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Foton-M is series of robotic spacecraft used by Russia and the European Space Agency for research conducted in the microgravity environment of Earth orbit. The Foton-M design is based on the design of the Foton, with several improvements including a new telemetry and telecommand unit for increased data flow rate, increased battery capacity, and a better thermal control system. It is produced by TsSKB-Progress in Samara.

The first launch, of Foton-M1, failed because of a malfunction of the Soyuz-U launcher. The second launch, of Foton-M2, was, however, a success.[1] Foton-M3 was launched on 14 September 2007 carried by a Soyuz-U rocket lifting off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.[2] It returned successfully to Earth on September 26, 2007, landing in Kazakhstan at 7:58 GMT[3]

See also


  1. "European experiments successfully launched aboard Foton spacecraft". ESA.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Lift-off for Foton microgravity mission". ESA.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Foton-M3 experiments return to Earth". Retrieved 2007-09-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>