Hamilton (musical)

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An American Musical
Playbill from the Original Broadway Production
Music Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lyrics Lin-Manuel Miranda
Book Lin-Manuel Miranda
Basis Alexander Hamilton
by Ron Chernow
Premiere January 20, 2015: The Public Theater, New York City
Productions 2015 Off-Broadway
2015 Broadway

Hamilton is a musical about the life of American Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, with music, lyrics and book by Lin-Manuel Miranda.[1] The show, inspired by the 2004 biography Alexander Hamilton by historian Ron Chernow, achieved both critical acclaim and box office success.

The musical made its Off-Broadway debut at The Public Theater in February 2015, where its engagement was sold out.[2] The show transferred to Broadway in August 2015 at the Richard Rodgers Theatre. On Broadway, it received enthusiastic critical acclaim and unprecedented advance box office sales,[3] as well as a Grammy Award for Best Musical Theater Album and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. The Off-Broadway production of Hamilton won the 2015 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical as well as seven other Drama Desk Awards out of 14 total nominations. The Broadway production is nominated for a record-setting 16 Tony Awards.


Lin-Manuel Miranda Performs at the White House Poetry Jam[4]
External audio
Lin-Manuel Miranda Talks 'Hamilton': Once A 'Ridiculous' Pitch, Now A Revolution, interview with Scott Simon, NPR, April 9, 2016

At the airport, while on a vacation from his hit Broadway show In The Heights, Lin-Manuel Miranda decided to pick up and read Alexander Hamilton by Ron Chernow, a biography of Alexander Hamilton. After finishing the first couple of chapters, Miranda quickly began envisioning the life of Hamilton as a musical and researched whether or not a stage musical of his life had been created. A play of Hamilton's story had been done on Broadway in 1917, starring George Arliss as Alexander Hamilton.[5]

Upon Miranda's discovery he began a project entitled The Hamilton Mixtape and worked on it during his spare time from In The Heights. On May 12, 2009, Miranda was invited to perform music from In The Heights at the White House Evening of Poetry, Music and the Spoken Word. Instead he performed the first song from The Hamilton Mixtape, a rough version which would later become "Alexander Hamilton", Hamilton's opening number. He spent a year after that working on "My Shot," another early number from the show.[6]

Miranda performed in a workshop production of the show, then titled The Hamilton Mixtape, at the Vassar Reading Festival on July 27, 2013.[7] The workshop production was directed by Thomas Kail and musically directed by Alex Lacamoire. The workshop consisted of the entirety of the first act of the show and 3 songs from the second act. The workshop was accompanied by Lacamoire on the piano.[6] The only cast members to continue with the show throughout the rest of its course to Broadway were Miranda as Alexander Hamilton, Daveed Diggs as Thomas Jefferson/Marquis de Lafayette, Chris Jackson as George Washington, and Javier Muñoz as Alexander Hamilton (alternate).


Act One

The musical begins with the company summarizing Alexander Hamilton's early life as an orphan in the Caribbean ("Alexander Hamilton").

In the summer of 1776 in New York City, Hamilton seeks out Aaron Burr. Burr advises him to "talk less; smile more." Hamilton rebuffs Burr's philosophy ("Aaron Burr, Sir") and instead joins three revolutionaries he meets: abolitionist John Laurens, the flamboyant Marquis de Lafayette, and the tailor's apprentice Hercules Mulligan. Hamilton dazzles them with his oratory skills ("My Shot") and they dream of laying down their lives for the cause ("The Story of Tonight"). Meanwhile, the wealthy Schuyler sisters—Angelica, Eliza, and Peggy—wander the streets of New York, excited by the spirit of revolution in the air ("The Schuyler Sisters").

Samuel Seabury, a vocal Loyalist, preaches against the revolution, and Hamilton refutes and ridicules his statements ("Farmer Refuted"). A message arrives from King George III, reminding the colonists that he is willing and able to fight for their love ("You'll Be Back").

The revolution is underway, and Hamilton, Burr, and their friends join the Continental Army. As the army retreats from New York City, General George Washington realizes he needs help to win the war. Though Hamilton desires a command and to fight on the front lines, he recognizes the opportunity Washington offers him, and accepts a position as his aide-de-camp ("Right Hand Man").

In the winter of 1780, the men attend a ball given by Philip Schuyler, and Hamilton sets his sights on the man's daughters ("A Winter's Ball"). Eliza is instantly smitten, and after being introduced by Angelica, Eliza and Hamilton soon wed ("Helpless"). Meanwhile, Angelica is also intellectually and physically attracted to Hamilton, but swallows her feelings for the sake of her sister's happiness ("Satisfied"). Burr arrives to offer congratulations, and privately admits to Hamilton that he is having an affair with the wife of a British officer. Hamilton advises him to take action ("The Story of Tonight (Reprise)"). Burr, however, prefers to wait and see what life has in store for him ("Wait For It").

As the revolution continues, Hamilton repeatedly petitions Washington to give him command, but Washington refuses, instead promoting Charles Lee. This decision proves disastrous at the Battle of Monmouth, where Lee orders a retreat against Washington's orders, which prompts the commander to remove him from command in favor of Lafayette. Disgruntled, Lee spreads slanderous and vindictive rumors about Washington. Hamilton is offended, but Washington orders Hamilton to ignore the comments. Laurens volunteers to duel Lee so that Hamilton may avoid disobeying Washington's orders ("Stay Alive"). Laurens wins the duel by injuring Lee ("Ten Duel Commandments"). Washington is enraged at the duel, and orders Hamilton to return home to his wife ("Meet Me Inside"). When Hamilton returns home, Eliza tells him she is pregnant. She reassures a hesitant Hamilton that he is enough for her ("That Would Be Enough").

Lafayette takes a larger leadership role in the revolution, convincing France to join the American cause, and the balance shifts in favor of the Continental Army. Washington and Lafayette realize they can win the war by cutting off the British navy at Yorktown, but they will need Hamilton to do so, and the general reluctantly gives him his long-awaited command ("Guns and Ships"). On the eve of battle, Washington recalls his disastrous first command, and advises Hamilton that no man can control how he is remembered ("History Has Its Eyes on You"). After several days of fighting, the Continental Army is victorious. The British surrender in the last major battle of the war ("Yorktown (The World Turned Upside Down)"). His forces defeated, King George sarcastically asks the rebels how they expect to govern on their own without their people hating them ("What Comes Next?").

Soon after the revolution, Hamilton's son Philip is born, while Burr has a daughter, Theodosia ("Dear Theodosia"). Hamilton's moment of peace is shattered when news arrives that Laurens has been killed ("Tomorrow There'll Be More Of Us"). Hamilton and Burr both return to New York to finish their studies and pursue careers as lawyers. Burr is in awe of Hamilton's unyielding work ethic and becomes increasingly irritated by his success. Hamilton is chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787. Hamilton enlists James Madison and John Jay to write The Federalist Papers after Burr refuses. The newly elected President Washington enlists Hamilton for the job of Treasury Secretary, despite a helpless Eliza's pleas ("Non-Stop").

Act Two

In 1789, Thomas Jefferson returns to the U.S. from France, where he spent most of the Articles of Confederation era as an ambassador. Washington has asked him to be Secretary of State under the new Constitution, and Madison asks for Jefferson's help to stop Hamilton's financial plan, which Madison believes gives the government too much control ("What'd I Miss?"). Jefferson and Hamilton then engage in debate over the merits of Hamilton's financial plan during a Cabinet meeting. Washington pulls Hamilton aside, and tells him to figure out a compromise to win over Congress ("Cabinet Battle #1").

While working at home, Eliza reminds Hamilton of Philip's ninth birthday. Philip presents Hamilton with a short rap he composed, amazing his father. In England, Angelica corresponds with Hamilton, advising him to convince Jefferson of his plan so Congress accepts it, and informs him that she will be coming to New York to travel upstate to her father's home in Albany with their family. Upon arrival, Eliza and Angelica try to persuade Hamilton to accompany them on vacation, but Hamilton refuses, saying that he has to work on his plan for Congress, staying in New York while the family goes upstate. ("Take a Break").

While alone, Hamilton is visited by Maria Reynolds, who claims her husband is mistreating her. When Hamilton offers to help her, she seduces him and they begin an affair. Maria's husband James Reynolds blackmails Hamilton into paying him money; in return, Reynolds will not tell Hamilton's wife about the affair. Hamilton is furious with Maria, but pays Reynolds and continues the affair ("Say No To This").

Hamilton discusses his plan with Jefferson and Madison over a private dinner, which results in the Compromise of 1790, giving support to Hamilton's financial plan in exchange for moving the United States capital from New York to Washington, D.C., a site much closer to Jefferson's home in Virginia. Burr is envious of Hamilton's sway in the government and wishes he had similar power ("The Room Where It Happens").

Burr defeats Eliza's father, Philip Schuyler, in a race for his seat in the Senate. Hamilton considers Burr unprincipled, switching political parties seemingly for sole political gain; Burr says he was simply seizing the opportunity, driving a wedge between the two friends ("Schuyler Defeated").

In another cabinet meeting, Jefferson and Hamilton argue over whether the United States should assist France in their revolution. Washington ultimately agrees with Hamilton's argument for remaining neutral ("Cabinet Battle #2"). After the meeting, Burr, Jefferson, and Madison bemoan how nice it must be for Hamilton to always have Washington's support, and they seek a way to damage Hamilton's image ("Washington on Your Side").

Washington tells Hamilton that Jefferson has resigned from his position in government in order to run for president, and that Washington himself is stepping down. Hamilton is shocked, but Washington convinces him that it is the right thing to do, and they write a farewell address ("One Last Time"). In England, King George III receives news about Washington's step down from leadership and the election of John Adams. The king exits merrily, ready for the United States to fall under Adams' leadership ("I Know Him").

Adams and Hamilton have a huge altercation and effectively destroy the Federalist Party ("The Adams Administration"). Thinking they have discovered a scandal capable of destroying Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison and Burr accuse him of embezzling government money and committing treason. In reality, however, they found the transactions from his affair with Maria Reynolds. Hamilton, knowing that the truth is the only way out, tells them about his affair and begs them not to tell anyone ("We Know"). Still worried that they will tell, Hamilton thinks about how writing openly and honestly has saved him in the past ("Hurricane"), and publicly writes "The Reynolds Pamphlets" to come clean about the affair, hoping to save his political legacy ("The Reynolds Pamphlet"). His personal reputation, however, is ruined. In despondence, Eliza tearfully burns their correspondence, destroying Hamilton's chance at being redeemed by "future historians" and keeping the world from knowing how she reacted by "erasing herself from the narrative" ("Burn").

Years pass, and Hamilton's son Philip challenges a man named George Eacker to a duel for his slander of Hamilton's reputation. Philip aims for the sky from the beginning of the duel, but at the count of seven, Eacker shoots him ("Blow Us All Away"). Philip is taken to a doctor, accompanied by his father. A horrified Eliza arrives, and counts to nine in French with him as she used to when he was little ("Stay Alive (Reprise)"). In the aftermath of Philip's death, the Hamiltons move uptown. Hamilton asks for Eliza's forgiveness, which he eventually receives ("It's Quiet Uptown").

The presidential election of 1800 results in President John Adams being defeated, with Jefferson and Burr deadlocked in a tie. Hamilton is upset that Burr has once again changed his ideals for personal gain, and instead throws his support behind Jefferson, who ends up winning the delegates by a landslide ("The Election of 1800"). Burr, enraged, exchanges letters with Hamilton and challenges him to a duel ("Your Obedient Servant"). Before sunrise on the morning of the duel, Eliza asks Hamilton to come back to bed, but he says he has to leave before lovingly complimenting her ("Best of Wives and Best of Women").

Burr and Hamilton travel to Weehawken, New Jersey for the duel, near the site where Philip was shot. As a gunshot sounds, Hamilton soliloquizes on death, his relationships, and his legacy. He aims his pistol at the sky and is struck by Burr's shot, dying soon after. Burr laments that even though he survived, he's cursed to be the villain in history, remembered only as the man who killed Alexander Hamilton ("The World Was Wide Enough").

The company congregates to close the story. Washington enters and reminds the audience that they have no control over how they will be remembered. Jefferson and Madison collectively admit the genius of their political rival's work. Eliza explains how she fights to save her husband's legacy over the next 50 years and frets that she has not done enough, and she then asks the audience who will tell their story once she is gone. As she dies, Hamilton shows her all those who will care for and protect her legacy as she did for him ("Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Tells Your Story").[8]

Principal roles and major casts

Character Vassar Workshop (2013)[9] Off-Broadway (2015)[10] Original Broadway Cast (2015)[11] Current Broadway Cast
Alexander Hamilton Lin-Manuel Miranda/Javier Muñoz
Aaron Burr Utkarsh Ambudkar Leslie Odom, Jr.
Eliza Schuyler Hamilton Ana Nogueira Phillipa Soo
Angelica Schuyler Church Anika Noni Rose Renée Elise Goldsberry
Marquis de Lafayette / Thomas Jefferson Daveed Diggs
George Washington Christopher Jackson
King George III Joshua Henry Brian d'Arcy James Jonathan Groff Rory O'Malley
Peggy Schuyler / Maria Reynolds Presilah Nunez Jasmine Cephas Jones
John Laurens / Philip Hamilton Javier Muñoz Anthony Ramos
Hercules Mulligan / James Madison Joshua Henry Okieriete Onaodowan

Notable Broadway cast replacements

  • Jonathan Groff replaced Brian d'Arcy James as King George III in the show's Off-Broadway run on March 3, 2015.[12]
  • Andrew Rannells temporarily replaced Groff in the role of King George III from October 27 to November 29, 2015, while Groff filmed the wrap-up movie for his HBO series Looking in San Francisco.[13]
  • Rory O'Malley assumed the role of King George III from Groff on April 11, 2016.

Alternates and understudies

  • Javier Muñoz is currently the alternate for Alexander Hamilton, playing the role on Saturday matinees while the show is dark on Sundays for the summer.[14]
  • Jon Rua, who plays Charles Lee, is also the understudy for Miranda and Muñoz as Hamilton. He has performed the role a number of times since December 2015. [15][16]
  • Alysha Deslorieux acts as standby for Angelica, Eliza, Peggy, and Maria.
  • Sydney James Harcourt and Austin Smith understudy the roles of both Aaron Burr and George Washington.
  • Andrew Chappelle understudies the roles of Lafayette, Thomas Jefferson, Phillip Hamilton, John Laurens, James Madison, and Hercules Mulligan.
  • Thayne Jasperson, Seth Stewart, and Ephraim Sykes understudy for Laurens/Phillip, Jefferson/Lafayette, and Madison/Mulligan, respectively.
  • Emmy Raver-Lampmon is the understudy for Angelica, Eliza, and Peggy/Maria.
  • Betsy Struxness, Carleigh Bettiol, and Sasha Hutchings understudy for Angelica, Eliza, and Peggy/Maria, respectively.


Original Workshop Cast 2014[17] Original Off-Broadway Ensemble 2015[18] Original Broadway Ensemble 2015[19]
Ensemble Jon Rua[20] as Charles Lee
Thayne Jasperson as Samuel Seabury
Sydney James Harcourt as James Reynolds / Phillip Schuyler
Ephraim Sykes as George Eacker
Daniel Watts Seth Stewart
N/A Austin Smith
Carleigh Bettiol[21]
Betsy Struxness
Sasha Hutchings
Ariana Debose
N/A Emmy Raver-Lampman
Swing/Dance Captain N/A Voltaire Wade Greene
Stephanie Klemons[22] Morgan Marcel
Swing N/A Voltaire Wade Greene Neil Haskell
Swing/Stand by N/A Andrew Chappelle
Stand by N/A Alysha Deslorieux
Dance Supervisor N/A Stephanie Klemons

Musical numbers

†† Included only in off-Broadway Workshop Production

‡‡ Songs that were longer or different in off-Broadway Production, than in Broadway Production

‡‡‡ The song "Congratulations", a reprise to "Satisfied," in a shortened version is a part of "The Reynolds Pamphlet" in the Broadway production

  • "Aaron Burr, Sir", " A Winter's Ball", "Story of Tonight (Reprise)", "Meet Me Inside", "Guns and Ships", "What Comes Next", "Cabinet Battle #1", "Cabinet Battle #2", "I Know Him", "We Know", "Stay Alive (Reprise)", and "Best of Wives and Best of Women" were not included on the Song List on the Opening Night Playbill.
  • "A Winter's Ball", "Guns and Ships", "Non-Stop" "What'd I Miss", "The Adams Administration" and "Your Obedient Servant" contains reprises of the title song - "Alexander Hamilton"
  • "Non-Stop" features parts from several songs including "Alexander Hamilton", "Aaron Burr, Sir", "My Shot", "The Schuyler Sisters", "Right Hand Man", "Helpless", "Satisfied", "Wait for It", and "History Has its Eyes on You".


The original Broadway cast recording for Hamilton was made available to listeners by NPR on September 21, 2015.[25] It was released by Atlantic Records digitally on September 25, 2015, and physical copies were released on October 16, 2015.[26] The cast album has also been released on vinyl.[27]

The album debuted at number 12 on the Billboard 200 albums chart, the highest entrance for a cast recording since 1963.[28] It went on to reach number 1 on the Billboard Rap albums chart.[29]

The original cast recording has won a Grammy Award for Best Musical Theater Album.[30]

Chart history

Chart (2015) Peak
Rap Albums 1
Broadway Cast Albums 1
Billboard Top 200 12
Top Current Albums 9


Off-Broadway (2015)

Directed by Thomas Kail and choreographed by Andy Blankenbuehler, the musical received its world premiere Off-Broadway at The Public Theater, under the supervision of the Public's Artistic Director Oskar Eustis, with previews starting on January 20, 2015 and officially opening on February 17.[31][32] The production was extended twice, first to April 5 and then to May 3.[33] Chernow served as historical consultant to the production.[34][35] The show opened to universal acclaim according to review aggregator Did He Like It.[36]


The Hamilton cast and crew greets President Barack Obama, 2015

Hamilton premiered on Broadway at the Richard Rodgers Theatre (home to Miranda's 2008 Broadway debut In the Heights) on July 13, 2015 in previews, and opened on August 6, 2015.[37] The production is produced by Jeffrey Seller and features scenic design by David Korins, costumes by Paul Tazewell, lighting by Howell Binkley and sound by Nevin Steinberg, who all reprised their roles from the off-Broadway production.[38]

The production was critically acclaimed by many theater analysts.[37][39][40]

Chicago (2016)

Hamilton will have a separate sit-down production at the PrivateBank Theatre in Chicago starting on September 27, 2016.[41]

First U.S. national tour (2017)

Plans for a national tour of Hamilton emerged near the end of January 2016. The touring production is expected to begin at San Francisco's SHN Orpheum Theatre in March 2017, where it will play for 21 weeks. The production will then head to Los Angeles' Hollywood Pantages Theatre for a run from August 11 to December 30, 2017. Announced cities include Atlanta; Boston; Costa Mesa, Calif.; Des Moines; Houston; Las Vegas; Los Angeles; Portland, Ore.; Seattle; Tempe, Ariz., and Washington.[42]

International productions

Jeffrey Seller, a producer of Hamilton, is working with the British producer Cameron Mackintosh on a Hamilton production to open in London in 2017, which will be followed by companies in Continental Europe and Australia.[43]


File:Eliza musical motif in Hamilton (musical).ogg
The names of many main characters, including that of Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, are given a unique melodic motif that is repeated throughout the musical Hamilton in various keys, tempos, and timbres depending on the context. This is one example of how Hamilton weaves melodic and lyrical reprises into later songs in the score in order to cue an emotional response.

According to an article in The New Yorker, the show is "an achievement of historical and cultural reimagining." The costumes and set reflect the period, with "velvet frock coats and knee britches. The set ...is a wooden scaffold against exposed brick; the warm lighting suggests candlelight."[34] The musical is mostly sung-through, with little dialogue.[9][44]

Miranda said that the portrayal of Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and other Caucasian historical figures by black and Hispanic actors should not require any substantial suspension of disbelief by audience members. "Our cast looks like America looks now, and that's certainly intentional," he said. "It's a way of pulling you into the story and allowing you to leave whatever cultural baggage you have about the founding fathers at the door."[45] He noted "We're telling the story of old, dead white men but we're using actors of color, and that makes the story more immediate and more accessible to a contemporary audience."[46]

"Hamilton is a story about America, and the most beautiful thing about it is...it's told by such a diverse cast with a such diverse styles of music," says Renee Elise Goldberry, the actress who plays Angelica Schuyler, "We have the opportunity to reclaim a history that some of us don't necessarily think is our own."[47] The creator insists that all of the Founding Fathers be played by people of color, i.e. non-white and is open to women playing as the Founding Fathers.[48]

Historical accuracy

The Hamilton musical, being a dramatic work of art, does contain a lot of historical accuracy, but Miranda also takes dramatic license in a few areas. While Angelica did have a strong relationship with Hamilton, it is exaggerated in the show due to a few key changes. During "Satisfied," Angelica explains why Hamilton is not suitable for her despite wanting him. In particular, she states, "I'm a girl in a world in which my only job is to marry rich. My father has no sons so I'm the one who has to social climb." In actuality, Angelica had less pressure on her to do this. There were actually fifteen children of Philip Schuyler, including two sons who survived into adulthood (one of whom was New York State Assemblyman Philip Jeremiah Schuyler), and Angelica had eloped with John Barker Church several years before she met Hamilton. Miranda stated that he chose to do this because it is stronger dramatically if Angelica is available but can't marry him.[49][50] In addition, in Act I, Burr's role in Hamilton's life is overstated and much of the early interactions between the two men in the show are fictionalized. For example, while Burr was present at the Battle on Monmouth, Burr did not serve as Charles Lee's second in his duel with John Laurens as seen in "Ten Duel Commandments", Lee's second was Evan Edwards. Hamilton also never approached Burr to help write the Federalist Papers as portrayed in "Non-Stop".

In Act II, there are multiple inaccuracies throughout Hamilton's decline, probably due to time constraints and narrative arc. While it is true that John Adams and Hamilton did not particularly get along, John Adams did not fire Hamilton as told in the show. Hamilton resigned from his position as Secretary of the Treasury in 1795, two years before Adams became president. However, Hamilton remained close friends with Washington and highly influential in the political sphere.[51] In addition, Jefferson, Madison and Burr did not approach Hamilton about his affair, it was actually James Monroe and Frederick Muhlenberg in 1792. Monroe was a close friend of Jefferson's and shared the information of Hamilton's affair with him. In 1796, journalist James Callendar broke the story of Hamilton's infidelity. Hamilton blamed Monroe, and the altercation nearly ended in a duel. With nothing left to do, Hamilton then published the Reynolds pamphlet.[52] Lastly, it was not the Presidential Election of 1800 that led to Burr and Hamilton's duel. Burr did in fact become Jefferson's Vice-President, but when Jefferson decided to not run with Burr for reelection in 1804, Burr opted to run for Governor of New York instead. Burr lost to Morgan Lewis in a landslide. Afterwards, a letter was published from Charles D. Cooper to Philip Schuyler, claiming that Hamilton called Burr, "a dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government," and that he knew of "a still more despicable opinion which General Hamilton has expressed of Mr. Burr."[53] This led to the letters between Burr and Hamilton as seen in the show in "Your Obedient Servant."

The show has also been critiqued for a simplistic depiction of Hamilton and vilification of Jefferson. Joanne B. Freeman, professor of history and American studies at Yale University, writes, "The real Hamilton was a mass of contradictions: an immigrant who sometimes distrusted immigrants, a revolutionary who placed a supreme value on law and order, a man who distrusted the rumblings of the masses yet preached his politics to them more frequently and passionately than many of his more democracy-friendly fellows."[54] According to historian Howard Zinn, author of A People's History of the United States, Hamilton "was one of the most forceful and astute leaders of the new aristocracy" that emerged after independence.[55] He quotes Hamilton as arguing:

All communities divide themselves into the few and the many. The first are the rich and well-born, the other the mass of the people... The people are turbulent and changing; they seldom judge or determine right. Give therefore to the first class a distinct and permanent share in the government.

Another historian, Shane White, also states that the show's depiction of the founding of the United States stems from an outdated narrative that a few great men built the country. White says that historians now view the founding in a new way: "Attempting to get away from the Great Men story of the founding fathers, these scholars have incorporated ordinary people, African-Americans, Native Americans and women and placed the whole half-century in the broader contexts of the Atlantic World. In this more inclusive and nuanced telling of the republic's creation, Hamilton plays a cameo rather than leading role."[56]

Yet another historian, Lyra Monteiro, criticized that the show's multi-ethnic casting obscures the complete lack of identifiable enslaved or free persons of color as characters in the show.[57]

Use in education

KQED News wrote of a "growing number of intrepid U.S. history teachers...who are harnessing the Hamilton phenomenon to inspire their students."[58] The Cabinet rap battles provide a way to engage students with topics that have traditionally been considered uninteresting.[58] An elective course for 11th and 12th graders on the musical Hamilton was held at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School in New York.[58] KQED News added that "Hamilton is especially galvanizing for the student who believes that stories about 18th century America are distant and irrelevant" as it shows the founding fathers were real humans with real feeling and real flaws, rather than "bloodless, two-dimensional cutouts who devoted their lives to abstract principles."[58] A high school teacher from the Bronx noted his students were "singing these songs the way they might sing the latest release from Drake or Adele."[59] One teacher focused on Hamilton's ability to write his way out of trouble and toward a higher plane of existence: "skilled writing is the clearest sign of scholarship — and the best way to rise up and alter your circumstance."[60]

Hamilton's producers have made a pledge to allow 20,000 New York City public high school students from low-income families to get subsidized tickets to see Hamilton on Broadway by reducing their tickets to $70 for students, and the Rockefeller Foundation provided $1.5 million to further lower ticket prices to $10 per student.[61][62] The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History created a study guide to accompany the student-ticket program.[62][61]

The website EducationWorld writes that Hamilton is "being praised for its revitalization of interest in civic education."[63]

Critical response

Marilyn Stasio, in her review of the Off-Broadway production for Variety, wrote: "The music is exhilarating, but the lyrics are the big surprise. The sense as well as the sound of the sung dialogue has been purposely suited to each character. George Washington, a stately figure in Jackson's dignified performance, sings in polished prose... But in the end, Miranda's impassioned narrative of one man's story becomes the collective narrative of a nation, a nation built by immigrants who occasionally need to be reminded where they came from."[64]

In his review of the Off-Broadway production, Jesse Green in New York wrote: "The conflict between independence and interdependence is not just the show's subject but also its method: It brings the complexity of forming a union from disparate constituencies right to your ears.... Few are the theatergoers who will be familiar with all of Miranda's touchstones. I caught the verbal references to Rodgers and Hammerstein, Gilbert and Sullivan, Sondheim, West Side Story, and 1776, but other people had to point out to me the frequent hat-tips to hip-hop... Whether it's a watershed, a breakthrough, and a game changer, as some have been saying, is another matter. Miranda is too savvy (and loves his antecedents too much) to try to reinvent all the rules at once.... Those duels, by the way — there are three of them — are superbly handled, the highlights of a riveting if at times overbusy staging by the director Thomas Kail and the choreographer Andy Blankenbuehler."[65]

Ben Brantley in reviewing the Broadway production in The New York Times, wrote: "I am loath to tell people to mortgage their houses and lease their children to acquire tickets to a hit Broadway show. But Hamilton, directed by Thomas Kail and starring Mr. Miranda, might just about be worth it.... Washington, Jefferson, Madison – they're all here, making war and writing constitutions and debating points of economic structure. So are Aaron Burr and the Marquis de Lafayette. They wear the clothes (by Paul Tazewell) you might expect them to wear in a traditional costume drama, and the big stage they inhabit has been done up (by David Korins) to suggest a period-appropriate tavern, where incendiary youth might gather to drink, brawl and plot revolution."[37]

David Cote in his review of the Broadway production for Time Out New York wrote "I love Hamilton. I love it like I love New York, or Broadway when it gets it right. And this is so right... A sublime conjunction of radio-ready hip-hop (as well as R&B, Britpop and trad showstoppers), under-dramatized American history and Miranda's uniquely personal focus as a first-generation Puerto Rican and inexhaustible wordsmith, Hamilton hits multilevel culture buttons, hard... The work's human drama and novelistic density remain astonishing." He chose Hamilton as a Critics' Pick, and gave the production five out of five stars.[66]

A review in The Economist notes that the production enjoys "near-universal critical acclaim."[67] Barack Obama joked that admiration for the musical is "the only thing Dick Cheney and I agree on."[68]

Box office and business

The musical's engagement at the Off-Broadway Public Theater was sold-out.[2]

When the musical opened on Broadway, it had a multimillion-dollar advance in ticket sales, reportedly taking in $30 million before its official opening.[69] Hamilton was the second-highest-grossing show on Broadway for the Labor Day week ending September 6, 2015 (behind only the The Lion King).[70] As of September 2015, the show has been sold out for most of its Broadway engagement.[3]

Hamilton, like other Broadway musicals, offers a lottery before every show. Twenty-one front row seats and occasional standing room are given out in the lottery. Chosen winners are able to purchase two tickets at $10 each. Unlike other Broadway shows, Hamilton's lottery process drew in large crowds of people that created a congestion problem for West 46th Street. Even though many people were not able to win the lottery, Hamilton creator Lin Manuel-Miranda prepared mini-performances, right before the lotteries were drawn. They were dubbed the '#Ham4Ham' shows, due to the fact that if you won, you gave a Hamilton (a $10 bill) in exchange for seeing the show. People were then able to experience a part of the show even when they did not win the lottery.[71] The lottery was eventually placed online to avoid increasing crowds and dangerous traffic conditions.[72] On its first day, more than 50,000 people entered, which resulted in the website crashing.[73] Trevor Boffone in his essay on HowlRound wrote: "Ham4Ham follows a long tradition of Latina/o (or the ancestors of present-day Latina/os) theatremaking that dates back to when the events in Hamilton were happening. (...) The philosophy behind this is simple. If the people won't come to the theatre, then take the theatre to the people. While El Teatro Campesino's 'taking it to the streets' originated from a place of social protest, Ham4Ham does so to create accessibility, tap into social media, and ultimately generate a free, self-functioning marketing campaign. In this way, Ham4Ham falls into a lineage of accessibility as a Latina/o theatremaking aesthetic."[74]

Awards and nominations

Original Off-Broadway production

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2015 Lucille Lortel Awards[75] Outstanding Musical Won
Outstanding Director Thomas Kail Won
Outstanding Choreographer Andy Blankenbuehler Won
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Musical Lin-Manuel Miranda Won
Leslie Odom, Jr. Nominated
Outstanding Lead Actress in a Musical Phillipa Soo Won
Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical Daveed Diggs Won
Brian d'Arcy James Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical Renée Elise Goldsberry Won
Outstanding Costume Design Paul Tazewell Won
Outstanding Lighting Design Howell Binkley Won
Outstanding Sound Design Nevin Steinberg Won
Outer Critics Circle Awards[76] Outstanding New Off-Broadway Musical Won
Outstanding Book of a Musical Lin-Manuel Miranda Won
Outstanding New Score Won
Outstanding Director of a Musical Thomas Kail Nominated
Outstanding Choreographer Andy Blankenbuehler Nominated
Drama League Awards[77] Outstanding Production of a Broadway or Off-Broadway Musical Nominated
Distinguished Performance Daveed Diggs Nominated
Lin-Manuel Miranda Nominated
Drama Desk Awards[78] Outstanding Musical Won
Outstanding Actor in a Musical Lin-Manuel Miranda Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical Leslie Odom, Jr. Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical Renée Elise Goldsberry Won
Outstanding Director of a Musical Thomas Kail Won
Outstanding Music Lin-Manuel Miranda Won
Outstanding Lyrics Won
Outstanding Book of a Musical Won
Outstanding Orchestrations Alex Lacamoire Nominated
Outstanding Set Design David Korins Nominated
Outstanding Costume Design Paul Tazewell Nominated
Outstanding Lighting Design Howell Binkley Nominated
Outstanding Sound Design in a Musical Nevin Steinberg Won
Special Award Andy Blankenbuehler Won
New York Drama Critics' Circle Awards[79] Best Musical Won
Off Broadway Alliance Awards[80] Best New Musical Won
Theatre World Awards[81] Outstanding Debut Performance Daveed Diggs Won
Clarence Derwent Awards[82] Most Promising Female Performer Phillipa Soo Won
Obie Awards[83] Best New American Theatre Work Lin-Manuel Miranda, Thomas Kail, Andy Blankenbuehler, Alex Lacamoire Won
Edgerton Foundation New American Play Awards[84] Won

‡ Blankenbuehler received a Special Drama Desk Award for "his inspired and heart-stopping choreography in Hamilton, which is indispensible to the musical's storytelling. His body of work is versatile, yet a dynamic and fluid style is consistently evident. When it's time to 'take his shot,' Blankenbuehler hits the bull's-eye."[78]

Original Broadway production

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2016 Tony Awards[85] Best Musical Pending
Best Book of a Musical Lin-Manuel Miranda Pending
Best Original Score Pending
Best Actor in a Musical Pending
Leslie Odom, Jr. Pending
Best Actress in a Musical Phillipa Soo Pending
Best Featured Actor in a Musical Daveed Diggs Pending
Jonathan Groff Pending
Christopher Jackson Pending
Best Featured Actress in a Musical Renée Elise Goldsberry Pending
Best Scenic Design of a Musical David Korins Pending
Best Costume Design of a Musical Paul Tazewell Pending
Best Lighting Design of a Musical Howell Binkley Pending
Best Direction of a Musical Thomas Kail Pending
Best Choreography Andy Blankenbuehler Pending
Best Orchestrations Alex Lacamoire Pending
Drama League Awards[86] Outstanding Production of a Broadway or Off-Broadway Musical Won
Distinguished Performance Daveed Diggs Nominated
Lin-Manuel Miranda Won
Pulitzer Prize Drama Won
Grammy Awards[30] Best Musical Theater Album Daveed Diggs, Renée Elise Goldsberry, Jonathan Groff, Christopher Jackson, Jasmine Cephas Jones, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Leslie Odom, Jr., Okieriete Onaodowan, Anthony Ramos & Phillipa Soo (principal soloists); Alex Lacamoire, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Bill Sherman, Ahmir Thompson & Tariq Trotter (producers); Lin-Manuel Miranda (composer & lyricist) Won
Fred and Adele Astaire Awards[87] Outstanding Ensemble in a Broadway Show Nominated
Best Choreographer Andy Blankenbuehler Won
Best Male Dancer Daveed Diggs Nominated
NAACP Image Awards[88] Outstanding Duo, Group or Collaboration Original Broadway Cast Nominated
Dramatists Guild of America Awards[89] Frederick Loewe Award for Dramatic Composition Lin-Manuel Miranda Won
Edward M. Kennedy Prize[90] Drama Inspired by American History Won


Publication Accolade Rank
Billboard 25 Best Albums of 2015[91] 2
Rolling Stone 50 Best Albums of 2015[92] 8


In 2015, the U.S. Department of the Treasury announced a redesign to the $10 bill, with plans to replace Hamilton with a then undecided woman from American history. Because of Hamilton's surging popularity, due in part as a result of the musical, United States Treasury Secretary Jack Lew reversed the plans to replace Hamilton's portrait, instead deciding to replace Andrew Jackson with Harriet Tubman on the $20 bill.[93]

On April 12, 2016, Miranda and Jeremy McCarter's book, Hamilton: The Revolution, was released, detailing Hamilton's journey from an idea to a successful Broadway musical. It includes an inside look at not only Alexander Hamilton's revolution, but the cultural revolution that permeates the show. It also has footnotes from Miranda and stories from behind the scenes of the show.[94]

See also


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External links