Fayette County, Pennsylvania
|Fayette County, Pennsylvania|
Fayette County Courthouse
Location in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's location in the U.S.
|Founded||September 26, 1783|
|Named for||Marquis de Lafayette|
|• Total||798 sq mi (2,067 km2)|
|• Land||790 sq mi (2,046 km2)|
|• Water||8.0 sq mi (21 km2), 1.0%|
|• Density||170/sq mi (66/km²)|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Fayette County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,606. Its county seat is Uniontown. The county was created on September 26, 1783, from part of Westmoreland County and named after the Marquis de Lafayette.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Politics
- 6 Education
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Municipalities
- 9 Fixtures
- 10 Notable residents
- 11 In popular culture
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The first Europeans in Fayette County were explorers, who used an ancient American Indian trail that bisected the county on their journey across the Appalachian Mountains. In 1754, when ownership the area was still in dispute, 22-year-old George Washington fought against the French at Jumonville Glen and Fort Necessity. British forces under Washington and General Edward Braddock improved roads throughout the region, making the future Fayette County an important supply route. During the American Revolution, Fayette County was plagued by attacks from British-allied Indians and remained an isolated frontier region. Also retarding settlement was a border dispute with Virginia; Virginia's District of West Augusta and Pennsylvania's Westmoreland County both claimed the area. In 1780 the dispute was settled in favor of Pennsylvania, and Fayette County was formed from Westmoreland County in 1783.
Fayette County settlers provided the new United States government with first test in the 1793 Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against tax collectors to protest against a new liquor tax. President George Washington called out the militias to restore order. Fayette County continued to be important to travelers in the early 1800s. The National Road provided a route through the mountains for settlers heading west. The shipyards in Brownsville on the Monongahela River built ships for both the domestic and international trade.
As Pittsburgh developed in the mid-19th century, Fayette County become a center of coal mining and coke production. From the 1880s to the early 1900s, an explosion in steel production became nationally important. New immigrants were attracted to Fayette County to seek jobs. The Scottish and German farming communities were soon overshadowed by new populations from Southern and Eastern Europe. The region's wealth nevertheless remained concentrated in the old English and Scottish families with connections to Pittsburgh.
By World War II, Fayette County had a new unionized working class that enjoyed increased prosperity. In the 1950s, however, the coal industry fell into decline, and in the 1970s, the collapse of American steel brought hard times to the area. Industrial restructuring meant the loss of the union jobs which had brought so many families to the middle class. Only a few mines now remain, but natural resources remain crucial to the local economy. The region is slowly transitioning itself toward the service sector, with jobs in fields such as telemarketing.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 798 square miles (2,070 km2), of which 790 square miles (2,000 km2) is land and 8.0 square miles (21 km2) (1.0%) is water. The western portion of the county contains rolling foothills and two valleys along the Monongahela River and Youghiogheny Rivers. The eastern portion of the county is highly mountainous and forested. Many coal mines are located within the area.
- Westmoreland County (north)
- Somerset County (east)
- Garrett County, Maryland (southeast)
- Preston County, West Virginia (south)
- Monongalia County, West Virginia (southwest)
- Greene County (west)
- Washington County (northwest)
National protected areas
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, there were 136,606 people, 59,969 households, and 41,198 families residing in the county. The population density was 188 people per square mile (73/km²). There were 66,490 housing units at an average density of 84 per square mile (32/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 93.30% White, 4.71% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, and 2.33% from two or more races. 1.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.8% were of German, 13.2% Italian, 11.4% Irish, 9.2% American, 8.4% Polish, 7.9% English and 6.6% Slovak ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 59,969 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 12.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.30% were non-families. 28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the county, the population was spread out with 22.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, and 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.60 males.
A study released in 2009 by PathWays PA, in partnership with the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, found that 35% of families in Fayette County were economically distressed, that is, failing to earn a wage that would adequately provide food, shelter, child care, health care, and other basic necessities.
- County poverty demographics
According to research by The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, which is a legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the poverty rate for County was 20.2% in 2014. The statewide poverty rate was 13.6% in 2014. The 2012 childhood poverty rate by school district was: Albert Gallatin Area School District - 61.4%, Brownsville Area School District -64.7%, Connellsville Area School District - 55.7%, Frazier School District - 40.5%, Laurel Highlands School District - 59.9% and Uniontown Area School District - 55.1% of pupils living at 185% or below than the Federal Poverty Level.
Fayette County's live birth rate was 1,877 births in 1990. The Fayette County's live birth rate in 2000 was 1,538 births, while in 2011 it had declined to 1,366 babies. Over the past 50 years (1960 to 2010), rural Pennsylvania saw a steady decline in both the number and proportion of residents under 18 years old. In 1960, 1.06 million rural residents, or 35 percent of the rural population, were children.
The County of Fayette is governed by a three-member publicly elected commission. The three commissioners serve in both executive and legislative capacities. By state law, the commission must have a minority party, guaranteeing a political split. Each member serves a four-year term.
The three current commissioners for Fayette County are Democrats Al Ambrosini and Vince Zapotosky and Republican Angela Zimmerlink.
The Fayette County Court of Common Pleas serves as the primary judicial arm in the region. Judges are elected to ten-year terms in accordance with Commonwealth law. Additionally, district judges serve throughout the county and rule on minor offenses. Current judges are President Judge Gerald R. Solomon, John F. Wagner, Jr., Ralph C. Warman, Steve P. Leskinen, and Nancy Vernon.
As of November 2008, there are 91,386 registered voters in Fayette County.
Fayette County tends to be Democratic-leaning in statewide and national elections. While Democratic politics are entrenched because of a strong union history, the county is generally socially conservative. In 2000, Democrat Al Gore won 57% of the vote and Republican George W. Bush won 40%. In 2004, Democrat John Kerry won 53% of the vote and Republican George W. Bush won 45%. In 2006, Democrat Governor Ed Rendell and Senator Bob Casey, Jr. won 59% and 65% of the vote in Fayette County. In 2008, Fayette County trended Republican and went for Republican John McCain 49.62% over Democrat Barack Obama 49.21%, a difference of 215 votes. In 2010, Republican Governor Tom Corbett and Senator Pat Toomey won 55% and 50.19% of the vote. Also, in 2012, Republican Mitt Romney received 53.6% of the vote, compared to Democrat Barack Obama's 45.3%.
- Pat Stefano, Republican, 32nd district
- Bill Shuster, Republican, 9th district
Colleges and universities
- Penn State Fayette, The Eberly Campus is a Commonwealth Campus of the Pennsylvania State University system located in Lemont Furnace. Penn State Fayette is the only four-year (bachelors) degree granting institution in Fayette County.
Public school districts
- Albert Gallatin Area School District
- Belle Vernon Area School District (also in Westmoreland County)
- Brownsville Area School District (also in Washington County)
- Connellsville Area School District
- Frazier School District
- Laurel Highlands School District
- Southmoreland School District (also in Westmoreland County)
- Uniontown Area School District
- Apostolic Christian Academy - Dunbar
- Bible Baptist Academy - Uniontown
- Champion Christian School - Champion
- Chestnut Ridge Christian Academy - Uniontown
- Connellsville Area Catholic School - Connellsville
- Geibel Catholic High School - Connellsville
- Mount Carmel Christian School - Mount Pleasant
- Mount Moriah Christian School - Smithfield
- Mount Zion Christian Academy - Acme
- New Meadow Run Parochial School - Farmington
- Spring Valley School - Farmington
- St John Evangelist School - Uniontown
- Verna Montessori School - Prittstown
While Fayette County is a generally rural area and is not directly tied into the interstate system, it features four-lane access to the city of Pittsburgh and several of its major suburban areas. State highway plans call for the establishment of direct freeway connections with Pittsburgh to the north and Morgantown, West Virginia to the south.
- Pennsylvania Route 21- designated as the Roy E. Furman Highway, it serves as one of the main routes through Greene County, then crosses the Monongahela River in Masontown and terminates in Uniontown
- U.S. Route 40- a portion of the famous National Road, it connects in the west with Washington County and provides access to the Pittsburgh edge suburb of Washington; after forming part of a freeway bypass of Uniontown, it becomes a major two-lane mountain highway heading toward Maryland
- Pennsylvania Route 43- part of the Mon-Fayette Expressway, it serves as a toll freeway connecting Uniontown to the southern Pittsburgh suburb of Jefferson Hills, with plans to extend the route to the city limits; to the south, it provides high-speed freeway access to Morgantown, West Virginia
- Pennsylvania Route 51- provides the major connection between Uniontown and Pittsburgh city limits, which functions as a four-lane route except during its final mile as a major Uniontown city street
- U.S. Route 119- provides access to Morgantown in the south as a rolling two-lane highway, before becoming Fayette County's main street; serves as part of a freeway bypass of Uniontown, then functions as a four-lane route through Connellsville, before traveling toward the Pittsburgh edge suburb of Greensburg
- Pennsylvania Route 201- its trajectory shaped in almost the figure of an arch, this route provides access between Connellsville and southwestern Westmoreland County, and serves as a major cross-county truck route
- Pennsylvania Route 711- mountain highway terminating in Connellsville and connecting with Westmoreland County, this route is the backbone of the Laurel Highlands
- Pennsylvania Route 982- two-lane access route connecting Bullskin Township with the city of Latrobe in Westmoreland County
The primary provider of mass transportation within the region is Fayette Area Coordinated Transportation, which features local bus routes as well as four times-daily commuter service to Pittsburgh. Amtrak rail service along the Chicago-to-Washington-via-Cleveland Capitol Limited route stops at Connellsville Station. General aviation services are also provided at the Joseph A. Hardy Connellsville Airport.
Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, boroughs, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns. The following cities, boroughs and townships are located in Fayette County:
Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U.S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data. They are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well.
- Fort Necessity is a reconstructed historic stockade that was originally built by George Washington to defend against an attack during the French and Indian War. Located in Wharton Township, it is now operated as a national battlefield.
- General Edward Braddock's Grave is across the highway from Fort Necessity. He was mortally wounded while attacking Fort Duquesne (at the "forks of the Ohio River" in present-day Downtown Pittsburgh) during the French and Indian War. It is a unit of the national battlefield. Under an agreement with British government, the site of Braddock's grave is officially considered British soil.
- The National Road (also known as the Cumberland Road) bisects Fayette County. It was the first significant roadway to be paid for by the federal government, connecting Baltimore, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois. US 40 follows the path of this historic toll road.
- Two historic fixtures from the National Road exist within Fayette County's borders. Searights Toll House in Menallen Township is one of few remaining toll collection stops along the old route. The Washington Tavern, a unit of Fort Necessity National Battlefield, is a classic example of an early 19th-century inn.
- The town of Perryopolis was designed by George Washington during his career as a surveyor. It includes a restored grist mill that once served as an (unsuccessful) business venture for the future president.
- Fallingwater, architect Frank Lloyd Wright's most famous home, is located atop a flowing waterfall in Stewart Township. His lesser known Kentuck Knob is also located within the same municipality.
- Friendship Hill, the home of the little-known but highly influential early-19th-century political figure Albert Gallatin, is maintained as a National Historic Site. It is located in Springhill Township.
- Fayette County's southern border is adorned with plaques that mark its significance as part of the Mason–Dixon line
- A collection of waterfalls surrounding the Youghiogheny River Gorge are protected as part of Ohiopyle State Park.
- Laurel Ridge State Park contains an extensive hiking trail that traverses much of Pennsylvania's Appalachian foothills.
- The county contains the largest cave in Pennsylvania, Laurel Caverns, which is popular as both a tour and spelunking destination.
- A historic trading post that eventually was turned into a spectacular mansion is featured in Nemacolin Castle. The structure is well known for its connections to the Underground Railroad.
- The prestigious Nemacolin Woodlands Resort is located in Wharton Township. It features a five star hotel and has received a license for a slots casino.
- Mountainous Eastern Fayette County is home to the Seven Springs Mountain Resort, which is the premier skiing destination for Greater Pittsburgh.
- Bob Bailor, former MLB utility player (raised in Connellsville)
- John A. Brashear, Astronomer and optical telescope fabricator (born in Brownsville)
- Jim Braxton, All American at West Virginia University and former NFL running back (raised in Vanderbilt)
- John Dickson Carr, mystery writer and three time Edgar Allan Poe Award winner (raised in Uniontown)
- Rhoda Chase, well-known 1940s radio and stage personality, nicknamed "The Blue Velvet Voice" (raised in Uniontown)
- Robert L. Coble, materials scientist who discovered the Coble creep and invented the sodium-vapor lamp (raised in Uniontown)
- Vinnie Colaiuta, session and band drummer for a wide range of jazz, fusion, rock, and funk performers (raised in Republic)
- Doug Dascenzo, former Major League Baseball outfielder (raised in Brownsville)
- Ernie Davis, 1961 Heisman Trophy Winner and first overall selection in the 1962 NFL Draft (raised in New Salem until age 12)
- Thomas Dolinay, former chief bishop of the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church (raised in Uniontown)
- Chuck Drazenovich All-pro Middle Linebacker for the Washington Redskins and U.S. Heavyweight Boxing Champion for Penn State (raised in West Brownsville)
- Tory Epps, former NFL defensive lineman (raised in Uniontown)
- Fabian Forte, 1960s pop musician (resides in Dunbar Township)
- Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, U.S. House Majority leader, and founder of New York University (spent much of adult life in New Geneva, which he founded and named)
- Gus Gerard, former NBA forward (raised in Uniontown)
- Joe Hardy, founder of 84 Lumber, one of the country's largest privately owned companies (resides in Wharton Township)
- Alfred Hunt, founder of Bethlehem Steel (raised in Brownsville)
- Philander C. Knox, Secretary of State, U.S. Senator, and U.S. Attorney General (raised in Brownsville)
- Stu Lantz, former NBA guard and current Los Angeles Lakers color commentator (raised in Uniontown)
- Johnny Lujack, 1947 Heisman Trophy Winner and former NFL quarterback (raised in Connellsville)
- George C. Marshall, 1953 Nobel Peace Prize Winner, Secretary of State, World War II Supreme Allied Commander, and author of the Marshall Plan (raised in Uniontown)
- Jerry McKenna, sculptor (born in Connellsville)
- Terry Mulholland, former MLB starting pitcher (raised in South Union Township)
- Chuck Muncie, former NFL running back (raised in Uniontown)
- Marie Hochmuth Nichols, rhetorical critic (born in Dunbar)
- Ronald D. Palmer, career diplomat and US Ambassador to Togo, Malaysia, and Mauritius (raised in Uniontown)
- Tamora Pierce, fantasy writer known for creating The Song of the Lioness series (raised in Dunbar until age 8)
- Edwin S. Porter, film pioneer and director of The Great Train Robbery (raised in Connellsville)
- Ed Roebuck, former MLB relief pitcher (raised in East Millsboro)
- Henry Miller Shreve, pioneering captain who opened the Mississippi River to steamboat navigation (lived life in Brownsville)
- C. Vivian Stringer, Rutgers women's basketball coach who is the third winningest women's coach in NCAA history (raised in Edenborn)
- Jacob B. Sweitzer, Civil War general and significant figure in the Battle of Gettysburg (born in Brownsville)
- Saul Swimmer, documentary film maker best known for The Concert For Bangladesh; co-producer of The Beatles' Let It Be (raised in Uniontown)
- John Woodruff, track gold medalist at the 1936 Summer Olympics (raised in Connellsville)
- Frank Wydo, former NFL offensive tackle (raised in Footedale)
In popular culture
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 17, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 124.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Coal Miners Memorial Echo Mine, Fayette City, Fayette Co., PA, U.S.A. Patheoldminer.rootsweb.ancestry.com (2009-12-17). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 5, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved March 5, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 24, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 5, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved March 5, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Zlatos, Bill (May 12, 2009). "Poverty worse in Pa. than reported: study". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved May 13, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- US Census Bureau (2015). "Poverty Rates by County Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center (2012). "Student Poverty Concentration 2012".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pennsylvania Department of Health, Birth Age County Reports 1990 and 2011, 2011
- Running for Office. Dos.state.pa.us. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- "Fort Necessity National Battlefield". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-09-15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The French and Indian War". Fayette County Cultural Trust. Retrieved 2012-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Bridges & Toll Houses". National Road Heritage Corridor. Retrieved 2012-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Mount Washington Tavern". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Wheel project makes grist mill complete". Valley Independent. Retrieved 2012-01-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fallingwater". Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Retrieved 2007-09-15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Friendship Hill National Historic Site (Estate of Albert Gallatin)". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-09-15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ McDonald's Celebrates 40 Years PR Newswire, Official McDonald’s News release, August 22, 2007
-  Big Mac History
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