List of monarchs of Brazil

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Monarchy of Brazil
Imperial
Coat of arms of the Empire of Brazil.svg
Delfim da Câmara - D. Pedro II. 1875.jpg
Pedro II
Details
Style
First monarch Maria I
(as Queen)
Last monarch Pedro II
(as Emperor)
Formation 16 December 1815
Abolition 15 November 1889
Residence
Pretender(s)

The Monarchs of Brazil were the rulers of Brazil, first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), and subsequently as a sovereign and independent State, the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889).

Before 1815, Brazil was a colony of the Kingdom of Portugal. Thus, from the formal arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, when the land was claimed by the Portuguese Crown, until 1815 when the Kingdom of Brazil was created and the colonial bond was formally terminated and replaced by a political union with Portugal, the Kings of Portugal were Monarchs over Brazil.

During the colonial era, from 1645 onwards, the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown was styled Prince of Brazil. In 1817, in the wake of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, the heir apparent's title was changed to Prince Royal.

Brazil had two monarchs during the United Kingdom epoch: Queen Maria I (1815–1816) and King John VI (1816–1822). By the time of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Queen Maria I was long incapacitated, and the Portuguese Empire was ruled by Prince John, the future King John VI, as Prince Regent.

As an independent nation-state, Brazil had two monarchs: Emperors Pedro I (1822–1831) and Pedro II (1831–1889). In 1889, the monarchy was abolished in a military coup d'état that proclaimed Brazil a republic.

During the imperial era, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Titular Emperor of Brazil under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of Titular Emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific, Emperor Pedro I remained the sole monarch of the empire.

United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822)

House of Braganza

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Maria I, Queen of Portugal - Giuseppe Troni, atribuído (Turim, 1739-Lisboa, 1810) - Google Cultural Institute.jpg Brasao-Brigantina.png Mary I, the Mad
(Maria I, a Louca)
16 December 1815 20 March 1816  • None; fled from the occupied Portugal Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
(Rainha de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves)
DomJoãoVI-pintordesconhecido.jpg Brasao-Brigantina.png John VI, the Clement
(João VI, o Clemente)
20 March 1816 7 September 1822  • Son of Mary I King of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
(Rei de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves)

Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)

House of Braganza (Brazil)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Anônimo - D. Pedro, Duque de Bragança.JPG CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg Peter I, the Liberator
(Pedro I, o Libertador)
12 October 1822 7 April 1831  • Son of John VI Emperor of Brazil
(Imperador do Brasil)
João Maximiano Mafra - Retrato de Dom Pedro II - 1851.jpg CoA Empire of Brazil (1870-1889).svg Peter II, the Magnanimous
(Pedro II, o Magnânimo)
7 April 1831 15 November 1889  • Son of Peter I Emperor of Brazil
(Imperador do Brasil)

Claimants to the throne of Brazil (1889–present)

See also

External links