First Empire of Haiti
|Empire of Haiti|
Anpi an Ayiti
Liberté ou la Mort! (French)
"Liberty or Death!"
The Empire of Haiti
|Languages||French, Haitian Creole|
|Government||Stratocracy, Elective Monarchy|
|•||Haitian Independence||1 January 1804|
|•||Established||22 September 1804|
|•||Disestablished||17 October 1806|
The Empire of Haiti (French: Empire d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Anpi an Ayiti) was an elective monarchy in North America. Haiti had been occupied by the French, but on January 1, 1804, independence was declared. The Governor-General of Haiti, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, created the empire on September 22, 1804 when he proclaimed himself Emperor Jacques I. On October 6, Emperor Jacques' coronation ceremony was held. The constitution of May 20, 1805 set out the way the empire was to be governed with the country split into six military divisions with each general of the division to correspond directly with the Emperor or the general in chief who would be appointed by the Emperor. The constitution also set out the succession to the throne with the crown being elective with the reigning Emperor having the power to appoint his successor. The constitution also banned white people (by which it meant not the local white people but all foreigners) from owning property in the empire.
Emperor Jacques I was assassinated on October 17, 1806 with two members of his administration Alexandre Pétion and Henri Christophe assuming power which led to a split in the country with Pétion leading the southern Republic of Haiti and Christophe leading the northern State of Haiti. Many years later, on August 26, 1849, President Faustin Soulouque re-established an Empire in Haiti which would last until January 15, 1859.