Edward Balliol

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Edward Balliol
Edward Balliol.jpg
Mid 18th century engraving of Edward Balliol
Claimant to the Scottish Kingdom
Reign September 1332 to 1336
Born c. 1283
Died c. 1367
Wheatley, Doncaster
House House of Balliol
Father John Balliol
Mother Isabella de Warenne
Religion Roman Catholicism

Edward Balliol (c. 1283 – 1367) was a claimant to the Scottish throne (1314–1356). With English help, he briefly ruled the country from 1332 to 1336.

Life

Seal of Edward Balliol, King of Scotland

He was the eldest son of John Balliol, erstwhile King of the Scots, and Isabella de Warenne, daughter of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, and Alice de Lusignan. Alice was daughter of Hugh X de Lusignan and Isabella of Angoulême, widow of John, King of England.

The death of King Robert I weakened Scotland considerably, since his son and successor David II was still a child and the two most able lieutenants, the Black Douglas and Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, both died shortly afterwards.

Taking advantage of this, Edward Balliol, backed by Edward III of England, defeated the Regent, the Earl of Mar, at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in Perthshire. He was crowned at Scone in September 1332, but three months later he was forced to flee half-naked back to England, following a surprise attack by nobles loyal to David II at the Battle of Annan.

On his retreat from Scotland, Balliol sought refuge with the Clifford family, land owners in Westmorland, and stayed in their castles at Appleby, Brougham, Brough, and Pendragon.[1]

He was restored by the English in 1333, following the Battle of Halidon Hill. Balliol then ceded the whole of the district formerly known as Lothian to Edward and paid homage to him as liege lord. With no serious support in Scotland, he was deposed again in 1334,[citation needed] and restored again in 1335, and finally deposed in 1336 by those loyal to David II. All realistic hopes of Edward's restoration were lost when David II returned from France in June 1341.

He returned to Scotland after the defeat of David II at Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, raising an insurrection in Galloway, and speedily penetrated to the central parts of the kingdom. However, he gained no permanent footing.

On 20 January 1356, Balliol surrendered his claim to the Scottish throne to Edward III in exchange for an English pension. He spent the rest of his life living in obscurity. He died in 1367, at Wheatley, Doncaster, Yorkshire, England. The location of his grave is believed to be under a Doncaster Post Office.[2]

Ancestry

References

  1. Summerson, Trueman & Harrison 1998, p. 18.
  2. Darren Burke (14 Feb 2013). "Could Scots king be buried under the Post Office?". South Yorkshire Times. Retrieved 15 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Primary

  • Ashley, W. J. (ed.) (1887). Edward III and His Wars, 1327–1360. London: D. Nutt. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bain, Joseph (ed.) (1881–88). Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland (4 vols. ed.). Edinburgh: H.M. General Register House. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bower, Walter (1987–98). Scotichronicon: In Latin and English. ed. D. E. R. Watt (9 vols. ed.). Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Capgrave, John (1858). The Book of the Illustrious Henries. trans. Francis Charles Hingeston. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Galbraith, V. H. (ed.) (1970) [1927]. The Anonimalle Chronicle, 1333 to 1381. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-389-03979-9. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gray, Thomas (1907). Scalacronica: The Reigns of Edward I, Edward II and Edward III. trans. Herbert Maxwell. Glasgow: J. Maclehose.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Skene, William F. (ed.) (1872). John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation. trans. Felix J. H. Skene. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wilson, James (2001) [1913]. The Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272–1346. trans. Herbert Maxwell. Cribyn, Wales: Llanerch Press. ISBN 1-86143-109-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Secondary

  • Balfour-Melville, E. M. W. (1954). Edward III and David II. London: G. Philip.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Beam, Amanda (2008). The Balliol Dynasty, 1210–1364. Edinburgh: John Donald.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Campbell, James (1965). "England, Scotland and the Hundred Years War in the fourteenth century". In in J. R. Hale, J. R. L. Highfield, and B. Smalley (eds.). Europe in the Late Middle Ages. London: Faber and Faber. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Dalrymple, David (1776–79). Annals of Scotland: From the Accession of Malcolm III Surnamed Canmore to the Accession of Robert I. London: J. Murray.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Nicholson, Ranald (1965). Edward III and the Scots: The Formative Years of a Military Career, 1327–1335. London: Oxford University Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Paterson, R. C. Edward Balliol, in Military History, April, 2003.
  • Ramsay, J. H., Edward Balliol's Scottish Campaign in 1347, in English Historical Review, vol. 25 1910.
  • Ramsay, James H. (1913). Genesis of Lancaster; or, The Three Reigns of Edward II, Edward III and Richard II, 1307–1399. Oxford: Clarendon Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Reid, R. C., Edward de Balliol, in Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Antiquarian and Natural History Society, vol. 35 1956-7.
  • Summerson, Henry; Trueman, Michael; Harrison, Stuart (1998), "Brougham Castle, Cumbria", Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Research Series, Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (8), ISBN 1-873124-25-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Webster, B., Scotland without a King, 1329–1341, in Medieval Scotland, Crown, Lordship and Community, ed A. Grant and K. J. Stringer, 1993.
  • Webster, Bruce. "Balliol, Edward". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 15 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Edward Balliol
Born: ? c. 1282 Died: November 1364
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
John Balliol
— TITULAR —
King of Scots
1314–1364
Reason for succession failure:
First War of Scottish Independence
Rights passed to Edward III of England