Hans Jenisch

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Hans Jenisch
File:Hans Jenisch.jpg
Born (1913-10-19)19 October 1913
Gerdauen, East Prussia
Died 29 April 1982(1982-04-29) (aged 68)
Kronshagen near Kiel
Allegiance  Nazi Germany (to 1945)
 West Germany
Service/branch  Kriegsmarine
 German Navy
Years of service 1933–45
1956–72
Rank Kapitänleutnant (Kriegsmarine)
Kapitän zur See (Bundesmarine)
Unit SSS Gorch Fock
cruiser Karlsruhe
cruiser Deutschland
Commands held U-32
Hipper
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Hans Jenisch (19 October 1913 – 29 April 1982) was a Kapitänleutnant in Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II and a Kapitän zur See in West Germany's Bundesmarine. He commanded the Type VIIA U-boat U-32, sinking seventeen ships on seven patrols, for a total of 110,139 gross register tons (GRT) of Allied shipping, to become the 26th highest scoring U-Boat ace of World War II.

Career

Jenisch joined the navy, then named Reichsmarine, in 1933, and after serving in the cruiser Deutschland transferred to the U-boat arm in 1937. He served as 1WO (second-in-command) of U-32 under Werner Lott, before taking command of the U-boat in February 1940.

Empress of Britain

On 26 October 1940, Empress of Britain was spotted by a German Focke-Wulf C 200 Condor long-range bomber, commanded by Oberleutnant Bernhard Jope. Jope's bomber strafed Empress of Britain three times and hit her twice with 250 kilograms (550 lb) bombs causing severe damage to the ship. Jenisch had been informed of the location of the damaged vessel and intercepted her on the evening of 27 October. Jenisch fired three torpedoes, hitting her twice. Empress of Britain sank at 02:05 on 28 October 1940. At 42,348 gross tons, she was the largest ship sunk by a German U-boat.[1]

Capture

Jenisch was captured on 30 October 1940 after U-32 was sunk north-west of Ireland by the British destroyers Harvester and Highlander. Nine of her crew died, but 33 survived to be taken prisoner, including Jenisch. He spent the next 6.5 years in British captivity before his return to Germany in June 1947.[2]

Post-war

Even though Jenisch became known as a celebrated U-boat commander, his subsequent assessment of submarines was highly negative. In POW camp, he told a shocked Wilfried Prellberg (ex-CO of U-31) he considered submarines in warfare "obsolete. All of it." On joining the West German Bundesmarine in 1956, Jenisch held staff positions and commanded the training frigate Hipper (originally a Black Swan-class sloop, the ex-HMS Actaeon) for a time.[2][3]

Jenisch was Divisional Training Commander at the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr in Hamburg from 1 October 1966 to 31 March 1970. He retired in 1972 with the rank of Kapitän zur See, and died in 1982.[2]

Summary of career

Ships attacked

During seven patrols he sank 17 ships, including the 42,348 ton RMS Empress of Britain, for a career total of 110,139 GRT, as well as damaging 3 ships for 22,749 tons, including the cruiser HMS Fiji.[2]

Date Name of Ship Nationality Tonnage Fate[4]
2 March 1940 Lagaholm  Sweden 2,818 Sunk
18 June 1940 Altair  Norway 1,522 Sunk
18 June 1940 Nuevo Ons  Spain 108 Sunk
18 June 1940 Sálvora  Spain 108 Sunk
19 June 1940 Labud  Yugoslavia 5,334 Sunk
22 June 1940 Eli Knudsen  Norway 9,026 Sunk
30 August 1940 Chelsea  United Kingdom 4,804 Sunk
30 August 1940 Mill Hill  United Kingdom 4,318 Sunk
30 August 1940 Norne  Norway 3,971 Sunk
1 September 1940 HMS Fiji  United Kingdom 8,000 Damaged
22 September 1940 Collegian  United Kingdom 7,886 Damaged
25 September 1940 Mabriton  United Kingdom 6,694 Sunk
26 September 1940 Corrientes  United Kingdom 6,863 Damaged
26 September 1940 Darcoila  United Kingdom 4,084 Sunk
26 September 1940 Tancred  Norway 6,094 Sunk
28 September 1940 Empire Ocelot  United Kingdom 5,759 Sunk
29 September 1940 Bassa  United Kingdom 5,267 Sunk
30 September 1940 Haulerwijk  Netherlands 3,278 Sunk
2 October 1940 Kayeson  United Kingdom 4,606 Sunk
28 October 1940 Empress of Britain  United Kingdom 42,348 Sunk

Awards

Wehrmachtbericht references

Date Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording Direct English translation
Thursday, 12 September 1940 Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung vom Oberleutnant zur See Jenisch, von dem bereits ein Teilergebnis von 21 000 BRT gemeldet worden ist, hat auf einer Unternehmung insgesamt 40 000 BRT feindlichen Handelsschiffraum aus stark gesicherten Geleitzügen heraus versenkt.[8] A submarine under the command of First Lieutenant at Sea Jenisch, of which already a partial result of 21 000 GRT had been reported, has sunk on an undertaking 40 000 GRT of enemy merchant shipping from a heavily protected convoy.
Tuesday, 1 October 1940 Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung von Oberleutnant zur See Jenisch versenkte sechs bewaffnete feindliche Handelsschiffe mit 34 760 BRT.[9] A submarine under the command of First Lieutenant at Sea Jenisch sank six armed enemy merchant ships with 34 760 GRT.
Thursday, 3 October 1940 Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung des Oberleutnants zur Sea Jenisch hat auf einer Unternehmung insgesamt acht bewaffnete feindliche Handelsschiffe mit 42 644 BRT versenkt. Damit hat Oberleutnant zur See Jenisch allein auf zwei Feindfahrten 82 644 BRT feindlichen Handelsschiffsraums vernichtet.[10] A submarine under the command of Lieutenant at sea Jenisch has sunk on an undertaking eight armed enemy merchant ships of 42 644 GRT. Thus Lieutenant at Sea Jenisch destroyed on only two patrols against the enemy 82 644 GRT of enemy merchant shipping.
Monday, 28 October 1940 Das von Luftstreitkräften bombardierte und in Brand gesetzte 42 000 BRT große britische Transportschiff "Empress of Britain", das die Engländer unter starker Sicherung durch Zerstörer und Bewacher einbringen versuchten, ist von dem unter Führung des Oberleutnants zur See Jenisch stehenden Unterseeboot torpediert und versenkt worden.[11] The by the air force bombed and set on fire 42 000 GRT British transport ship "Empress of Britain", which the British attempted to bring to safety by heavy security forces composed of destroyers und guards, was torpedoed and sunk by an submarine under the leadership of Lieutenant at Sea Jenisch.

References

Notes
  1. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Empress of Britain (Steam passenger ship)". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 27 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Helgason, Guðmundur. "Kapitänleutnant Hans Jenisch". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 19 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Neitzel & Welzer (2012)
  4. http://uboat.net/boats/successes/u32/html
  5. 5.0 5.1 Busch & Röll 2003, p. 75.
  6. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 243.
  7. Scherzer 2007, p. 419.
  8. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 302.
  9. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 316.
  10. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, pp. 318–319.
  11. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 342.
Bibliography
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (2003). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939–1945 — Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 (in German). Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 978-3-8132-0515-2. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Kurowski, Franz (1995). Knight's Cross Holders of the U-Boat Service. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-748-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Neitzel, Sönke & Welzer, Harald (2012): Soldaten: On Fighting, Killing and Dying: The Secret Second World War Tapes of German POWs.
  • Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, 1. Januar 1942 bis 31. Dezember 1943 (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "Hans Jenisch". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 16 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>