Giuseppe Leggiadri Gallani

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Giuseppe Leggiadri Gallani (1516–1590) was an Italian poet and dramatist. He was a native of Parma in the era of the rule of the Farnese family.

Biography

File:Giuseppe Leggiadri Gallani.jpg
Giuseppe Leggiadri Gallani, Portrait in family's possession

Baptismal records of the Baptistry of Parma indicate that Giuseppe Lizardo (Joseph Lizadrus de Gallanis) was born on December 21 and baptised on December 28, 1516.[1] His Godparents included Archbishop Jacobus de Colla, Father Dominicus de Salamonis, Don Franciscus de Bergonzus, Don Cosimeus Taiaferris, Donna Susanna Taiaferris, Donna Jacoba Cozama, Donna Gasparma de Balestris.

He was the second child of four born to Ziardo and Susanna. He was the only one baptised with a second Christian name, probably because of the recent death of his Aunt Lizarda, born on February 23, 1490. It is likely that his sister Leggiadra was also named after her aunt (Ziardo's sister). The name 'Lizadrus' italianised as 'Leggiadri' became the second family name with the children of Giuseppe and continues to this day. Other members of Ziardo and Susanna’s family just used the surname Gallani.

Although he studied to become a notary, he never practised, and took up a literary life.

Following the assassination in 1547 of the Duke of Parma, Pier Luigi Farnese, his natural successor was his son Ottavio Farnese. When, however, Pope Paul III nominated Orazio Farnese, Ottavio's brother, Giuseppe, age 33, who had been loyal to Ottavio, was forced to flee to Naples. In Naples he served various nobles so as to continue his literary activities.

In that various 'rime' are published in Venice in 1552 under the title 'Rime di diversi Illustri Signori Napoletani ...... ', could it be that he remained in Naples until this date? This would coincide with the publication of "La Guerra di Parma" in 1552 in Parma.

His loyalty to Ottavio Farnese found its maximum expression in his poem "La Guerra di Parma" which he composed shortly after the war in which Ottavio allied with the French and Pope Julius III against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles I. Ottavio Farnese was, in fact, confirmed as Duke of Parma in 1551.

Giuseppe is stated by some to have married Margherita Comina and they had 5 children, two boys, Antonio and Giovanni and 3 girls Margherita Virginia and Lucia. But his will dated April 21, 1567 states he in fact married Hieronyma de Parlasebis. They had one son, Theodoro and it is his son Giuseppe, to whom the biographic notes refer.

Ireneo Affo in "Memorie degli Scrittori e Letterati Parmigiani" quotes d'Erba, who apparently knew the writer, described 'Giuseppe Lizardo Galano’ as "An author, writer and notary, a man talented with grand genius and of marvellous memory".[2]

There is some uncertainty about the date of his death. Da Erba, writing in 1572 writes as if he was dead (age = 56) whereas Spreti gives his date of death as 1590 (age = 74).[3]

He wrote various works including numerous "Rime", "Fillide and "Forza d'Amore" (two eclogues - short poems), "La Favola di Adone" (short narrative poem), "Il Falso"(comedy) "Dido" (tragedy), "La Portia" (comedy), "Alithea" (musical tragedy), "Un Dialogo di Pastori". His most important work was "La Guerra di Parma" (The War of Parma of 1551) in which he tells in verse the history of the campaign of Octavius Farnese against the Pope and the Emperor.[4][5][6][7][8][9] [10][11]

The "Rime" are published in seven collections as follows:

a) 'Rime di diversi Illustri Signori Napoletani e Altri Nobliss Intelletti' - Ludovico Dolce - Vinegia - Gabriel Giolotto de Ferrari - 1552. Contains 28 works on pages 31–45[12]

b) 'Del Tempio alla Divina Signora Giovanna d'Aragona' - Girolamo Ruscelli - Venetia per Plino Pietrasanta - 1555. Contains one work on page 150. Giovanna d'Aragona was the sister-in-law of the poet Vittoria Colonna.[13]

c) 'I Fiori delle Rime de Poeti Illustri' - Girolamo Ruscelli - Venetia Giovanbattista et Melchior Sessa Fratelli 1558. Contains 10 works on pages 391-397. This collection by Ruscelli also contains 32 verses by Vittoria Colonna.[14]

d) 'I Fiori delle Rime de Poeti Illustri' - Girolamo Ruscelli - Venetia - Melchior Sessa 1569. Contains 10 works on pages 194-197.

e) 'I Fiori delle Rime de Poeti Illustri' - Girolamo Ruscelli - Venetia - Melchior Sessa 1579. Contains 10 works on pages 182-184.

f) 'I Fiori delle Rime de Poeti Illustri' - Girolamo Ruscelli - Salvatore e Gian-Domen Marescandoli - Lucca 1729. Contains 10 works on pages 390-396.

g) 'I Fiori delle Rime de Poeti Illustri' - - Giovanni Offredi - Vincenzo Conti Cremona 1560. Contains 4 works on pages 117-123.

There is also a sonnet included at the end of 'La Guerra di Parma'

The 'Rime' in these collections have no titles nor are they numbered. Colin Leggiadri Gallani, a descendant, has numbered the 'Rime' for convenience. The order is purely that in which they came to light and are as follows:

I - Quanto Più lunge da alma mia luce

II - Il uarcar monti e luoghi alpestri e fieri

III - Piansi gia de Sebeto a la chiar'onde

IV - Ecco, che pur de l'acerbemie pene

V - Se le lagrime mie, se i miei sospiri

VI - Tant al non son, che con le poma a fronte

VII - Vago oltrra modo, che desio contento

VIII - S'io havessi ardir cantando di dolermi

IX - Poscia, che dove a Scithi estremo gelo

X - Mentre con mormorio placido e grato

XI - Neci, se'l dolce humor, con cui si altieri

XII - Gia fa del pianto mio dolce ricetto

XIII - Superbo, alto, profondo, ondoso mare

XIV - Qui, dove preme orgoglioso le sponde

XV - Di me stesso nemico e di mia pace

XVI - Deh, perche non poss'io, come nel cuore

XVII - Mentre con l'occhio intento col pensiero

XVIII - Occhi, ch'a gli occhi miei

XVIX - Quando più giunger la natura a la'arte

XX - La, dove inonda e bagna

XXI - Scaldava il sol co chiari ardenti rai

XXII - Hor, che da gli occhi miei, non già dal cuore

XXIII - A quelle parti, oeu co raggi ardent

XXIV - Su presto greggi miei, dove n'aspetta

XXV - Fuggendo Amor, me il mio destin seguendo

XXVI - Pianse Artemisia il carosposo, e volse

XXVII - Poscia, che i miei più chiari e lieti giorni

XXVIII - Sol quel si vago et si spetato sole

XXIX - Temo donna gentil se scriver voglio

XXX - Tirsi rozzo Pastor, ritorna al luoco

XXXI - Hor che perfida scorto de suoi gigli

XXXII - Mentre di gioia privo

XXXIII - Per farmi ancor d'ogn'altro piu cotentoo

The comedy "La Portia" was published in Fiorenza in 1568. It was dedicated to Fabricio Baiiardi.[15] A full copy is available on Google Books. A reprint was published 1n 1962 as an example of a 16th Century comedy.,[16][17]

La Guerra di Parma was originally published in 4 'chapters . A copy is included in a book entitled "Drei alte italienische Drucke der Erlanger Bibliothek' by Herman Varnhagen in the possession of the University of Erlangen Library.[18] The work was later revised to seven chapters in 1552.[19]

"Dido" was not published but a manuscript copy exists in the Palatine Library in Parma entitled "Didone" not "Dido" and dedicated to Ottavio Farnese.[20] This manuscript was part of the collection of rev Walter Sneyd of Cheverels, Herts since it is listed in a catalogue of manuscripts for sale in 1833. The Palatine Library have confirmed that the copy they hold is that previously owned by Sneyd.[21]

Works

  • Rime,
  • Fillide and Forza d'Amore (two eclogues - short poems),
  • La Favola di Adone (short narrative poem),
  • Il Falso (comedy),
  • Dido (tragedy),
  • La Portia (comedy),
  • Alithea (musical tragedy),
  • Un Dialogo di Pastori,
  • La Guerra di Parma (The War of Parma of 1551) in which he tells in verse the history of the campaign of Octavius Farnese against the Pope and the Emperor.

References

  1. Baptismal records of the Battistero (Baptistry) of Parma
  2. 'Memorie degli Scrittori e Letterati Parmigiani' - Ireneo Affo - Parma 1793 - (p49-52, p497-499, p664) - British Library Shelf Nr 10633.k.1.
  3. 'Enciclopedia Storico-Nobilare Italiana' - V Spreti Milano 1927 - (p84-85) - British Library Shelf Nr 9906.v.1
  4. 'La Drammatica a Parma 1400-1900 - Luigi Battei - Parma 1913- (p75-77) - British Library Shelf Nr 011795.aaa.47.
  5. 'Dizionario Biografico Degli Italiani' Rome 1998- (p 512-513) - British Library Shelf Nr 11904.d.27 HLR.920.045
  6. 'Onamasticon - Repertorio Biobliografico Degli Scrittori Italiani dal 1501 al 1850' - Luigi Ferrari - Ulrico Hoepli Milan 1947- (p331)- British Library Shelf Nr HLR.850.8
  7. 'Bibliografia Generale Parmense Parma' - Giuseppe Sitti 1904 - (p33) - British Library Shelf Nr 011904.d.27
  8. 'Storia Letteraria D'Italia - Il Cinquecento' - Francesco Flamini, Milan - (p549) - British Library Shelf Nr ???
  9. 'Lettere di Girolamo Tiraboschi al Padre Ireneo Affo' - Carlo Frati, GT Vincenzi & Nipoti, Modena 1894 - 10921.L.31 - Letter of 29/03/1781 refers to a sonnet of Giuseppe Leggiadro Gallanni. (p220-221) - British Library Shelf Nr 12227.g.9, 10921.L.31
  10. 'Enciclopedia Storico-Nobilare Italiana' - V Spreti Milano 1928 - (p84-85) - British Library Shelf Nr 9906.v.1
  11. Dizionario Biografico dei Parmigiani Illustri o Benmeriti nella Scienza, nelle Lettere, nelle Arti o per altri Guisa Notevole - Giambatista Ianelli/JANELLI - Tipografica di Gaetano Schenone Genova 1877. Bologna 1978 - Contains Biographical notes on Giuseppe (1516-1590) (pages 174-175). British Library Shelf Nr 10629.ee.21 X950/4912
  12. 'Rime di diversi Illustri Signori Napoletani e Altri Nobliss Intelletti' - Ludovico Dolce - Vinegia - Gabriel Giolotto de Ferrari - 1552. Contains 28 works [pages 31-45]. British Library Shelf Nr 240.d.8. Originally in the collection of George III, King of England.
  13. 'Del Tempio alla Divina Signora Giovanna d'Aragona' - Venetia per Plino Pietrasanta - 1555. Contains one work (page 150]. British Library Shelf Nr 1063.d.27.
  14. 'I Fiori delle Rime de Poeti Illustri' - Girolamo Ruscelli - Venetia Giovanbattista et Melchior Sessa Fratelli 1558. Contains 10 works [pages 391-397]. British Library Shelf Nr 240.d.11. Originally in the collection of George III, King of England.
  15. La Portia - Comedia di Gioseppe Leggiadro Galanni - Fiorenza 1568. British Library Shelf Nr 1071.k.4.
  16. La Porzia - Quaderni di Biblion Naples 1962.
  17. L'aventura della comedia rinascementale - Giorgio Padoan - p160 - Piccin Nuova Libreria Padova 1996
  18. 'Drei alte italienische Drucke der Erlanger Bibliothek' - Herman Varnhagen. British Library Shelf Nr X705/1522
  19. La Guerra di Parma - Palatine Library, Parma.
  20. Didone - Tragedy by Giuseppe Leggiadri Gallani - Palatine Library, Parma.
  21. Catalogus Manuscriptorum in Bibliothecis Angliae, Cambriae, Scotiae et Hiberniae 1833