela's economy grew by 9% in 2007. Oil prices fell starting in July 2008, resulting in a major loss of income. Hit by a global recession, the economy contracted by 2% in the second quarter of 2009,[135] contracting a further 4.5% in the third quarter of 2009. Chavez's response has been that these standards mis-state economic fact and that the economy should be measured by socialistic standards.[136] On 17 November, the Central Bank reported that private sector activity declined by 4.5% and that inflation was averaging 26.7%. Compounding such problems is a drought which the government says was caused by El Niño, resulting in rationing of water and electricity and a short supply of food.[137]

The year 2010 saw Venezuela still in recession as GDP has fallen by 5.8% in the first quarter of 2010.[138] The Central Bank of Venezuela has stated that the recession is due largely "to restricted access to foreign currency for imports, lower internal demand and electricity rationing". The oil sector's performance was also particularly troubling, with oil GDP shrinking by 5%. More importantly, the Central Bank hints at the root cause of the oil contraction, saying that "the bank said it was due to falls in production, "operative problems", maintenance stoppages and the channeling of diesel to run thermal generators during a power crisis".[138] While the public sector of the economy has fallen 2.8%, the private sector has dropped off 6%.[138]

The year 2013 proved to be difficult for Venezuela as shortages of necessities and extreme inflation attacked the nation's economy. Items became so scarce that nearly one quarter of items were not in stock.[139] The bolívar was devalued to 6.3 per US$ in early 2013 taking one third of its value away.[140] However, inflation still continued to rise drastically in the country to the point President Maduro forced stores to sell their items just days before elections. Maduro said that the stores were charging unreasonable prices even though the owners were only charging so much due to the actual devaluation of the bolivar.[141]

As the year 2014 began, it was pretty rough as well. The Central Bank of Venezuela stopped releasing statistics for the first time in its history as a way to possibly manipulate the image of economy.[142] Venezuela has also dismantled CADIVI, a government body in charge of currency exchange.[79]

Currency black market

File:Venezuela inflation on the black market (DolarToday) on a logarithmic scale.png
According to, the value of one US dollar in Venezuelan Bolivares fuertes on the black market through time: blue vertical lines represent every time the currency has lost 90% of its value, which has happened five times since 2012, meaning that the currency is worth (as of late June 2018) 300,000 times less than in August 2012 since it has lost more than 99.999% of its value
File:Time BsF would take to lose 90 percent of its value.png
Inflation represented by the time it would take for money to lose 90% of its value (301-day rolling average, inverted logarithmic scale)

The parallel exchange rate is what Venezuelans believe the Venezuelan currency is worth compared to the US$.[143] In the first few years of Chávez's office, his newly created social programs required large payments in order to make the desired changes. On 5 February 2003, the government created CADIVI, a currency control board charged with handling foreign exchange procedures. Its creation was to control capital flight by placing limits on individuals and only offering them so much of a foreign currency.[144] This limit to foreign currency led to a creation of a currency black market economy since Venezuelan merchants rely on foreign goods that require payments with reliable foreign currencies. As Venezuela printed more money for their social programs, the bolívar continued to devalue for Venezuelan citizens and merchants since the government held the majority of the more reliable currencies.[145]

As of January 2018, the strongest official exchange rate was 1 US$ to 10 VEF while the free market exchange rate was over 200,000 VEF to 1 US$.[146][82] Since merchants can only receive so much necessary foreign currency from the government, they must resort to the black market which in turn raises the merchant's prices on consumers.[147] The high rates in the black market make it difficult for businesses to purchase necessary goods since the government often forces these businesses to make price cuts. This leads to businesses selling their goods and making a low profit, such as Venezuelan McDonald's franchises offering a Big Mac meal for only $1.[148] Since businesses make low profits, this leads to shortages since they are unable to import the goods that Venezuela is reliant on. Venezuela's largest food producing company, Empresas Polar, has stated that they may need to suspend some production for nearly the entire year of 2014 since they owe foreign suppliers $463 million.[149] The last report of shortages in Venezuela showed that 22.4% of necessary goods are not in stock.[150] This was the last report by the government since the central bank no longer posts the scarcity index. This has led to speculation that the government is hiding its inability to control the economy which may create doubt about future economic data released.[151]

Socioeconomic indicators

Like most Latin American countries, Venezuela has an unequal distribution of wealth. Although distribution improved when the surplus of rural labor started to diminish and the educational system improved in the middle of the 20th century,[152] equality is far from coinciding with western standards. The rich tend to be very rich and the poor very poor. In 1970, the poorest fifth of the population had 3% of national income while the wealthiest fifth had 54%.[153] For comparison, the United Kingdom 1973 figures were 6.3% and 38.8% and the United States in 1972, 4.5% and 42.8%.[153]

The more recent income distribution data available is for distribution per capita, not per household. The two are not strictly comparable because poor households tend to have more members than rich households, thus the per household data tends to show less inequality than the per capita data. The table below shows the available per capita data for recent years from the World Bank.

Personal income distribution
Year Share of personal income (%) received by: GINI index
Poorest fifth 2nd fifth 3rd fifth 4th fifth Wealthiest fifth Wealthiest 10%
1987 4.7 9.2 14.0 21.5 50.6 34.2 ~43.42
1995 4.3 8.8 13.8 21.3 51.8 35.6 46.8
1996 3.7 8.4 13.6 21.2 53.1 37.0 48.8
2000 4.7 9.4 14.5 22.1 45.4 29.9 42.0
2004 3.5 12.9 54.8 45.59
2007 5.1 14.2 47.7 42.37 2010 5.7 14.9 44.8 38.98
2011 5.7 15.9 44.8 39.02
2013 44.8

Note that personal (per capita) income distribution, given in this table, is not exactly comparable with household income distribution, given in the previous table, because poor households tend to have more members.

1987 data: 1991 World Development Report, Table 30, pp. 262–3.
1995 data: 1998 World Development Report, Table 2.8, p. 70.
1996 data: 2000/2001 World Development Report, Table 5, pp. 282–3.
2000 data: 2006 World Development Indicators, Table 2.8.

All of the above publications are by the World Bank.

2004 data: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, p. 8[154]
2007 data: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, p. 8[154]
2010 data: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, p. 8[154]
2011 data: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, p. 8[154]
2013 data: United Nations Development Programme[155]

Poverty in Venezuela increased during the 1980s and early 1990s, but it decreased greatly in the mid to late 1990s. The decreasing trend continued through the Chávez presidency, with the exception of the troubled years 2002 and 2003. Under the Bolivarian government, poverty decreased initially when Venezuela acquired oil funds, though poverty began to increase to its highest level in decades in the 2010s.[156]

The table below shows the percentage of people and the percentage of households whose income is below a poverty line which is equal to the price of a market basket of necessities such as food.[157]

Percentage of people and households with income below national poverty line
Year 1989
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
48.1 43.9 42.0 40.4 39.0 48.6 55.1 47.0 37.9 30.6 28.5 27.5 26.7 26.9 26.5 21.1 27.3
People 31.3
54.5 50.4 48.7 46.3 45.4 55.4 62.1 53.9 43.7 36.3 33.6 32.6 31.8 32.5 31.6 25.4 32.1
World Bank, 1997 World Development Indicators, p. 52;
Venezuela, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Pobreza por línea de ingreso, 1er semestre 1997 - 2do semestre 2013. Retrieved December 2014.
The Instituto Nacional de Estadística gives these poverty data twice yearly. For brevity, we have included only the end of year data. For example, household poverty in the first six months of 2007 was 27.5% (not shown) and in the last six months 28.5% (shown). The 1989 datum is from the World Bank and as far as we know is a whole year average.
Venezuela's extreme poverty rate from 1990 to 2013
Source: INE[158][159]
Note: interim presidents excluded and one year delay of data transferred during presidential term changes due to new policies, inaugurations and so on
Venezuela economic indicators (2014)[2]
indicator  %
Real GDP growth -4.0
Inflation 69.8
Gross national saving (% of GDP) 22.9
Foreign trade[2]
Leading markets 2013  % of total Leading suppliers  % of total
United States 39.1 United States 31.7
China 14.3 China 16.8
India 12.0 Brazil 9.1
Netherlands Antilles 7.8 Colombia 4.8
Foreign trade[160]
Major exports  % of total Major imports  % of total
Oil and gas 90.4 Raw materials and intermediate goods 44.5
Other 9.6 Consumer goods 24.5
Capital goods 31.0

Social development

In the early 2000s when oil prices soared and offered Chávez funds not seen since the beginning of Venezuela's economic collapse in the 1980s, Chávez's government became "semi-authoritarian and hyper-populist" and consolidated its power over the economy in order to gain control of large amounts of resources.[38][161] Domestically, Chávez used such oil funds for populist policies, creating the Bolivarian missions, aimed at providing public services to improve economic, cultural and social conditions.[38][162] From 1999—2009, 60% of government revenues focused on social programs[163][better source needed] while social investment went from 8.4% of GDP in 1988 to 18.8% in 2008.[164][better source needed] Despite warnings near the beginning of Chávez's tenure in the early 2000s,[38] Chávez's government continuously overspent in social spending and did not save enough money for any future economic turmoil, which Venezuela faced shortly before and after his death.[161][165] On the year of Chávez's death, Venezuela was still categorized as having high human development on its Human Development Index in 2013 according to the United Nations Development Programme, although human development began to decline in Venezuela within a year, with the country dropping 10 ranks by 2014.[166]

Poverty and hunger

Although poverty initially declined under Chávez, Venezuela's poverty rate increased to 28% by 2013, with extreme poverty rates increasing 44% to 10% according to the Venezuelan government's INE.[167] Estimates of poverty by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and Luis Pedro España, a sociologist at the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, showed an increase of poverty in Venezuela.[168] ECLAC showed a 2013 poverty rate of 32% while Pedro España calculated a 2015 rate of 48%.[168] The Venezuelan government estimated that 33% were in poverty in the first half of 2015 and then stopped producing statistics.[22] According to Venezuelan NGO PROVEA, by the end of 2015 there would be the same number of Venezuelans living in poverty as there was in 2000, reversing the advancements against poverty by Chávez.[168] The ENCOVI annual survey by three universities estimated poverty at 48% in 2014, 82% in 2016 and 87% in 2017.[169]

In relation to hunger, under-nutrition, undernourishment and the percentage of children under the age of five who are moderately or severely underweight decreased earlier in Chávez's tenure.[170] However, shortages in Venezuela as a result of price control policies left the majority of Venezuelans without adequate products after his death.

Since the country's economy collapsed in 2014, hunger and malnutrition have become a severe problem.[171] In 2015, close to 45% of Venezuelans said they were unable to afford food at times. In 2018, this figure rose to 79%, one of the highest rates in the world.[172]

According to government figures released in April 2017, 1,446 children under the age of 1 had died in 2016, representing a 30 percent increase in one year.[171] As of August 2017, 31 million people suffered from severe food shortages.[173] The ENCOVI universities survey found that 73% of Venezuelans said they had lost 9 kg (19 lbs) of body weight in 2016[174] and 64% had lost 11 kg (25 lbs) in 2017.[175][169]


The total net enrollment ratio in primary education for both sexes increased from 87% in 1999 to 93.9% in 2009.[170] The primary completion rate for both sexes reached 95.1% in 2009 as compared to 80.8% in 1991.[170] The literacy rates of 15- to 24-year-olds in 2007, for men and women, were 98% and 98.8%, respectively.[170] During the Bolivarian diaspora, a large percentage of the millions of Venezuelans who left the country were highly educated, resulting in a brain drain in the country.[176][177]

Since starting in 2003, the free government program Mission Robinson had taught more than 2.3 million people to read and write as of 2012. The program also focused much of its attention on reaching out to geographically isolated and historically excluded members of the population, including indigenous groups and Afro-descendents.[178][better source needed] In 2008, Francisco Rodríguez of Wesleyan University in Connecticut and Daniel Ortega of IESA stated that there was "little evidence" of "statistically distinguishable effect on Venezuelan illiteracy" during the Chávez administration.[179] The Venezuelan government claimed that it had taught 1.5 million Venezuelans to read,[180] but the study found that "only 1.1m were illiterate to begin with" and that the illiteracy reduction of less than 100,000 can be attributed to adults that were elderly and died.[179]

Health care

Healthcare spending by percentage of Venezuela's GDP
Source: World Bank

Following the Bolivarian Revolution and the establishment of the Bolivarian government, initial healthcare practices were promising with the installation of free healthcare and the assistance received from Cuban medical professionals providing aid. The Bolivarian government's failure to concentrate on healthcare for Venezuelans, the reduction of healthcare spending and government corruption eventually affected medical practices in Venezuela, causing avoidable deaths along with an emigration of medical professionals to other countries.[62][181]

Venezuela's reliance of imported goods and its complicated exchange rates initiated under Chávez led to increasing shortages during the late-2000s and into the 2010s that affected the availability of medicines and medical equipment in the country.[181] The United Nations reported an increase in the maternal mortality ratio, which increased from 93 per 100,000 in 1990 to 110 per 100,000 in 2013.[182] Following shortages of many medical and common goods in 2014, Venezuelan women have had difficulties accessing contraceptives and were forced to change prescriptions or search several stores and the Internet for their medications.[183] Shortage of antiretroviral medicines to treat HIV/AIDS affected about 50,000 Venezuelans in 2014 as well, potentially causing thousands of Venezuelans with HIV to develop AIDS.[184]

Venezuela is also the only country in Latin America where the incidence of malaria is increasing, allegedly due to illegal mining. In 2013, Venezuela registered the highest number of cases of malaria in the past 50 years, with 300 of 100,000 Venezuelans being infected with the disease.[185]


In 1990, the number of Internet users was minimal, but 35.63% of Venezuelans were Internet users by 2010.[170] In fact, the number of Internet subscribers has increased sixfold.[186] Programs such as the National Technological Literacy Plan, which provides free software and computers to schools, have assisted Venezuela in meeting this goal.[187] However, several experts state that the poor infrastructure in Venezuela had created a poor quality of Internet in Venezuela, which has one of the slowest Internet speeds in the world.[188] The lack of US$ due to the Venezuelan governments currency controls has also damaged Internet services because technological equipment must be imported into Venezuela.[188]

The number of fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants was 7.56 in 1990. The number increased to 24.44 in 2010.[170] In 2000, 2,535,966 Venezuelans had landline telephones. By 2009, this had increased to 6,866,626.[163]

The Bolivarian government has also launched an aerospace program in cooperation with the People's Republic of China who built and launched two satellites that are currently in orbit—a communications satellite called Simón Bolívar and a remote sensing satellite called Miranda. In July 2014, President Maduro announced that a third satellite would be built by Chinese–Venezuelan bilateral cooperation.[189][190]

See also


  1. "Tipos de Cambio de Referencia". Retrieved 15 April 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Venezuela: Economy. CIA World Factbook. 19 August 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 1 May 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Heeb, Gina (1 July 2018). "Venezuela's inflation rate tops 40,000 percent for first time ever". The Independent. Retrieved 2 July 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 EFE (2018-02-21). "Encovi: 61, 2% de los venezolanos está sumido en pobreza extrema". El Nacional (in español). Retrieved 3 March 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "SOCIALES Fuerza de Trabajo". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Retrieved 20 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Ease of Doing Business in Venezuela, RB". Retrieved 23 January 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Export Partners of Venezuela". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Import Partners of Venezuela". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Venezuela's Bondholder Meeting Is a Bust as S&P Declares Default". Bloomberg. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Moody's downgrades Venezuela rating by two notches". Reuters. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Fitch Downgrades Venezuela's LTFC Rating to 'RD'". Fitch Ratings. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "BCV Reservas Internacionales". BCV. Retrieved 27 April 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 Background Note: Venezuela March 2016/ Archived March 8, 2016 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  16. "Risque pays du Venezuela : Commerce international". Societe Generale, Import Export solutions (in français). 1 May 2018. Archived from the original (html) on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018. Traditionnellement, le pétrole représente plus de 95% des exportations du Venezuela. Le pays exporte aussi du fer, de la bauxite et de l'aluminium, des produits agricoles, des produits semi-manufacturés, des véhicules et des produits chimiques. Les principaux clients du Venezuela sont la Chine, l'Inde et Singapour. Le pays importe des produits manufacturés et de luxe, des machines et des équipements pour le secteur des transports, du matériel de construction et des produits pharmaceutiques. Les principaux fournisseurs du Venezuela sont les Etats-Unis, la Chine et le Brésil.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Venezuela's currency: The not-so-strong bolívar". The Economist. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Mander, Benedict (10 February 2013). "Venezuelan devaluation sparks panic". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Venezuela's economy: Medieval policies". The Economist. 20 August 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Terminal Risks for Independent Fiscal Institutions: Lessons from IFIs in Hungary and Venezuela". Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Cristóbal Nagel, Juan (13 July 2015). "Looking Into the Black Box of Venezuela's Economy". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 14 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Sequera, Vivian (2018-02-18). "Venezuelans report big weight losses in 2017 as hunger hits". Reuters. Retrieved 2018-02-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Corina, Pons (20 January 2017). "Venezuela 2016 inflation hits 800 percent, GDP shrinks 19 percent: document". Reuters. Retrieved 15 November 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "AssetMacro". AssetMacro. Retrieved 15 February 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Davies, Wyre (20 February 2016). "Venezuela's decline fuelled by plunging oil prices". BBC News, Latin America. Retrieved 20 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Herrero, Ana Vanessa; Malkin, Elisabeth (16 January 2017). "Venezuela Issues New Bank Notes Because of Hyperinflation". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Pobreza en Venezuela alcanzó al 73% de los hogares". El Universo. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Gillespie, Patrick (14 November 2017). "Venezuela just defaulted, moving deeper into crisis". CNNMoney. Retrieved 15 November 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Venezuela in 'selective default'". BBC News. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Yergin, Daniel. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York:Simon and Schuster. 1990. pp. 233–36; 432
  31. Yergin 1990, p. 435
  32. Yergin 1990, pp. 510–13
  33. Yergin 1990, p. 767
  34. NationMaster. "GDP per capita in 1950 statics.".
  35. Alexander, Robert. "Nature and Progress of Agrarian Reform in Latin America." The Journal of Economic History. Vol. 23, No. 4 (December 1963), pp. 559–73.
  36. McCaughan, Michael. The Battle of Venezuela. New York: Seven Stories Press. 2005. p. 63.
  37. McCaughan, Michael. The Battle of Venezuela. London: Latin America Bureau. 2004. p. 31.
  38. 38.00 38.01 38.02 38.03 38.04 38.05 38.06 38.07 38.08 38.09 38.10 Heritage, Andrew (December 2002). Financial Times World Desk Reference. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 618–21. ISBN 9780789488053.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 "Venezuela Inflation rate (consumer prices)". Indexmundi. 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Branford, Sue (5 February 1992). "Hugo Chavez fails to overthrow Venezuela's government". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Corrales, Javier; Penfold, Michael (2 April 2015). Dragon in the Tropics: The Legacy of Hugo Chávez. Brookings Institution Press. p. 5. ISBN 0815725930.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. McCaughan 2004, p. 32.
  43. Kelly, Janet, and Palma, Pedro (2006), "The Syndrome of Economic Decline and the Quest for Change", in McCoy, Jennifer and Myers, David (eds, 2006), The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela, Johns Hopkins University Press. p207
  44. McCaughan 2004, p. 73.
  45. United Nations data, National accounts estimates of main aggregates. August 2015/ Archived August 11, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  46. Weisbrot and Sandoval, 2008. Sections: 'Executive Summary,' and 'Social Spending, Poverty, and Employment.'
  47. "GDP deflator (base year varies by country) | Data". World Bank national accounts data and OECD National Accounts data files. 19 August 2016. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Grant, Will (15 November 2010). "Why Venezuela's government is taking over apartments". BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Expropriations in Venezuela". The Economist. 29 October 2010. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. Romero, Simon (28 February 2011). "A 45-Story Walkup Beckons the Desperate". New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Toothaker, Christopher. "Chavez: Venezuela's economy soon to recover". Bloomberg Businessweek. 8 August 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  52. Cancel, Daniel. "Chavez Says Venezuela's Economy Is `Already Recovering' Amid Recession." Bloomberg. 8 August 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  53. (Spanish)"FMI: Venezuela único país cuya economía se contraerá este año". El Universal. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  54. Hanke, John H. "Measuring Misery around the World". The CATO Institute. Retrieved 30 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "Steve H. Hanke". Cato Institute. Retrieved 1 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "Ease of Doing Business in Venezuela, RB". Retrieved 21 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "DOING BUSINESS 2013" (PDF). Report. International Finance Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "Venezuela Slashes Currency Value". Wall Street Journal. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Lopez, Virginia (26 September 2013). "Venezuela food shortages: 'No one can explain why a rich country has no food'". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "Médicos del Hospital Universitario de Caracas suspenden cirugías por falta de insumos". Globovision. 21 February 2014. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "Latin America's weakest economies are reaching breaking-point". Economist. 1 February 2014. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. 62.0 62.1 "Venezuela's medical crisis requires world's attention". The Boston Globe. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "Doctors say Venezuela's health care in collapse". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Country and region specific forecasts and data". World Bank. Retrieved 15 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Amid Rationing, Venezuela Takes The Misery Crown". Investors Business Daily. Retrieved 1 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "Venezuela's economy Of oil and coconut water Probably the world's worst-managed economy". The Economist. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "Citi considera que la economía venezolana es un "desastre"". El Universal. 3 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "Doing Business 2014" (PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved 3 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "The Heritage Foundation". About Heritage. Retrieved 1 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 26 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. Yapur, Nicolle (30 June 2014). "Políticas económicas en Venezuela ahuyentan el capital extranjero". El Nacional. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "Scariest Places on the Business Frontiers". Bloomberg. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Hagiwara, Yuki (7 February 2014). "Toyota Halts Venezuela Production as Car Sales Fall". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "Ford Cutting Production in Venezuela on Growing Dollar Shortage". Businessweek. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Deniz, Roberto (7 February 2014). "General Motors sees no resolution to operations in Venezuela". El Universal. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. Mogollon, Mery (24 January 2014). "Venezuela sees more airlines suspend ticket sales, demand payment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Wilson, Peter (24 January 2014). "Airlines keep cutting off Venezuelans from tickets". USA Today. Retrieved 25 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. Wilson, Peter (10 January 2014). "Venezuelans blocked from buying flights out". USA Today. Retrieved 15 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. 79.0 79.1 "Venezuela Shuffles Economic Team". The Wall Street Journal. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Anderson, Elizabeth (3 March 2015). "Which are the 15 most miserable countries in the world?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Saraiva, A Catarina; Jamrisko, Michelle; Fonseca Tartar, Andre (2 March 2015). "The 15 Most Miserable Economies in the World". Bloomberg. Retrieved 4 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. 82.0 82.1 Gallas, Daniel (7 December 2015). "Venezuela: Economy on the brink?". BBC News Latin America. Retrieved 7 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Lopez, Virginia (8 January 2016). "Venezuela's economic crisis worsens as oil prices fall". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 8 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. Lozano, Daniel (8 January 2015). "Ni un paso atrás: Maduro insiste con su receta económica". La Nación. Retrieved 8 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. 85.0 85.1 "Bank Of America prevé más controles para la economía de Venezuela". El Nacional. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. "IMF: Venezuela Inflation to Surpass 700 Percent". The New York Times. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. "FMI: Inflación de Venezuela en 2016 será de 500%". El Nacional. 17 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. 88.0 88.1 Leff, Alex (26 January 2016). "What's it like under 1,000 percent inflation? Venezuela is about to find out". Public Radio International. Retrieved 28 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. "World Economic Outlook" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. April 2016. ISBN 978-1-47554-372-8. Retrieved 29 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. Hanke, Steve H. (15 January 2016). "Venezuela's Lying Statistics". 'Huffington Post. Retrieved 20 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. "Hungry Venezuelans Flee in Boats to Escape Economic Collapse". The New York Times. 25 November 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "Venezuelans face collapsing economy, starvation and crime".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. "Why you need sackfuls of banknotes to shop in Venezuela". BBC News. 2016-12-18. Retrieved 2016-12-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Jim Wyss (12 December 2016). "Entering a 'world of economic chaos,' Venezuela struggles with hyperinflation". Miami Herald. Retrieved 2016-12-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. Cui, Carolyn (August 25, 2017), Venezuelan Bonds Up After New U.S. Sanctions Spare Debt Trading<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. "Venezuela eliminates heavily subsidized DIPRO forex rate". Reuters. 30 Jan 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. Krygier, Rachelle (20 February 2018). "Venezuela launches the 'petro,' its cryptocurrency". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 March 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. "Venezuelan Hyperinflation Explodes, Soaring Over 440,000 Percent". 2018-01-18. Retrieved 7 March 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. "Russia extends lifeline as Venezuela struggles with 'selective default'".
  100. "Venezuela oil assets seizure by Conoco may start wave".
  101. Beiras, Beatriz (19 May 2016). "Venezuela economy fractured with shortages of essentials across the country". Euronews. Retrieved 26 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. (Spanish) "Contribución petrolera se duplica por ajuste cambiario." El Universal. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  103. "Global gasoline-price subsidies evaporate".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. "Venezuela: Maduro anuncia una devaluación y un aumento de hasta el 6.000% en el precio de la gasolina". BBC. Feb 17, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "Venezuela raises petrol price for first time in 20 years". BBC. Feb 18, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Blasco, Emili (23 April 2014). "Venezuela se queda sin suficientes divisas para pagar las importaciones". ABC News (Spain). Retrieved 24 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "Venezuela | Energy 2018 - Global Legal Insights". GLI - Global Legal InsightsVenezuela | Energy 2018. Retrieved 2017-12-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  109. "Venezuela's aluminum industry operates at 29% of capacity". Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. "Venezuela's aluminum and steel production below 1997 numbers". Retrieved 15 November 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. "En imágenes: Así fue el último día de General Motors en Venezuela". Venezuela Al Dia. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. "Dolorosa imagen de nuestra industria automotriz: El cierre de General Motors Venezolana". La Patilla. Retrieved 19 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  113. Deniz, Roberto (4 May 2014). "Banco Central reporta que la escasez de vehículos llega al 100%". El Universal. Retrieved 5 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  114. Woody, Christopher (20 July 2016). "Venezuela's looming economic catastrophe, in one graphic". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 July 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. 115.0 115.1 "Balanza de pagos y otros indicadores del sector externo. Exportaciones e importaciones de bienes y servicios (millones de USD)" (in Spanish). Banco Central Venezuela. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. Suggett, James. "Latest Venezuela-China Deals: Orinoco Agriculture, Civil Aviation, Steel, and $5 Billion Credit Line." 3 August 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  117. Bruce, Iain. "Chavez calls for democracy at work." BBC News. 17 August 2005. Retrieved 22 September 2006.
  118. Devereux, Charlie (26 October 2010). "Owens-Illinois Seizure by Chavez May Undermine Venezuela's Empresas Polar". Bloomberg.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. Labour’s Love Lost The Economist. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2015
  120. Minimum Salary Increase Global Workplace Insider. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  121. Goodman, Joshua (1 May 2015). "Venezuela Raises Minimum Wage 30 Pct Amid Raging Inflation". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. ""Desde que Maduro está allí hemos perdido 3 millones 345 mil empleos": Marcela Máspero, coordinadora de la Unión Nacional de Trabajadores". NTN24 (in español). 16 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  123. "Federación de trabajadores públicos cifra en cerca de 4 millones pérdida de empleos desde 2013". La Patilla (in español). Retrieved 2017-12-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  124. 124.0 124.1 Toothaker, Christopher (16 June 2011). "Venezuela's Electricity To Be Rationed Following Recurring Power Outages". Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  125. Han Shih, Toh (11 April 2013). "China Railway Group's project in Venezuela hits snag". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 14 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  126. 126.0 126.1 "Lufthansa to suspend flights to Venezuela". BBC News. 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. "Power cut paralyses Venezuela". The Guardian. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  128. "Venezuela Power Outage Plunges Most Of Nation Into Darkness". Huffington Post. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  129. Romero, Simon. "Venezuela to Give Currency New Name and Numbers." New York Times. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  130. Molano, Walter. "Venezuela is Priced for Failure." Latin American Herald Tribune. 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  131. Ellsworth, Brian. "Venezuela cuts three zeros off bolivar currency." Reuters. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  132. Weisbrot, Mark, and Sandoval, Luis.The Venezuelan Economy in the Chávez Years[1].Center for Economic and Policy Research. July 2007.
  133. Forero, Juan. "Despite billions in U.S. aid, Colombia struggles to reduce poverty." Washington Post. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  134. (Spanish) "Situación de la pobreza en la región." Panorama social de América Latina. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  135. Daniel, Frank. "Venezuela economy shrinks for first time in 5 years." Reuters. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  136. Daniel, Frank. "Chavez says Venezuela in recession, by US yardstick." Reuters. 22 November 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  137. Márquez, Humberto. "El Niño Dries Up Water, Power, Food Supply." November 2009/ Archived November 7, 2009 at the Wayback Machine IPS News. 23 October 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  138. 138.0 138.1 138.2 Cawthorne, Andrew."Venezuela recession drags, GDP falls 5.8 pct Q1". Reuters. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010
  139. "Venezuela's Forced Price Cuts Damp World's Fastest Inflation (2)". Businessweek. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  140. "Venezuela Slashes Currency Value". The Wall Street Journal. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  141. Mogollon, Mery; Kraul, Chris (16 November 2013). "Government-ordered price cuts spawn desperation shopping in Venezuela". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  142. Kurmanaev, Anatoly (9 January 2014). "Venezuela in Data Denial After Inflation Tops 50%: Andes Credit". Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  143. "Venezuela's black market rate for US dollars just jumped by almost 40%". Quartz. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  144. CADIVI, CADIVI, una medidia necesaria December 2008/ Archived December 5, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  145. Hanke, Steve. "The World's Troubled Currencies". The Market Oracle. Retrieved 26 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  146. "Indicadores Economía Venezolana". Retrieved 22 March 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  147. Gupta, Girish (24 January 2014). "The 'Cheapest' Country in the World". TIME. Retrieved 26 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  148. Pons, Corina (14 January 2014). "McDonald's Agrees to Cut the Price of a Venezuelan Big Mac Combo". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  149. Goodman, Joshua (22 January 2014). "Venezuela overhauls foreign exchange system". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  150. Vyas, Kejal (30 December 2013). "Venezuela's Consumer Prices Climbed 56% in 2013". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 January 2014. (Subscription required (help)).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  151. "Venezuela inflation data under scrutiny". Buenos Aires Herald. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  152. Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 150. ISBN 9781107507180.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  153. 153.0 153.1 World Bank. "Table 24." World Development Report. 1980. pp. 156–57.
  154. 154.0 154.1 154.2 154.3 Instituto Nacional de Estadística[2]
  155. "Income Gini coefficient". United Nations Development Programme. United Nations. Retrieved 21 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  156. "Venezuela: a nation in a state". The Economist. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  157. "Ficha Técnicas de Línea de Pobreza por Ingreso." May 2009/ Archived May 29, 2009 at the Wayback Machine Estadísticas Sociales y Ambientales. El Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. Retrieved 4 September 2010. The Instituto Nacional de Estadística describes their method for compiling these statistics.
  158. "Pobreza". instituto nacional de estadistica. Retrieved 1 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  159. "Venezuela Achieves Millennium Goals" (PDF). Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Retrieved 1 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  160. "Factsheet". The Economist. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  161. 161.0 161.1 Corrales, Javier (7 May 2015). "Don't Blame It On the Oil". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  162. Gregory Wilpert (2007). Changing Venezuela By Taking Power: The History and Policies of the Chavez Government. Verso. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-84467-552-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  163. 163.0 163.1 "Fact Sheet: Millennium Development Goals." Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. 12 October 2010. Web 4 March 2012.
  164. Janicke, Kiraz. "Venezuela Reaches the Millennium Development Goals." Venezuela Analysis. 14 July 2009. Web 4 March 2012.
  165. Siegel, Robert (25 December 2014). "For Venezuela, Drop In Global Oil Prices Could Be Catastrophic". NPR. Retrieved 4 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  166. "2014 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–5. Retrieved 27 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  167. "Pobreza". INE. Retrieved 31 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  168. 168.0 168.1 168.2 Gallagher, J. J. (25 March 2015). "Venezuela: Does an increase in poverty signal threat to government?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 29 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  169. 169.0 169.1 "Venezuelans report big weight losses in 2017 as hunger hits". CNBC. 2018-02-21. Retrieved 2018-02-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  170. 170.0 170.1 170.2 170.3 170.4 170.5 "Millennium Development Goals Indicators." United Nations Statistics Division. Web 4 March 2012.
  171. 171.0 171.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  172. Graham-Harrison, Emma (2018-03-06). "Over half of young Venezuelans want to flee as economy collapses, poll finds". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  173. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  174. Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; et al. (February 2017). "ENCOVI, Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Vida, Venezuela 2016, Alimentación" [National Survey of Living Conditions, Venezuela 2016, Food] (PDF). ENCOVI, Fundación Bengoa para la Alimentación y Nutrición (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-02-23. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  175. Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; et al. (February 2018). "ENCOVI, Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Vida, Venezuela 2017, Alimentación I" [ENCOVI, National Survey of Living Conditions, Venezuela 2017, Food 1] (PDF). Universidad Catolica Andres Bello (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-02-23. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  176. Maria Delgado, Antonio (28 August 2014). "Venezuela agobiada por la fuga masiva de cerebros". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 28 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  177. "El 90% de los venezolanos que se van tienen formación universitaria". El Impulso. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  178. Ellis, Edward. "Venezuela Celebrates Five Years Free of Illiteracy." Venezuela Analysis. 7 November 2010. Web. 20 March 2012.
  179. 179.0 179.1 "Propaganda, not policy". The Economist. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  180. Márquez, Humberto (28 October 2005). "Venezuela se declara libre de analfabetismo" (in español). Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  181. 181.0 181.1 Wilson, Peter (27 April 2015). "The Collapse of Chávezcare". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 17 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  182. "Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births". Millennium Development Goals Indicators. United Nations.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  183. Higuerey, Edgar (5 September 2014). "Escasez de anticonceptivos hace cambiar tratamientos". El Tiempo. Retrieved 7 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  184. "Venezuela Faces Health Crisis Amid Shortage of HIV/Aids Medication". Fox News Latino. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  185. Pardo, Daniel (23 August 2014). "The malaria mines of Venezuela". BBC. Retrieved 31 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  186. "Venezuela Achieves Millennium Goals."[permanent dead link] Ministry of People's Power for Communication and Information. 2010. Web 4 March 2012.
  187. "Fact Sheet: Venezuela and the Millennium Development Goals." May 2011/ Archived May 23, 2011 at the Wayback Machine[3]link= 23 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the UK and Ireland. Web. 20 March 2012.
  188. 188.0 188.1 Pardo, Daniel (22 September 2014). "¿Por qué internet en Venezuela es tan lento?". BBC. Retrieved 25 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  189. 21 July 2014. "En 7 claves - Los acuerdos China-Venezuela firmados este lunes". Últimas Noticias. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2014. The agreement, signed for the development of the program satellite VRSS2, provides for the two nations to share knowledge about the manufacture of the new remote sensing satellite, which will serve to strengthen mapping capabilities in the country, and to contribute to the development of the Venezuelan aerospace industry. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  190. Magan, Veronica (23 August 2013). "Venezuela: Latin America's Next Space Pioneer?". Satellite Today. Retrieved 28 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links