Homosexuality is romantic or sexual attraction toward a member of one's own sex. Along with heterosexuality and bisexuality, homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual–homosexual continuum. Scientists do not fully understand the etiology of sexual orientation, but they believe that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences, and do not view it as a choice. They favor biologically-based theories, which point to genetic factors, the early uterine environment, both, or the inclusion of genetic and social factors.
Homosexuality may also be used to "refer to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions." The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, though gay is also used to refer generally to both homosexual males and females. The number of people who identify as gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who have same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay or lesbian people not openly identifying as such due to homophobia and heterosexist discrimination. Homosexual behavior has also been documented and is observed in many non-human animal species.
Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships, though only recently have census forms and political conditions facilitated their visibility and enumeration. These relationships are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential psychological respects. Homosexual relationships and acts have been admired, as well as condemned, throughout recorded history, depending on the form they took and the culture in which they occurred.
Since the end of the 19th century, there has been a global movement towards increased visibility, recognition, and legal rights for homosexual people, including the rights to marriage and civil unions, adoption and parenting, employment, military service, equal access to health care, and the introduction of anti-bullying legislation to protect gay minors.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Sexuality and identity
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Medical and scientific views
- 6 Parenting
- 7 Health
- 8 Law and politics
- 9 Society and sociology
- 9.1 Public opinion
- 9.2 Relationships
- 9.3 Religion
- 9.4 Popular Opposition
- 10 Homosexual behavior in other animals
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The word homosexual is a Greek and Latin hybrid, with the first element derived from Greek ὁμός homos, "same" (not related to the Latin homo, "man", as in Homo sapiens), thus connoting sexual acts and affections between members of the same sex, including lesbianism. The first known appearance of homosexual in print is found in an 1869 German pamphlet by the Austrian-born novelist Karl-Maria Kertbeny, published anonymously, arguing against a Prussian anti-sodomy law. In 1886, Richard von Krafft-Ebing used the terms homosexual and heterosexual in his book Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing's book was so popular among both laymen and doctors that the terms "heterosexual" and "homosexual" became the most widely accepted terms for sexual orientation. As such, the current use of the term has its roots in the broader 19th-century tradition of personality taxonomy.
Many modern style guides in the U.S. recommend against using homosexual as a noun, instead using gay man or lesbian. Similarly, some recommend completely avoiding usage of homosexual as it has a negative, clinical history and because the word only refers to one's sexual behavior (as opposed to romantic feelings) and thus it has a negative connotation. Gay and lesbian are the most common alternatives. The first letters are frequently combined to create the initialism LGBT (sometimes written as GLBT), in which B and T refer to bisexual and transgender people.
Gay especially refers to male homosexuality, but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people. In the context of sexuality, lesbian refers only to female homosexuality. The word lesbian is derived from the name of the Greek island Lesbos, where the poet Sappho wrote largely about her emotional relationships with young women.
Although early writers also used the adjective homosexual to refer to any single-sex context (such as an all-girls school), today the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attraction, activity, and orientation. The term homosocial is now used to describe single-sex contexts that are not specifically sexual. There is also a word referring to same-sex love, homophilia.
Some synonyms for same-sex attraction or sexual activity include men who have sex with men or MSM (used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity) and homoerotic (referring to works of art). Pejorative terms in English include queer, faggot, fairy, poof, and homo. Beginning in the 1990s, some of these have been reclaimed as positive words by gay men and lesbians, as in the usage of queer studies, queer theory, and even the popular American television program Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. The word homo occurs in many other languages without the pejorative connotations it has in English. As with ethnic slurs and racial slurs, however, the misuse of these terms can still be highly offensive; the range of acceptable use depends on the context and speaker. Conversely, gay, a word originally embraced by homosexual men and women as a positive, affirmative term (as in gay liberation and gay rights), has come into widespread pejorative use among young people.
Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death.
In a detailed compilation of historical and ethnographic materials of Preindustrial Cultures, "strong disapproval of homosexuality was reported for 41% of 42 cultures; it was accepted or ignored by 21%, and 12% reported no such concept. Of 70 ethnographies, 59% reported homosexuality absent or rare in frequency and 41% reported it present or not uncommon."
In cultures influenced by Abrahamic religions, the law and the church established sodomy as a transgression against divine law or a crime against nature. The condemnation of anal sex between males, however, predates Christian belief. It was frequent in ancient Greece; "unnatural" can be traced back to Plato.
Many historical figures, including Socrates, Lord Byron, Edward II, and Hadrian, have had terms such as gay or bisexual applied to them; some scholars, such as Michel Foucault, have regarded this as risking the anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality foreign to their times, though others challenge this.
In social science, there has been a dispute between "essentialist" and "constructionist" views of homosexuality. The debate divides those who believe that terms such as "gay" and "straight" refer to objective, culturally invariant properties of persons from those who believe that the experiences they name are artifacts of unique cultural and social processes. "Essentialists" typically believe that sexual preferences are determined by biological forces, while "constructionists" assume that sexual desires are learned. Philosopher of science Michael Ruse has stated that the social constructionist approach, which is influenced by Foucault, is based on a selective reading of the historical record that confuses the existence of homosexual people with how they are labelled or treated.
The first record of possible homosexual couple in history is commonly regarded as Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum, an ancient Egyptian male couple, who lived around 2400 BCE. The pair are portrayed in a nose-kissing position, the most intimate pose in Egyptian art, surrounded by what appear to be their heirs. Anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle. E. E. Evans-Pritchard also recorded that male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands.
Among indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to European colonization, a common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual. Typically this individual was recognized early in life, given a choice by the parents to follow the path and, if the child accepted the role, raised in the appropriate manner, learning the customs of the gender it had chosen. Two-Spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life was with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex.
Homosexual and transgender individuals were also common among other pre-conquest civilizations in Latin America, such as the Aztecs, Mayans, Quechuas, Moches, Zapotecs, and the Tupinambá of Brazil.
The Aztecs exhibited a profound duality in their approach to sexual behavior. On one hand, they held public rituals which were at times very erotic, but on the other, they were extremely prudish in everyday life. In their pantheon, the Aztecs worshiped a deity, Xochiquetzal, who was the goddess of non-procreative sexuality and love, and both female and male at the same time. In her male aspect, called Xochipilli, was worshiped as the deity of male homosexuality and male prostitution. Aztecs placed a high premium on "manly", "assertive" behavior, and a corresponding stigma on "submissive" behavior. When conquered people were not sacrificed on temple altars, the males of conquered nations were often demoted to the status of women. The penalties for male homosexual intercourse were severe. Mexica law punished sodomy with the gallows, impalement for the active homosexual, extraction of the entrails through the anal orifice for the passive homosexual, and death by garrote for the lesbians. In Tenochtitlan, they hanged homosexuals. In nearby Texcoco, the active partner was "bound to a stake, completely covered with ashes and so left to die; the entrails of the passive agent were drawn out through his anus, he was then covered with ashes, and wood being added, the pile was ignited."
The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover sodomy openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches (as the Spanish called them) under their rule to severe penalties, including public execution, burning and being torn to pieces by dogs.
In 1998, the state of Hawaii passed a constitutional amendment against gay marriage. In 2013 a ruling, by the state attorney general on this amendment, allowed the government to pass a statute legalizing gay marriage.
In East Asia, same-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history.
Homosexuality in China, known as the passions of the cut peach and various other euphemisms has been recorded since approximately 600 BCE. Homosexuality was mentioned in many famous works of Chinese literature. The instances of same-sex affection and sexual interactions described in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber seem as familiar to observers in the present as do equivalent stories of romances between heterosexual people during the same period. Confucianism, being primarily a social and political philosophy, focused little on sexuality, whether homosexual or heterosexual. Ming Dynasty literature, such as Bian Er Chai (弁而釵/弁而钗), portray homosexual relationships between men as more enjoyable and more "harmonious" than heterosexual relationships. Writings from the Liu Song Dynasty by Wang Shunu claimed that homosexuality was as common as heterosexuality in the late 3rd century.
Opposition to homosexuality in China originates in the medieval Tang Dynasty (618–907), attributed to the rising influence of Christian and Islamic values, but did not become fully established until the Westernization efforts of the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
In Mongolia under the reign of Ghenghis Khan, homosexual acts were punishable by death according to researchers.  Communism has traditionally not been tolerant, with homosexuality often seen as a product of decadent capitalist materialism and immorality. In the Soviet Union under Stalin, for example, homosexuality was punished in gulags and Russia only made it legal with the fall of communism in 1993. In Cuba gay men were treated especially badly, seen as deviant agents of foreign imperialism. North Korean propaganda has referred to homosexuality as something foreign and un-Korean, a product of western imperialism and vice.
In June 2014, 20,000 supporters demonstrated in favor of gay rights.
On October 29, 2014 Singapore High Court dismissed a constitutional challenge against a statute against sodomy. The statute provides a sentence of up to 2 years in jail.
In regard to male homosexuality such documents depict a world in which relationships with women and relationships with youths were the essential foundation of a normal man's love life. Same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another. The formal practice, an erotic yet often restrained relationship between a free adult male and a free adolescent, was valued for its pedagogic benefits and as a means of population control, though occasionally blamed for causing disorder. Plato praised its benefits in his early writings but in his late works proposed its prohibition. Aristotle, in the Politics, dismissed Plato's ideas about abolishing homosexuality (2.4); he explains that barbarians like the Celts accorded it a special honor (2.6.6), while the Cretans used it to regulate the population (2.7.5).
Little is known of female homosexuality in antiquity. Sappho, born on the island of Lesbos, was included by later Greeks in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. The adjectives deriving from her name and place of birth (Sapphic and Lesbian) came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century. Sappho's poetry centers on passion and love for various personages and both genders. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love (sometimes requited, sometimes not) for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate.
In Ancient Rome the young male body remained a focus of male sexual attention, but relationships were between older free men and slaves or freed youths who took the receptive role in sex. The Hellenophile emperor Hadrian is renowned for his relationship with Antinous, but the Christian emperor Theodosius I decreed a law on 6 August 390, condemning passive males to be burned at the stake. Justinian, towards the end of his reign, expanded the proscription to the active partner as well (in 558), warning that such conduct can lead to the destruction of cities through the "wrath of God". Notwithstanding these regulations, taxes on brothels of boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in 518.
During the Renaissance, wealthy cities in northern Italy — Florence and Venice in particular — were renowned for their widespread practice of same-sex love, engaged in by a considerable part of the male population and constructed along the classical pattern of Greece and Rome. But even as many of the male population were engaging in same-sex relationships, the authorities, under the aegis of the Officers of the Night court, were prosecuting, fining, and imprisoning a good portion of that population.
From the second half of the 13th century, death was the punishment for male homosexuality in most of Europe. The relationships of socially prominent figures, such as King James I and the Duke of Buckingham, served to highlight the issue, including in anonymously authored street pamphlets: "The world is chang'd I know not how, For men Kiss Men, not Women now;...Of J. the First and Buckingham: He, true it is, his Wives Embraces fled, To slabber his lov'd Ganimede" (Mundus Foppensis, or The Fop Display'd, 1691).
Love Letters Between a Certain Late Nobleman and the Famous Mr. Wilson was published in 1723 in England and was presumed by some modern scholars to be a novel. The 1749 edition of John Cleland's popular novel Fanny Hill includes a homosexual scene, but this was removed in its 1750 edition. Also in 1749, the earliest extended and serious defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplified, written by Thomas Cannon, was published, but was suppressed almost immediately. It includes the passage, "Unnatural Desire is a Contradiction in Terms; downright Nonsense. Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts." Around 1785 Jeremy Bentham wrote another defense, but this was not published until 1978. Executions for sodomy continued in the Netherlands until 1803, and in England until 1835.
Between 1864 and 1880 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published a series of twelve tracts, which he collectively titled Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. In 1867, he became the first self-proclaimed homosexual person to speak out publicly in defense of homosexuality when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws. Sexual Inversion by Havelock Ellis, published in 1896, challenged theories that homosexuality was abnormal, as well as stereotypes, and insisted on the ubiquity of homosexuality and its association with intellectual and artistic achievement.
Although medical texts like these (written partly in Latin to obscure the sexual details) were not widely read by the general public, they did lead to the rise of Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, which campaigned from 1897 to 1933 against anti-sodomy laws in Germany, as well as a much more informal, unpublicized movement among British intellectuals and writers, led by such figures as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds. Beginning in 1894 with Homogenic Love, Socialist activist and poet Edward Carpenter wrote a string of pro-homosexual articles and pamphlets, and "came out" in 1916 in his book My Days and Dreams. In 1900, Elisar von Kupffer published an anthology of homosexual literature from antiquity to his own time, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur.
There are a handful of accounts by Arab travelers to Europe during the mid-1800s. Two of these travelers, Rifa'ah al-Tahtawi and Muhammad as-Saffar, show their surprise that the French sometimes deliberately mistranslated love poetry about a young boy, instead referring to a young female, to maintain their social norms and morals.
Israel is considered the most tolerant country in the Middle East and Asia to homosexuals with Tel Aviv being named "the gay capital of the Middle East", and is considered one of the most gay friendly cities in the world. The annual Pride Parade in support of homosexuality takes place in Tel Aviv.
On the other hand, many governments in the Middle East often ignore, deny the existence of, or criminalize homosexuality. Homosexuality is illegal in almost all Muslim countries. Same-sex intercourse officially carries the death penalty in several Muslim nations: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mauritania, northern Nigeria, Sudan, and Yemen. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, during his 2007 speech at Columbia University, asserted that there were no gay people in Iran. However, the probable reason is that they keep their sexuality a secret for fear of government sanction or rejection by their families.
In ancient Assyria, homosexuality was present and common; it was also not prohibited, condemned, nor looked upon as immoral or disordered. Some religious texts contain prayers for divine blessings on homosexual relationships. The Almanac of Incantations contained prayers favoring on an equal basis the love of a man for a woman, of a woman for a man, and of a man for man.
In Greater Iran, homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid dynasty (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes.
Some scholars argue that there are examples of homosexual love in ancient literature, like in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh as well as in the Biblical story of David and Jonathan. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the relationship between the main protagonist Gilgamesh and the character Enkidu has been seen by some to be homosexual in nature. Similarly, David's love for Jonathan is "greater than the love of women."
In many societies of Melanesia, especially in Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as sinful and celebrated homosexuality instead. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty. Many Melanesian societies, however, have become hostile towards same-sex relationships since the introduction of Christianity by European missionaries.
Sexuality and identity
Behavior and desire
The American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the National Association of Social Workers identify sexual orientation as "not merely a personal characteristic that can be defined in isolation. Rather, one's sexual orientation defines the universe of persons with whom one is likely to find the satisfying and fulfilling relationships":
Sexual orientation is commonly discussed as a characteristic of the individual, like biological sex, gender identity, or age. This perspective is incomplete because sexual orientation is always defined in relational terms and necessarily involves relationships with other individuals. Sexual acts and romantic attractions are categorized as homosexual or heterosexual according to the biological sex of the individuals involved in them, relative to each other. Indeed, it is by acting—or desiring to act—with another person that individuals express their heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality. This includes actions as simple as holding hands with or kissing another person. Thus, sexual orientation is integrally linked to the intimate personal relationships that human beings form with others to meet their deeply felt needs for love, attachment, and intimacy. In addition to sexual behavior, these bonds encompass nonsexual physical affection between partners, shared goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment.
The Kinsey scale, also called the Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale, attempts to describe a person's sexual history or episodes of his or her sexual activity at a given time. It uses a scale from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. In both the Male and Female volumes of the Kinsey Reports, an additional grade, listed as "X", has been interpreted by scholars to indicate asexuality.
In a 2004 study, the female subjects (both gay and straight women) became sexually aroused when they viewed heterosexual and lesbian erotic films. Among the male subjects, however, the straight men were turned on only by erotic films with women, the gay ones by those with men. The study's senior researcher said that women's sexual desire is less rigidly directed toward a particular sex, as compared with men's, and it is more changeable over time.
Sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity
Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation. While the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and American Psychiatric Association state that sexual orientation is innate, continuous or fixed throughout their lives for some people, but is fluid or changes over time for others, the American Psychological Association distinguishes between sexual orientation (an innate attraction) and sexual orientation identity (which may change at any point in a person's life).
A 2012 study found that 2% of a sample of 2,560 adult participants reported a change of sexual orientation identity after a 10-year period. For men, a change occurred in 0.78% of those who had identified as heterosexual, 9.52% of homosexuals, and 47% of bisexuals. For women, a change occurred in 1.36% of heterosexuals, 63.6% of lesbians, and 64.7% of bisexuals. The researchers suggested that heterosexuality may be a more stable identity because of its normative status.
A 2-year study by Lisa M. Diamond on a sample of 80 non-heterosexual female adolescents (age 16-23) reported that half of the participants had changed sexual-minority identities more than once, one third of them during the 2-year follow-up. Diamond concluded that "although sexual attractions appear fairly stable, sexual identities and behaviors are more fluid."
People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors. Many have sexual relationships predominately with people of their own gender identity, though some have sexual relationships with those of the opposite gender, bisexual relationships, or none at all (celibate). Survey data indicate that between 40% and 60% of gay men and between 45% and 80% of lesbians are currently involved in a romantic relationship. Survey data also indicate that between 18% and 28% of gay couples and between 8% and 21% of lesbian couples in the U.S. have lived together ten or more years. Studies have found same-sex and opposite-sex couples to be equivalent to each other in measures of satisfaction and commitment in relationships, that age and gender are more reliable than sexual orientation as a predictor of satisfaction and commitment to a relationship, and that people who are heterosexual or homosexual share comparable expectations and ideals with regard to romantic relationships.
Coming out of the closet
Coming out (of the closet) is a phrase referring to one's disclosure of their sexual orientation or gender identity, and is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey. Generally, coming out is described in three phases. The first phase is that of "knowing oneself", and the realization emerges that one is open to same-sex relations. This is often described as an internal coming out. The second phase involves one's decision to come out to others, e.g. family, friends, or colleagues. The third phase more generally involves living openly as an LGBT person. In the United States today, people often come out during high school or college age. At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society. Sometimes their own families are not even informed.
According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun (2006), "the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups (e.g., ethnic and racial minorities), most LGB individuals are not raised in a community of similar others from whom they learn about their identity and who reinforce and support that identity. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality."
Outing is the practice of publicly revealing the sexual orientation of a closeted person. Notable politicians, celebrities, military service people, and clergy members have been outed, with motives ranging from malice to political or moral beliefs. Many commentators oppose the practice altogether, while some encourage outing public figures who use their positions of influence to harm other gay people.
Lesbian narratives and sexual orientation awareness
Lesbians often experience their sexuality differently from gay men, and have different understandings about etiology from those derived from studies focused mostly on men. For information specific to female homosexuality, see Lesbian.
In a U.S.-based 1970s mail survey by Shere Hite, lesbians self-reported their reasons for being lesbian. This is the only major piece of research into female sexuality that has looked at how women understand being homosexual since Kinsey in 1953. The research yielded information about women's general understanding of lesbian relationships and their sexual orientation. Women gave various reasons for preferring sexual relations with women to sexual relations with men, including finding women more sensitive to other people's needs.
Since Hite carried out her study she has acknowledged that some women may have chosen the political identity of a lesbian. Julie Bindel, a UK journalist, reaffirmed that "political lesbianism continues to make intrinsic sense because it reinforces the idea that sexuality is a choice, and we are not destined to a particular fate because of our chromosomes." as recently as 2009.
Early 20th-century writers on a homosexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex. For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. However, this understanding as sexual inversion was disputed at the time, and through the second half of the 20th century, gender identity came to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation.
Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations (see sexual orientation of transwomen). An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynous, and in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and the "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes. However, studies by J. Michael Bailey and K.J. Zucker have found that a majority of gay men and lesbians report being gender-nonconforming during their childhood years.
Reliable data as to the size of the gay and lesbian population are of value in informing public policy. For example, demographics would help in calculating the costs and benefits of domestic partnership benefits, of the impact of legalizing gay adoption, and of the impact of the U.S. military's Don't Ask Don't Tell policy. Further, knowledge of the size of the "gay and lesbian population holds promise for helping social scientists understand a wide array of important questions—questions about the general nature of labor market choices, accumulation of human capital, specialization within households, discrimination, and decisions about geographic location."
Measuring the prevalence of homosexuality presents difficulties. It is necessary to consider the measuring criteria that are used, the cutoff point and the time span taken to define a sexual orientation. Many people, despite having same-sex attractions, may be reluctant to identify themselves as gay or bisexual. The research must measure some characteristic that may or may not be defining of sexual orientation. The number of people with same-sex desires may be larger than the number of people who act on those desires, which in turn may be larger than the number of people who self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
In 1948 and 1953, Alfred Kinsey reported that nearly 46% of the male subjects had "reacted" sexually to persons of both sexes in the course of their adult lives, and 37% had had at least one homosexual experience. Kinsey's methodology was criticized by John Tukey for using convenience samples and not random samples. A later study tried to eliminate the sample bias, but still reached similar conclusions. Simon LeVay cites these Kinsey results as an example of the caution needed to interpret demographic studies, as they may give quite differing numbers depending on what criteria are used to conduct them, in spite of using sound scientific methods.
According to major studies, 2% to 11% of people have had some form of same-sex sexual contact within their lifetime; this percentage rises to 16–21% when either or both same-sex attraction and behavior are reported. In a 2006 study, 20% of respondents anonymously reported some homosexual feelings, although only 2–3% identified themselves as homosexual. A 1992 study reported that 6.1% of males in Britain have had a homosexual experience, while in France the number was reported at 4.1%.
In the United States, according to a The Williams Institute report in April 2011, only 3.5% or approximately 9 million of the adult population are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. According to the 2000 United States Census, there were about 601,209 same-sex unmarried partner households.
A 2013 study by the CDC in which over 34,000 Americans were interviewed, puts the percentage of lesbians and gays at 1.6% and 0.7% as bisexual.
According to a 2008 poll, 13% of Britons have had some form of same-sex sexual contact while only 6% of Britons identify themselves as either homosexual or bisexual. In contrast, a survey by the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS) in 2010 found that 95% of Britons identified as heterosexual, 1.5% of Britons identified themselves as homosexual or bisexual, and the last 3.5% gave more vague answers such as "don't know", "other", or did not respond to the question.
An October 2012 Gallup poll provided unprecedented demographic information about those who identify as LGBT, arriving at the conclusion that 3.4%, with a margin of error of ±1%, of all U.S. adults identify as LGBT. The study is the nation's largest in counting LGBT. Gallup found that those 18-29 are about twice as likely as those 30-49 to identify as LGBT in the United States (6.4% to 3.2%, ±1%) and about three times as likely as those ages 65 or older. (6.4% to 1.9% ±1%) Among 18- to 29-year-olds, women were found to be almost twice as likely to identify as LGBT than men, 8.3% to 4.6%, ±1%; overall, there was no significant difference between the sexes, with 3.6% of women and 3.3% of men identifying as LGBT, ±1%.
Medical and scientific views
|Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy|
There is no substantive evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences play a role when it comes to sexual orientation. While some people believe that homosexual activity is unnatural, scientific research has shown that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation in human sexuality and is not in and of itself a source of negative psychological effects. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation.
Psychology was one of the first disciplines to study a homosexual orientation as a discrete phenomenon. The first attempts to classify homosexuality as a disease were made by the fledgling European sexologist movement in the late 19th century. In 1886 noted sexologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing listed homosexuality along with 200 other case studies of deviant sexual practices in his definitive work, Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing proposed that homosexuality was caused by either "congenital [during birth] inversion" or an "acquired inversion". In the last two decades of the 19th century, a different view began to predominate in medical and psychiatric circles, judging such behavior as indicative of a type of person with a defined and relatively stable sexual orientation. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, pathological models of homosexuality were standard.
|“||In 1952, when the American Psychiatric Association published its first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, homosexuality was included as a disorder. Almost immediately, however, that classification began to be subjected to critical scrutiny in research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. That study and subsequent research consistently failed to produce any empirical or scientific basis for regarding homosexuality as a disorder or abnormality, rather than a normal and healthy sexual orientation. As results from such research accumulated, professionals in medicine, mental health, and the behavioral and social sciences reached the conclusion that it was inaccurate to classify homosexuality as a mental disorder and that the DSM classification reflected untested assumptions based on once-prevalent social norms and clinical impressions from unrepresentative samples comprising patients seeking therapy and individuals whose conduct brought them into the criminal justice system.
In recognition of the scientific evidence, the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the DSM in 1973, stating that "homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities." After thoroughly reviewing the scientific data, the American Psychological Association adopted the same position in 1975, and urged all mental health professionals "to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations." The National Association of Social Workers has adopted a similar policy.
Thus, mental health professionals and researchers have long recognized that being homosexual poses no inherent obstacle to leading a happy, healthy, and productive life, and that the vast majority of gay and lesbian people function well in the full array of social institutions and interpersonal relationships.
 The longstanding consensus of research and clinical literature demonstrates that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality. There is now a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment. The World Health Organization's ICD-9 (1977) listed homosexuality as a mental illness; it was removed from the ICD-10, endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly on 17 May 1990. Like the DSM-II, the ICD-10 added ego-dystonic sexual orientation to the list, which refers to people who want to change their gender identities or sexual orientation because of a psychological or behavioral disorder (F66.1). The Chinese Society of Psychiatry removed homosexuality from its Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders in 2001 after five years of study by the association. According to the Royal College of Psychiatrists "This unfortunate history demonstrates how marginalisation of a group of people who have a particular personality feature (in this case homosexuality) can lead to harmful medical practice and a basis for discrimination in society. There is now a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment. However, the experiences of discrimination in society and possible rejection by friends, families and others, such as employers, means that some LGB people experience a greater than expected prevalence of mental health difficulties and substance misuse problems. Although there have been claims by conservative political groups in the USA that this higher prevalence of mental health difficulties is confirmation that homosexuality is itself a mental disorder, there is no evidence whatever to substantiate such a claim."
Most lesbian, gay, and bisexual people who seek psychotherapy do so for the same reasons as heterosexual people (stress, relationship difficulties, difficulty adjusting to social or work situations, etc.); their sexual orientation may be of primary, incidental, or no importance to their issues and treatment. Whatever the issue, there is a high risk for anti-gay bias in psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Psychological research in this area has been relevant to counteracting prejudicial ("homophobic") attitudes and actions, and to the LGBT rights movement generally.
The appropriate application of affirmative psychotherapy is based on the following scientific facts:
- Same-sex sexual attractions, behavior, and orientations per se are normal and positive variants of human sexuality; in other words, they are not indicators of mental or developmental disorders.
- Homosexuality and bisexuality are stigmatized, and this stigma can have a variety of negative consequences (e.g., Minority Stress) throughout the life span (D'Augelli & Patterson, 1995; DiPlacido, 1998; Herek & Garnets, 2007; Meyer, 1995, 2003).
- Same-sex sexual attractions and behavior can occur in the context of a variety of sexual orientations and sexual orientation identities (Diamond, 2006; Hoburg et al., 2004; Rust, 1996; Savin-Williams, 2005).
- Gay men, lesbians, and bisexual individuals can live satisfying lives as well as form stable, committed relationships and families that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects (APA, 2005c; Kurdek, 2001, 2003, 2004; Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007).
- There are no empirical studies or peer-reviewed research that support theories attributing same-sex sexual orientation to family dysfunction or trauma (Bell et al., 1981; Bene, 1965; Freund & Blanchard, 1983; Freund & Pinkava, 1961; Hooker, 1969; McCord et al., 1962; D. K. Peters & Cantrell, 1991; Siegelman, 1974, 1981; Townes et al., 1976).
Biological vs environmental determinants
Although scientists favor biological models for the cause of sexual orientation, they do not believe that it is the result of any one factor. They generally believe that it is determined by biological and environmental factors; they state that most people's sexual orientation is determined at an early age, and sexual orientation development involves a complex interplay between nature and nurture. The biological factors are genetic and hormonal, both of affect the fetal development of the brain, while environmental factors may be sociological, psychological, or involve the early uterine environment. Scientists generally do not believe that sexual orientation is a matter of choice.
|“||There is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood.||”|
|“||Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual—including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual orientation. However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual.||”|
Despite numerous attempts, no "gay gene" has been identified. However, there is substantial evidence for a genetic basis of homosexuality especially in males based on twin studies, with some association with regions of Chromosome 8 and with the Xq28 gene on the X chromosome. More recently, epigenetics has been implicated in sexual orientiation. In five regions of the genome the methylation pattern appears very closely linked to sexual orientation. The methylation pattern predicted the sexual orientation of a control group with almost 70% accuracy.
The authors of a 2008 study stated "there is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency". They hypothesized that "while genes predisposing to homosexuality reduce homosexuals' reproductive success, they may confer some advantage in heterosexuals who carry them". Their results suggested that "genes predisposing to homosexuality may confer a mating advantage in heterosexuals, which could help explain the evolution and maintenance of homosexuality in the population". A 2009 study also suggested a significant increase in fecundity in the females related to the homosexual people from the maternal line (but not in those related from the paternal one).
A review paper by Bailey and Zuk looking into studies of same-sex sexual behaviour in animals challenges the view that such behaviour lowers reproductive success, citing several hypotheses about how same-sex sexual behavior might be adaptive; these hypotheses vary greatly among different species. Bailey and Zuk also suggest future research needs to look into evolutionary consequences of same-sex sexual behaviour, rather than only looking into origins of such behaviour.
Sexual orientation change efforts
There are no studies of adequate scientific rigor that conclude that sexual orientation change efforts work to change a person's sexual orientation. Those efforts have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations and professional and scientific organizations and other faith-based organizations, on the other. The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality per se is a normal and positive variation of human sexual orientation, and therefore not a mental disorder. The American Psychological Association says that "most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation". Some individuals and groups have promoted the idea of homosexuality as symptomatic of developmental defects or spiritual and moral failings and have argued that sexual orientation change efforts, including psychotherapy and religious efforts, could alter homosexual feelings and behaviors. Many of these individuals and groups appeared to be embedded within the larger context of conservative religious political movements that have supported the stigmatization of homosexuality on political or religious grounds.
No major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation. These include the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, American Counseling Association, National Association of Social Workers in the USA, the Royal College of Psychiatrists, and the Australian Psychological Society. The American Psychological Association and the Royal College of Psychiatrists expressed concerns that the positions espoused by NARTH are not supported by the science and create an environment in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish.
The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality." They say that "sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events." The American Psychiatric Association says "individuals maybe become aware at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or bisexual" and "opposes any psychiatric treatment, such as 'reparative' or 'conversion' therapy, which is based upon the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder, or based upon a prior assumption that the patient should change his/her homosexual orientation". They do, however, encourage gay affirmative psychotherapy.
The American Psychological Association "encourages mental health professionals to avoid misrepresenting the efficacy of sexual orientation change efforts by promoting or promising change in sexual orientation when providing assistance to individuals distressed by their own or others' sexual orientation and concludes that the benefits reported by participants in sexual orientation change efforts can be gained through approaches that do not attempt to change sexual orientation".
Johns Hopkins psychiatry professor Paul McHugh and Arizona State University statistics professor Lawrence Mayer have stated that “Some of the most widely held views about sexual orientation, such as the ‘born that way’ hypothesis, simply are not supported by science.” The most that can be said is that “some biological factors appear, to an unknown extent, to predispose certain individuals to non-heterosexual orientation,” the researchers said.
University of California research presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics in Baltimore involved scientists studying 37 sets of identical male twins, who were born with the same genetic blueprint, to tease out which genes were associated with homosexuality. In each pair, one of the twins was gay. Only 20 percent of identical twins are both gay leading researchers to believe that there must be causes which are not inherited. Epigenetic changes are known to be triggered by environmental factors such as chemical exposure, childhood abuse, diet, exercise and stress. Lead author Dr. Tuck Ngun stated that "To our knowledge, this is the first example of a predictive model for sexual orientation based on molecular markers,"
Freud wrote in his “Three Essays on Sexuality” there were two forms of homosexuals, whom he referred to as absolute inverts and relative inverts. He believed that absolute inverts were biologically predetermined to be homosexual and could mature to full genital sexuality and be otherwise normal adults except for their sexual preference. While relative inverts were less obviously biologically predetermined, potentially “treatable”.
Author and feminist scholar Camille Paglia in her book Vamps & Tramps "Is gay identity so fragile that it cannot bear the thought that some people may not wish to be gay? The difficulties in changing sexual orientation do not spring from its genetic innateness. Sexuality is highly fluid, and reversals are theoretically possible. However, habit is refractory, once the sensory pathways have been blazed and deepened by repetition…[H]elping gays learn how to function heterosexually if they so wish, is a perfectly worthy aim. We should be honest enough to consider whether homosexuality may not indeed be a pausing at the prepubescent stage when children anxiously band together by gender."
John D’Emilio, professor of history and of women’s and gender studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago stated, "What’s most amazing to me about the “born gay” phenomenon is that the scientific evidence for it is thin as a reed, yet it doesn’t matter. It’s an idea with such social utility that one doesn’t need much evidence in order to make it attractive and credible…. queer theory asks us…to be skeptical of seeing both gender and sexuality as fixed categories. Who can argue with that?"
Trudy Ring, writer for the LGBT magazine The Advocate wrote "For years, much of the case for LGBT rights has been based on the argument that sexual orientation is fixed and immutable. But an increasing body of social science research posits that a sizable number of people experience some degree of fluidity in their sexual and romantic attractions: being drawn to the same gender at one point in their life, the opposite gender at another."
David Benkof states that the common view of many homosexual scholars that the notion of an immutable “gay identity” is false and a-historical, but a social construct of the last 150 years. He states, "Are gays indeed born that way? The question has immense political, social, and cultural repercussions. For example, some of the debate over applying the Constitution’s equal protection clause to gays and lesbians focuses on whether gayness is an inborn characteristic. Thus, if it’s proven sexual orientations are not innate, much of the scaffolding upon which today’s LGBT movement has been built would begin to crumble. According to the experts on homosexuality across centuries and continents, being gay is a relatively recent social construction. Few scholars with advanced degrees in anthropology or history who concentrate on homosexuality believe gays have existed in any cultures before or outside ours, much less in all cultures. These professors work closely with an ever-growing body of knowledge that directly contradicts “born that way” ideology. Journalists trumpet every biological study that even hints that gayness and straightness might be hard-wired, but they show little interest in the abundant social-science research showing that sexual orientation cannot be innate."
Historian Dr. Martin Duberman, founder of the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies, said “no good scientific work establishes that people are born gay or straight.”
Cultural anthropologist Dr. Esther Newton (University of Michigan) called one study linking sexual orientation to biological traits ludicrous: “Any anthropologist who has looked cross-culturally (knows) it’s impossible that that’s true, because sexuality is structured in such different ways in different cultures.” Gay and lesbian historians aren’t just claiming that before the 19th century nobody was called “gay.” They’re saying nobody was gay (or straight). While various societies had different ways of thinking about and expressing gender, love, and desire, homosexuality was generally something one could do, not something one could be.
Nicholas Cummings, a former president of the American Psychological Association wrote in a USA Today column. "When I was chief psychologist for Kaiser Permanente from 1959 to 1979, San Francisco’s gay and lesbian population burgeoned. I personally saw more than 2,000 patients with same-sex attraction, and my staff saw thousands more. We worked hard to develop approaches to meeting the needs of these patients. With clinical experience, my staff and I learned to assess the probability of change in those who wished to become heterosexual. Of the patients I oversaw who sought to change their orientation, hundreds were successful. Since then, the role of psychotherapy in sexual orientation change efforts has been politicized. Gay and lesbian rights activists appear to be convincing the public that homosexuality is one identical inherited characteristic. To my dismay, some in the organized mental health community seem to agree, including the American Psychological Association, though I don’t believe that view is supported by scientific evidence. Gays and lesbians have the right to be affirmed in their homosexuality. That’s why, as a member of the APA Council of Representatives in 1975, I sponsored the resolution by which the APA stated that homosexuality is not a mental disorder and, in 1976, the resolution, which passed the council unanimously, that gays and lesbians should not be discriminated against in the workplace. But contending that all same-sex attraction is immutable is a distortion of reality. Attempting to characterize all sexual reorientation therapy as “unethical” violates patient choice and gives an outside party a veto over patients’ goals for their own treatment. A political agenda shouldn’t prevent gays and lesbians who desire to change from making their own decisions. Whatever the situation at an individual clinic, accusing professionals from across the country who provide treatment for fully informed persons seeking to change their sexual orientation of perpetrating a fraud serves only to stigmatize the professional and shame the patient."
Lisa Diamond, professor of psychology and gender at the University of Utah believes that both men and women experience sexual fluidity. Sexual fluidity means a change in “sexual orientation” from being sexually and romantically attracted to persons of one’s same sex to being attracted to persons of the opposite sex or vice versa. While Diamond believes that “sexual orientation” can and does change, she bristles at any suggestion that humans may have any capacity to participate in their own “sexual orientation” change. Oddly, however, she also argues that “‘Either we are a society that protects people’s rights to sexual expression…or we’re not.’” Does protecting “people’s rights to sexual expression” include protecting minors’ “rights to sexual expression”? If so, wouldn’t Kelly Cassidy’s bill violate the rights of those teens who desire help from mental health providers in constructing a sexual identity that does not affirm unchosen and unwanted same-sex attraction?
Dr. Howard Fradkin, homosexual psychologist who treats adult victims of childhood molestation, stated on The Oprah Show that childhood molestation can result in “sexual orientation confusion.” The American Psychological Association stated in regards to hypothetical causes of “sexual orientation”: "There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay, or lesbian orientation. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor or factors. Many think that nature and nurture both play complex roles…" 
Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents. According to scientific literature reviews, there is no evidence to the contrary.
A review study suggested that the children with lesbian or gay parents appear less traditionally gender-typed and are more likely to be open to homoerotic relationships, partly due to genetic (80% of the children being raised by same-sex couples in the US are not adopted and most are the result of heterosexual marriages)) and family socialization processes (children grow up in relatively more tolerant school, neighborhood, and social contexts, which are less heterosexist), even though majority of children raised by same-sex couples identify as heterosexual. A 2005 review by Charlotte J. Patterson for the American Psychological Association found that the available data did not suggest higher rates of homosexuality among the children of lesbian or gay parents. One study suggested that children of gay and lesbian parents were more likely to adopt non-heterosexual identities, especially daughters of lesbian parents (inter-generational transfer was not significant in some analyses for sons).
The terms "Men who have sex with men" (MSM) and "women who have sex with women" (WSW) refer to people who engage in sexual activity with others of the same sex regardless of how they identify themselves—as many choose not to accept social identities as lesbian, gay and bisexual. These terms are often used in medical literature and social research to describe such groups for study, without needing to consider the issues of sexual self-identity. The terms are seen as problematic, however, because they "obscure social dimensions of sexuality; undermine the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and do not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior". MSM and WSW are sexually active with each other for a variety of reasons with the main ones arguably sexual pleasure, intimacy and bonding. In contrast to its benefits, sexual behavior can be a disease vector. Safe sex is a relevant harm reduction philosophy. The United States currently prohibits men who have sex with men from donating blood "because they are, as a group, at increased risk for HIV, hepatitis B and certain other infections that can be transmitted by transfusion." Many European countries have the same prohibition.
- Avoid contact with a partner's menstrual blood and with any visible genital lesions.
- Cover sex toys that penetrate more than one person's vagina or anus with a new condom for each person; consider using different toys for each person.
- Use a barrier (e.g., latex sheet, dental dam, cut-open condom, plastic wrap) during oral sex.
- Use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any manual sex that might cause bleeding.
These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for men who have sex with men to avoid sexually transmitted infections:
- Avoid contact with a partner's bodily fluids and with any visible genital lesions.
- Use condoms for anal and oral sex.
- Use a barrier (e.g., latex sheet, dental dam, cut-open condom) during anal–oral sex.
- Cover sex toys that penetrate more than one person with a new condom for each person; consider using different toys for each person and use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any sex that might cause bleeding.
When it was first described in medical literature, homosexuality was often approached from a view that sought to find an inherent psychopathology as its root cause. Much literature on mental health and homosexual patients centered on their depression, substance abuse, and suicide. Although these issues exist among people who are non-heterosexual, discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) in 1973. Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures indicate factors homosexual people face in Western societies that often adversely affect their mental health. Stigma, prejudice, and discrimination stemming from negative societal attitudes toward homosexuality lead to a higher prevalence of mental health disorders among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to their heterosexual peers. Evidence indicates that the liberalization of these attitudes over the past few decades is associated with a decrease in such mental health risks among younger LGBT people.
Gay and lesbian youth
Gay and lesbian youth bear an increased risk of suicide, substance abuse, school problems, and isolation because of a "hostile and condemning environment, verbal and physical abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers". Further, LGBT youths are more likely to report psychological and physical abuse by parents or caretakers, and more sexual abuse. Suggested reasons for this disparity are that (1) LGBT youths may be specifically targeted on the basis of their perceived sexual orientation or gender non-conforming appearance, and (2) that "risk factors associated with sexual minority status, including discrimination, invisibility, and rejection by family members...may lead to an increase in behaviors that are associated with risk for victimization, such as substance abuse, sex with multiple partners, or running away from home as a teenager." A 2008 study showed a correlation between the degree of rejecting behavior by parents of LGB adolescents and negative health problems in the teenagers studied:
Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes. On the basis of odds ratios, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who reported higher levels of family rejection during adolescence were 8.4 times more likely to report having attempted suicide, 5.9 times more likely to report high levels of depression, 3.4 times more likely to use illegal drugs, and 3.4 times more likely to report having engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse compared with peers from families that reported no or low levels of family rejection.
Crisis centers in larger cities and information sites on the Internet have arisen to help youth and adults. The Trevor Project, a suicide prevention helpline for gay youth, was established following the 1998 airing on HBO of the Academy Award winning short film Trevor.
Law and politics
|Part of a series on|
Most nations do not prohibit consensual sex between unrelated persons above the local age of consent. Some jurisdictions further recognize identical rights, protections, and privileges for the family structures of same-sex couples, including marriage. Some nations mandate that all individuals restrict themselves to heterosexual relationships; that is, in some jurisdictions homosexual activity is illegal. Offenders can face the death penalty in some fundamentalist Muslim areas such as Iran and parts of Nigeria. There are, however, often significant differences between official policy and real-world enforcement. See Violence against LGBT people.
Although homosexual acts were decriminalized in some parts of the Western world, such as Poland in 1932, Denmark in 1933, Sweden in 1944, and the United Kingdom in 1967, it was not until the mid-1970s that the gay community first began to achieve limited civil rights in some developed countries. A turning point was reached in 1973 when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, thus negating its previous definition of homosexuality as a clinical mental disorder. In 1977, Quebec became the first state-level jurisdiction in the world to prohibit discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. During the 1980s and 1990s, most developed countries enacted laws decriminalizing homosexual behavior and prohibiting discrimination against lesbian and gay people in employment, housing, and services. On the other hand, many countries today in the Middle East and Africa, as well as several countries in Asia, the Caribbean and the South Pacific, outlaw homosexuality. On 11 December 2013, homosexuality was criminalized in India by a Supreme Court ruling. The Section 377 of the colonial-era Indian Penal Code which criminalizes homosexuality remains in effect in many former colonies. In six countries, homosexual behavior is punishable by life imprisonment; in ten others, it carries the death penalty.
Laws against sexual orientation discrimination
- Employment discrimination refers to discriminatory employment practices such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, and compensation, and various types of harassment. In the United States there is "very little statutory, common law, and case law establishing employment discrimination based upon sexual orientation as a legal wrong." Some exceptions and alternative legal strategies are available. President Bill Clinton's Executive Order 13087 (1998) prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation in the competitive service of the federal civilian workforce, and federal non-civil service employees may have recourse under the Due Process Clause of the U.S. Constitution. Private sector workers may have a Title VII action under a quid pro quo sexual harassment theory, a "hostile work environment" theory, a sexual stereotyping theory, or others.
- Housing discrimination refers to discrimination against potential or current tenants by landlords. In the United States, there is no federal law against such discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, but at least thirteen states and many major cities have enacted laws prohibiting it.
- Hate crimes (also known as bias crimes) are crimes motivated by bias against an identifiable social group, usually groups defined by race (human classification), religion, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity, or political affiliation. In the United States, 45 states and the District of Columbia have statutes criminalizing various types of bias-motivated violence or intimidation (the exceptions are AZ, GA, IN, SC, and WY). Each of these statutes covers bias on the basis of race, religion, and ethnicity; 32 of them cover sexual orientation, 28 cover gender, and 11 cover transgender/gender-identity. In October 2009, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, which "...gives the Justice Department the power to investigate and prosecute bias-motivated violence where the perpetrator has selected the victim because of the person's actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability", was signed into law and makes hate crime based on sexual orientation, amongst other offenses, a federal crime in the United States.
In the European Union, discrimination of any type based on sexual orientation or gender identity is illegal under the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Since the 1960s, many LGBT people in the West, particularly those in major metropolitan areas, have developed a so-called gay culture. To many,[who?] gay culture is exemplified by the gay pride movement, with annual parades and displays of rainbow flags. Yet not all LGBT people choose to participate in "queer culture", and many gay men and women specifically decline to do so. To some[who?] it seems to be a frivolous display, perpetuating gay stereotypes. To some others,[who?] the gay culture represents heterophobia and is scorned as widening the gulf between gay and non-gay people.
With the outbreak of AIDS in the early 1980s, many LGBT groups and individuals organized campaigns to promote efforts in AIDS education, prevention, research, patient support, and community outreach, as well as to demand government support for these programs.
The bewildering death toll wrought by the AIDS epidemic at first seemed to slow the progress of the gay rights movement, but in time it galvanized some parts of the LGBT community into community service and political action, and challenged the heterosexual community to respond compassionately. Major American motion pictures from this period that dramatized the response of individuals and communities to the AIDS crisis include An Early Frost (1985), Longtime Companion (1990), And the Band Played On (1993), Philadelphia (1993), and Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt (1989).
Publicly gay politicians have attained numerous government posts, even in countries that had sodomy laws in their recent past. Examples include Guido Westerwelle, Germany's Vice-Chancellor; Peter Mandelson, a British Labour Party cabinet minister and Per-Kristian Foss, formerly Norwegian Minister of Finance.
LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations. Some social conservatives believe that all sexual relationships with people other than an opposite-sex spouse undermine the traditional family and that children should be reared in homes with both a father and a mother. Some opponents of gay rights say that such rights may conflict with individuals' freedom of speech, religious freedoms in the workplace, the ability to run churches, charitable organizations and other religious organizations in accordance with one's religious views, and that the acceptance of homosexual relationships by religious organizations might be forced through threatening to remove the tax-exempt status of churches whose views do not align with those of the government.
Policies and attitudes toward gay and lesbian military personnel vary widely around the world. Some countries allow gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people to serve openly and have granted them the same rights and privileges as their heterosexual counterparts. Many countries neither ban nor support LGB service members. A few countries continue to ban homosexual personnel outright.
Most Western military forces have removed policies excluding sexual minority members. Of the 26 countries that participate militarily in NATO, more than 20 permit openly gay, lesbian and bisexual people to serve. Of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, three (United Kingdom, France and United States) do so. The other two generally do not: China bans gay and lesbian people outright, Russia excludes all gay and lesbian people during peacetime but allows some gay men to serve in wartime (see below). Israel is the only country in the Middle East region that allows openly LGB people to serve in the military.
While the question of homosexuality in the military has been highly politicized in the United States, it is not necessarily so in many countries. Generally speaking, sexuality in these cultures is considered a more personal aspect of one's identity than it is in the United States.
According to American Psychological Association empirical evidence fails to show that sexual orientation is germane to any aspect of military effectiveness including unit cohesion, morale, recruitment and retention. Sexual orientation is irrelevant to task cohesion, the only type of cohesion that critically predicts the team's military readiness and success.
Society and sociology
Societal acceptance of non-heterosexual orientations such as homosexuality is lowest in Asian and African countries, and is highest in Europe, Australia, and the Americas. Western society has become increasingly accepting of homosexuality over the past few decades.
In 2006, the American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association and National Association of Social Workers stated in an amicus brief presented to the Supreme Court of the State of California: "Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects. The institution of marriage offers social, psychological, and health benefits that are denied to same-sex couples. By denying same-sex couples the right to marry, the state reinforces and perpetuates the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. Homosexuality remains stigmatized, and this stigma has negative consequences. California's prohibition on marriage for same-sex couples reflects and reinforces this stigma". They concluded: "There is no scientific basis for distinguishing between same-sex couples and heterosexual couples with respect to the legal rights, obligations, benefits, and burdens conferred by civil marriage."
Though the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality, current authoritative bodies and doctrines of the world's largest religions generally view homosexuality negatively. This can range from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, to explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality. Some teach that homosexual orientation itself is sinful, others state that only the sexual act is a sin, others are completely accepting of gays and lesbians, while some encourage homosexuality. Some claim that homosexuality can be overcome through religious faith and practice. On the other hand, voices exist within many of these religions that view homosexuality more positively, and liberal religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages. Some view same-sex love and sexuality as sacred, and a mythology of same-sex love can be found around the world.
Many world religions contain anti-homosexual teachings, while other religions have varying degrees of ambivalence, neutrality, or incorporate teachings regarding homosexuals as third gender. Even within some religions which generally discourage homosexuality, there are also people who view homosexuality positively, and some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages. There also exist so-called Queer religions, dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of LGBTQI persons. Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. In 2015, attorney and author Roberta Kaplan stated that Kim Davis "is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate [against same-sex couples]."
Christianity and the Bible
The Bible, especially the Old Testament, contains some passages commonly interpreted as condemning homosexuality or same-gender sexual relations. Leviticus 18:22, says "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination." The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is also commonly seen as a condemnation of homosexuality. Christians and Jews who oppose homosexuality often cite such passages; historical context and interpretation is more complicated. Scholarly debate over the interpretation of these passages has focused on placing them in proper historical context, for instance pointing out that Sodom's sins are historically interpreted as being other than homosexuality, and on the translation of rare or unusual words in the passages in question. In Religion Dispatches magazine, Candace Chellew-Hodge argues that the six or so verses that are often cited to condemn LGBT people are referring instead to "abusive sex." She states that the Bible has no condemnation for "loving, committed, gay and lesbian relationships" and that Jesus was silent on the subject.
The official teaching of the Catholic Church regarding homosexuality is that same-sex behavior should not be expressed. The Catechism of the Catholic Church States that, "'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.'...They are contrary to the natural law.... Under no circumstances can they be approved." The Catholic Church also campaigns politically against LGBT rights.
Islam and sharia
In some cases, the distinction between religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia is not clear, a key example being territories under Islamic authority. All major Islamic sects forbid homosexuality, which is a crime under Sharia Law and treated as such in most Muslim countries. In Afghanistan, for instance, homosexuality carried the death penalty under the Taliban. After their fall, homosexuality went from a capital crime to one punished with fines and prison sentences. The legal situation in the United Arab Emirates, however, is unclear.
In 2009, the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) published a report entitled State Sponsored Homophobia 2009, which is based on research carried out by Daniel Ottosson at Södertörn University College, Stockholm, Sweden. This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal:
- Five carry the death penalty for homosexual activity: Iran, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen. Since the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, the Iranian government has executed more than 4,000 people charged with homosexual acts. In Saudi Arabia, the maximum punishment for homosexuality is public execution, but the government will use other punishments – e.g., fines, jail time, whipping – and even forced sex change as alternatives, unless it feels that people engaging in homosexual activity are challenging state authority by engaging in LGBT social movements.
- Two do in some regions: Nigeria, Somalia
In 2001, Al-Muhajiroun, an international organization seeking the establishment of a global Islamic caliphate, issued a fatwa declaring that all members of The Al-Fatiha Foundation (which advances the cause of gay, lesbian, and transgender Muslims) were murtadd, or apostates, and condemning them to death. Because of the threat and because they come from conservative societies, many members of the foundation's site still prefer to be anonymous so as to protect their identity while continuing a tradition of secrecy.
Criminalization of homosexuality
State-sponsored homophobia includes the criminalization and penalization of homosexuality, hate speech from government figures, and other forms of discrimination, violence, persecution of LGBT people.
In medieval Europe, homosexuality was considered sodomy and was punishable by death. Persecutions reached their height during the Medieval Inquisitions, when the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of Satanism. In 1307, accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. The theologian Thomas Aquinas was influential in linking condemnations of homosexuality with the idea of natural law, arguing that "special sins are against nature, as, for instance, those that run counter to the intercourse of male and female natural to animals, and so are peculiarly qualified as unnatural vices."
Although bisexuality was accepted as normal human behavior in Ancient China, homophobia became ingrained in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China due to interactions with the Christian West, and homosexual behaviour was outlawed in 1740. When Mao Zedong came to power, the government thought of homosexuality as "social disgrace or a form of mental illness", and "[d]uring the cultural revolution (1966–76), people who were homosexual faced their worst period of persecution in Chinese history." Despite there being no law in the communist People's Republic against homosexuality, "police regularly rounded up gays and lesbians." Other laws were used to prosecute homosexual people and they were "charged with hooliganism or disturbing public order."
The Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin decriminalized homosexuality in 1922, long before many other European countries. The Soviet Communist Party effectively legalized no-fault divorce, abortion and homosexuality, when they abolished all the old Tsarist laws and the initial Soviet criminal code kept these liberal sexual policies in place. Lenin's emancipation was reversed a decade later by Joseph Stalin and homosexuality remained illegal under Article 121 until the Yeltsin era.
Homosexuals were one of the many groups alongside Jews that were murdered during the Holocaust.
The North Korean government condemns Western gay culture as a vice caused by the decadence of capitalist society, and denounces it as promoting consumerism, classism, and promiscuity. In North Korea, "violating the rules of collective socialist life" can be punished with up to two years' imprisonment. However, according to the North Korean government, "As a country that has embraced science and rationalism, the DPRK recognizes that many individuals are born with homosexuality as a genetic trait and treats them with due respect. Homosexuals in the DPRK have never been subject to repression, as in many capitalist regimes around the world."
Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe, has waged a violent campaign against LGBT people, arguing that before colonisation, Zimbabweans did not engage in homosexual acts. His first major public condemnation of homosexuality was in August 1995, during the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. He told an audience: "If you see people parading themselves as lesbians and gays, arrest them and hand them over to the police!" In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts. In 1997, a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault.
Gay bullying can be the verbal or physical abuse against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender, including persons who are actually heterosexual or of non-specific or unknown sexual orientation. In the US, teenage students heard anti-gay slurs such as "homo", "faggot" and "sissy" about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutes, according to a 1998 study by Mental Health America (formerly National Mental Health Association).
Heterosexism and homophobia
In many cultures, homosexual people are frequently subject to prejudice and discrimination. A 2011 Dutch study concluded that 49% of Holland's youth and 58% of youth foreign to the country reject homosexuality. Similar to other minority groups they can also be subject to stereotyping. These attitudes tend to be due to forms of homophobia and heterosexism (negative attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships). Heterosexism can include the presumption that everyone is heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the norm and therefore superior. Homophobia is a fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexual people. It manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others. Similar is lesbophobia (specifically targeting lesbians) and biphobia (against bisexual people). When such attitudes manifest as crimes they are often called hate crimes and gay bashing.
Negative stereotypes characterize LGB people as less romantically stable, more promiscuous and more likely to abuse children, but there is no scientific basis to such assertions. Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects. Sexual orientation does not affect the likelihood that people will abuse children. Claims that there is scientific evidence to support an association between being gay and being a pedophile are based on misuses of those terms and misrepresentation of the actual evidence.
Violence against gays and lesbians
In the United States, the FBI reported that 20.4% of hate crimes reported to law enforcement in 2011 were based on sexual orientation bias. 56.7% of these crimes were based on bias against homosexual men. 11.1% were based on bias against homosexual women. 29.6% were based on anti-homosexual bias without regard to gender. The 1998 murder of Matthew Shepard, a gay student, is a notorious such incident in the U.S. LGBT people, especially lesbians, may become the victims of "corrective rape", a violent crime with the supposed aim of making them heterosexual. In certain parts of the world, LGBT people are also at risk of "honor killings" perpetrated by their families or relatives.
Homosexual behavior in other animals
Homosexual, bisexual and transgender behaviors occur in a number of other animal species. Such behaviors include sexual activity, courtship, affection, pair bonding, and parenting, and are widespread; a 1999 review by researcher Bruce Bagemihl shows that homosexual behavior has been documented in about 500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms. Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. The motivations for and implications of these behaviors have yet to be fully understood, since most species have yet to be fully studied. According to Bagemihl, "the animal kingdom [does] it with much greater sexual diversity—including homosexual, bisexual and nonreproductive sex—than the scientific community and society at large have previously been willing to accept".
- LGBT rights by country or territory
- LGBT rights at the United Nations
- Anti-LGBT rhetoric
- Biology and sexual orientation
- Fraternal birth order and male sexual orientation
- Gay sexual practices
- Gender dysphoria
- Hate speech
- Human male sexuality
- List of nonfiction books about homosexuality
- List of gay, lesbian or bisexual people
- Non-westernized concepts of male sexuality
- Religion and sexuality
- Riddle homophobia scale
- Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures
- "Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality". American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Mary Ann Lamanna; Agnes Riedmann; Susan D Stewart (2014). Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. p. 82. ISBN 1305176898. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychological Association 2010).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gail Wiscarz Stuart (2014). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 502. ISBN 032329412X. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gloria Kersey-Matusiak (2012). Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. p. 169. ISBN 0826193811. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.'<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Submission to the Church of England's Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality". The Royal College of Psychiatrists. Retrieved 13 June 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- "Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365(...) – APA California Amicus Brief — As Filed" (PDF). p. 30. Retrieved 21 December 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- LeVay, Simon (1996). Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality. Cambridge: The MIT Press ISBN 0-262-12199-9
- "Same-sex Behavior Seen In Nearly All Animals, Review Finds". ScienceDaily.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality. The Medical News, 23 October 2006
- Sommer, Volker & Paul L. Vasey (2006), Homosexual Behaviour in Animals, An Evolutionary Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-86446-1
- (Bagemihl 1999)
- Harrold, Max (16 February 1999). "Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity". The Advocate, reprinted in Highbeam Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Census statistics show quarter of California same-sex couples raising kids
- Region Saw Increase In Same-Sex Households
- Census 2010: One Quarter of Gay Couples Raising Children
- Minnesota Sees 50% Rise in Number of Gay Couples
- Census:Dutchess, Ulster Gay Households Increase
- Same Sex Couples' Numbers Soar In N.Y, 2010 Census Finds
- 87% Increase in Same-Sex Nevada Households Since 2000
- 2010 Census indicates increase among same-sex homeowners in Oklahoma
- Spike In Number of City's Same-Sex Couples
- Sexual Orientation Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. American Psychiatric Association.
- Room, Adrian (1986). A Dictionary of True Etymologies. p. 84. ISBN 978-0710203403.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Statt, David A. (2004). A Student's Dictionary of Psychology. Psychology Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-1841693422.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Karl-Maria Kertbeny: The Coinage and Dissemination of the Term", glbtq.com, retrieved 12 June 2012<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Krafft-Ebing, Richard von (1840–1902). glbtq.com.
- "Psychopathia Sexualis", Kino.com, retrieved 7 September 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Media Reference Guide (citing AP, NY Times, Washington Post style guides), GLAAD. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- "gay". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
(Of a person, especially a man) homosexual.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Marguerite Johnson, Terry Ryan: Sexuality in Greek and Roman society and literature: a sourcebook p.4
- "Lesbian | Define Lesbian at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "UNAIDS: Men who have sex with men" (PDF). UNAIDS. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Younger, John G. (2005). Sex in the ancient world from A to Z (1st published. ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 0-415-24252-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin. 2000. ISBN 0-618-70172-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Spears, Richard A. (2007). "Fag". Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions. Retrieved 4 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- (Dalzell 2008, p. 1104)
- "Dictionary of Sexual Terms". Sex-lexis.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Taylor, Marvin J. "Queer Things from Old Closets: Libraries Gay and Lesbian Studies – Queer Theory" (PDF). Association of College and Research Libraries. Retrieved 4 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- eds, Marc Wolinsky (1993). Gays and the military : Joseph Steffan versus the United States ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 49–55. ISBN 0691033072.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- eds, Marc Wolinsky ... (1993). Gays and the military: Joseph Steffan versus the United States ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 40–48. ISBN 0691033072.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Murray, Stephen O. (2000). Homosexualities. Chicago [u.a.]: University of Chicago Press. p. 394. ISBN 9780226551944.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Denise Winterman (18 March 2008). "How 'gay' became children's insult of choice". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "GLAAD Media Reference Guide - Terms To Avoid". GLAAD.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Adolescence and puberty By John Bancroft, June Machover Reinisch, p.162
- "... sow illegitimate and bastard seed in courtesans, or sterile seed in males in defiance of nature." Plato in THE LAWS (Book VIII p.841 edition of Stephanus) or p.340, edition of Penguin Books, 1972.
- Roman Homosexuality By Craig Arthur Williams, p.60
- (Foucault 1986)
- Hubbard Thomas K (22 September 2003). "Review of David M. Halperin, How to Do the History of Homosexuality.". Bryn Mawr Classical Review.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Halperin, David M. (1990). One Hundred Years of Homosexuality: And Other Essays on Greek Love. New York: Routledge. pp. 41–42. ISBN 0-415-90097-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ruse, Michael (2005). Honderich, Ted, ed. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 399. ISBN 0-19-926479-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Murray, Stephen (ed.); Roscoe, Will (ed.) (1998). Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-23829-0. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pablo, Ben (2004), "Latin America: Colonial", glbtq.com, retrieved 1 August 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Murray, Stephen (2004). "Mexico". In Claude J. Summers. glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. glbtq, Inc. Retrieved 1 August 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dynes, Johansson, Percy and Donaldson, p. 804.
- Reding, p. 17.
- Pablo E. Ben. "Latin America: Colonial". glbtq. Retrieved 16 December 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bernarda Reza Ramírez. "Propuesta para abatir el delito en el estado de Veracruz - Llave". Universidad Abierta (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 November 2007. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
- Mártir de Anglería, Pedro. (1530). Décadas del Mundo Nuevo. Quoted by Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre. "Good Indians", "Bad Indians", "What Christians?": The Dark Side of the New World in Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés (1478–1557), Delaware Review of Latin American Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002.
- "Bowers v. Hardwick". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lambda Legal. "Baehr v. Miike". lambdalegal.org. Retrieved 2013-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Haw. Atty. Gen. Op. No. 13-1" (PDF). October 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kang, Wenqing. Obsession: male same-sex relations in China, 1900–1950, Hong Kong University Press. Page 2
- Song Geng (2004). The fragile scholar: power and masculinity in Chinese culture. Hong Kong University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-962-209-620-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hinsch, Bret. (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve. University of California Press. p. 77-78.
- Kang, Wenqing. Obsession: male same-sex relations in China, 1900–1950, Hong Kong University Press. Page 3
- Empty citation (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Empty citation (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Singapore's Top Court Upholds Anti-Gay Law". October 29, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Penrose, Walter (2001). Hidden in History: Female Homoeroticism and Women of a "Third Nature" in the South Asian Past, Journal of the History of Sexuality 10.1 (2001), p.4
- Plato, Phaedrus in the Symposium
- Plato, Laws, 636D & 835E
- (Boswell 1980)
- Douglas Harper (2001). "Lesbian". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Douglas Harper (2001). "Sapphic". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Denys Page, Sappho and Alcaeus, Oxford UP, 1959, pp. 142–146.
- (Campbell 1982, p. xi–xii)
- Rocke, Michael, (1996), Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and male Culture in Renaissance Florence, ISBN 0-19-512292-5
- Ruggiero, Guido, (1985), The Boundaries of Eros, ISBN 0-19-503465-1
- Kurtz, Lester R. (1999). Encyclopedia of violence, peace, & conflict. Academic Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-12-227010-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gladfelder, Hal (May 2006) In Search of Lost Texts: Thomas Cannon's 'Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplified", Institute of Historical Research
- Journal of Homosexuality (ISSN 0091-8369) Volume: 3 Issue: 4, Volume: 4 Issue: 1
- Ellis, Havelock; Symonds, John Addington (1975), Sexual Inversion, Arno Press, ISBN 0-405-07363-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (reprint)
- Nahavandi and Bomati, illustration opposite p.162
- El-Rouayheb, Khaled (2005). Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500–1800. The University of Chicago Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-226-72988-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The five most improved places for gay tolerance". The Independent. London. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
Israel is the only Middle-Eastern country to support gay rights legislation, and the country attracts gay people from Palestine and Lebanon.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- James Kirchick. "Was Arafat Gay?". Out.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The world's most gay-friendly places". Calgary Herald. 29 June 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Grant, Anthony (2 July 2010). "Gay Tel Aviv". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Steven Eke (28 July 2005). "Iran 'must stop youth executions'". BBC News.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts". ILGA. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fathi, Nazila (30 September 2007). "Despite Denials, Gays Insist They Exist, if Quietly, in Iran". New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gay Rights Or Wrongs: A Christian's Guide to Homosexual Issues and Ministry, by Mike Mazzalonga, 1996, p.11
- The Nature Of Homosexuality, Erik Holland, page 334, 2004
- Pritchard, p. 181.
- Dynes, Wayne (1992). "Introduction". Homosexuality in the Ancient World. Garland Publishing. pp. vii–xv. ISBN 978-0-8153-0546-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Held, George F. (183). Wayne R. Dynes & Stephen Donaldson, ed. Parallels between The Gilgamesh Epic and Plato's Symposium. pp. 199–207.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kilmer, Anne Draffkorn (1992). Wayne R. Dynes and Stephen Donaldson, ed. A Note on an Overlooked Word-Play in the Akkadian Gilgamesh. Garland Publishing, Inc. p. 264.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Thorbjørnsrud, Berit (1992). What Can the Gilgamesh Myth Tell Us about Religion and the View of Humanity in Mesopotamia?. Garland Publishing, Inc. p. 452.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ackerman, Susan (2005). When Heroes Love. Columbia University Press. pp. xii. ISBN 0-231-13260-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Herdt, Gilbert H. (1984), Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia, University of California Press, pp. 128–136, ISBN 0-520-08096-3<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Kinsey's Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale". The Kinsey Institute. Retrieved 8 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mary Zeiss Stange; Carol K. Oyster; Jane E. Sloan (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. Sage Pubns. p. 2016. ISBN 1-4129-7685-5. Retrieved 17 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Why women are leaving men for other women". CNN. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sinclair, Karen, About Whoever: The Social Imprint on Identity and Orientation, NY, 2013 ISBN 9780981450513
- "Question A2: Sexual orientation". Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved 3 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "LGBT-Sexual Orientation: What is Sexual Orientation?" Archived 28 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine, the official web pages of APA. Accessed April 9, 2015
- "Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation" (PDF). American Psychological Association. 2009: 63, 86. Retrieved February 3, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage – Research Summary" (PDF). American Psychological Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Relationship Satisfaction and Commitment". Eurekalert.org. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Charlotte, Baccman; Per Folkesson; Torsten Norlander (1999). "Expectations of romantic relationships: A comparison between homosexual and heterosexual men with regard to Baxter's criteria". Social Behavior and Personality. Retrieved 4 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Moody, Jonas (30 January 2009). "Iceland Picks the World's First Openly Gay PM". TIME. Retrieved 13 November 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Coming Out: A Journey". Utahpridecenter.org. Retrieved 22 July 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- In a joint statement with other major American medical organizations, the APA says that "different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or bisexual". "Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel". American Academy of Pediatrics, American Counseling Association, American Association of School Administrators, American Federation of Teachers, American Psychological Association, American School Health Association, The Interfaith Alliance, National Association of School Psychologists, National Association of Social Workers, National Education Association. 1999. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Coming Out Continuum", Human Rights Campaign, archived from the original on 2 November 2007, retrieved 4 May 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E., Hunter, J., & Braun, L. (February 2006). Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time. Journal of Sex Research, 43(1), 46–58. Retrieved 4 April 2009, from PsycINFO database.
- Neumann, Caryn E (2004), "Outing", glbtq.com<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Maggio, Rosalie (1991), The Dictionary of Bias-Free Usage: A Guide to Nondiscriminatory Language, Oryx Press, p. 208, ISBN 0-89774-653-8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tatchell, Peter (23 April 2007), "Outing hypocrites is justified", New Statesman, retrieved 4 May 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Locke Concedes In Mayor's Race – Politics News Story – KPRC Houston". Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Shere Hite, The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality (N.Y.: Seven Stories Press, 2004 ed. pbk. [1st printing?] © 1976, 1981, 2004), pp. 325–328 & 330 (ISBN 1-58322-569-2).
- Bindel, Julie (30 January 2009). "My sexual revolution". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Minton, H. L. (1986). Femininity in men and masculinity in women: American psychiatry and psychology portray homosexuality in the 1930s, Journal of Homosexuality, 13(1), 1–21.
*Terry, J. (1999). An American obsession: Science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
- Bailey, J.M., Zucker, K.J. (1995), Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: a conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Developmental Psychology 31(1):43
- Manfred, Tony (April 29, 2013). "NBA Player Jason Collins Becomes First Openly Gay Athlete In A Major American Team Sport". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Apple's CEO Tim Cook Is First Fortune 500 to Come Out as Gay". www.nbcnews.com. NBC News. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, p. 656
- Harford, Tim (1 October 2010). "More or Less examines Office for National Statistics figures on gay, lesbian and bisexual people". BBC.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- David Leonhardt (28 July 2000). "John Tukey, 85, Statistician; Coined the Word 'Software'". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Biography 15.1, John W. Tukey (1915–2000)". Retrieved 19 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> John Tukey criticizes sample procedure
- "Book Review by Martin Duberman, The Nation, November 3, 1997".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Martin Duberman on Gebhart's "cleaning" of data
- Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.[page needed]
- Wellings, K., Field, J., Johnson, A., & Wadsworth, J. (1994). Sexual behavior in Britain: The national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. London, UK: Penguin Books.[page needed]
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). Bogaert argues that: "The prevalence of male homosexuality is debated. One widely reported early estimate was 10% (e.g., Marmor, 1980; Voeller, 1990). Some recent data provided support for this estimate (Bagley and Tremblay, 1998), but most recent large national samples suggest that the prevalence of male homosexuality in modern western societies, including the United States, is lower than this early estimate (e.g., 1–2% in Billy et al., 1993; 2–3% in Laumann et al., 1994; 6% in Sell et al., 1995; 1–3% in Wellings et al., 1994). It is of note, however, that homosexuality is defined in different ways in these studies. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality (e.g., Billy et al., 1993); many sex researchers (e.g., Bailey et al., 2000; Bogaert, 2003; Money, 1988; Zucker and Bradley, 1995) now emphasize attraction over overt behavior in conceptualizing sexual orientation." (p. 33) Also: "...the prevalence of male homosexuality (in particular, same-sex attraction) varies over time and across societies (and hence is a "moving target") in part because of two effects: (1) variations in fertility rate or family size; and (2) the fraternal birth order effect. Thus, even if accurately measured in one country at one time, the rate of male homosexuality is subject to change and is not generalizable over time or across societies." (p. 33)
- McConaghy et al., 2006
- "Sexual Behavior Levels Compared in Studies In Britain and France". nytimes.com. 8 December 1992.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gary Gates (April 2011). "How Many People are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender?". The Williams Institute. Retrieved May 12, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gary Gates (April 2011). "How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?" (PDF). The Williams Institute. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Smith, David M.; Gates, Gary J. (22 August 2001). "Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households" (PDF). Retrieved 26 January 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013." CDC. 15 July 2014. 15 July 2014.
- "Sex uncovered poll: Homosexuality". London: Guardian. 26 October 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Measuring Sexual Identity : Evaluation Report, 2010". Office for National Statistics. 23 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gates, Gary J.; Newport, Frank (2012-10-18). "Special Report: 3.4% of U.S. Adults Identify as LGBT". Gallup. Retrieved 2015-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Gallup survey claims 3.4 percent in U.S. are LGBT". CBS News. Associated Press. 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2015-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Jayson, Sharon (2012-10-19). "New survey: 3.4% of U.S. adults are LGBT". USA Today. Retrieved 2015-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Robinson, B. A. (2010). "Divergent beliefs about the nature of homosexuality". Religious Tolerance.org. Retrieved 12 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ""Therapies" to change sexual orientation lack medical justification and threaten health". Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved 26 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> archived here .
- American Psychological Association: Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts
- Staff report (August 12, 1998). Gay Is Okay With APA—Forum Honors Landmark 1973 Events. JAMA 1998;280(6):497–499. doi:10.1001/jama.280.6.497
- American Psychological Association: Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation
- "Stop discrimination against homosexual men and women". World Health Organisation — Europe. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The decision of the World Health Organisation 15 years ago constitutes a historic date and powerful symbol for members of the LGBT community". ILGA. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Shoffman, Marc (17 May 2006), "Homophobic stigma – A community cause", PinkNews.co.uk, retrieved 4 May 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The New York Times: Homosexuality Not an Illness, Chinese Say
- Royal College of Psychiatrists: June 2008/https://web.archive.org/web/20080611014113/http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pressparliament/pressreleases2008/pr14.aspx Royal College of Psychiatrists response to comments on Nolan Show regarding homosexuality as a mental disorder at the Wayback Machine (archived June 11, 2008)[dead link]
- Cabaj, R; Stein, T. eds. Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health, p. 421
- ed. Sandfort, T; et al. Lesbian and Gay Studies: An Introductory, Interdisciplinary Approach. Chapter 2.
- "Royal College of Psychiatrists' statement on sexual orientation" (PDF). Royal College of Psychiatrists' statement on sexual orientation. Retrieved 31 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Perrin, E. C. (2002). Sexual Orientation in Child and Adolescent Health Care. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-46761-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mitchum, Robert (12 August 2007), "Study of gay brothers may find clues about sexuality", Chicago Tribune, archived from the original on 23 October 2008, retrieved 4 May 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "How much is known about the origins of homosexuality?". Church Times. 16 November 2007. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Zietsch et al. (2008)
- "Answers to Your Questions. For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality" (PDF). American Psychological Association. Retrieved 20 December 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Expert affidavit of Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Royal College of Psychiatrists: Statement from the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Gay and Lesbian Mental Health Special Interest Group May 2010/https://web.archive.org/web/20100527055029/http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/press/pressreleasearchives/2009/statement.aspx Archived May 27, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Australian Psychological Society: Sexual orientation and homosexuality July 2009/https://web.archive.org/web/20090717121843/http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/tip_sheets/orientation/ Archived July 17, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Statement of the American Psychological Association" (PDF). Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Research finds no scientific evidence that people are born gay or transgender". Retrieved 19 January 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Gay and transgender study". Retrieved 19 January 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Gay people are not born that way; sexual orientation not fixed". Retrieved 19 January 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "No scientific evidence that people are born gay or transgender, Johns Hopkins researchers say".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "homosexuality may be triggered by environment after birth".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sex hormones and identity".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sexual orientation can and does change".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Marriage of Same-Sex Couples – 2006 Position Statement Canadian Psychological Association" (PDF). Retrieved 2 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Elizabeth Short, Damien W. Riggs, Amaryll Perlesz, Rhonda Brown, Graeme Kane: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families – A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society" (PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Brief of the American Psychological Association, The California Psychological Association, The American Psychiatric Association, and the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy as Amici Curiae in support of plaintiff-appellees" (PDF). Retrieved 21 December 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "How Does the Gender of Parents Matter". .interscience.wiley.com. Retrieved 21 December 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Brief presented to the Legislative House of Commons Committee on Bill C38 by the Canadian Psychological Association – June 2, 2005" (PDF). Retrieved 2 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- DONALDSON JAMES, SUSAN (23 June 2011). "Census 2010: One-Quarter of Gay Couples Raising Children". ABC News. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
Still, more than 80 percent of the children being raised by gay couples are not adopted, according to Gates.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- American Psychological Association Lesbian & Gay Parenting
- "MSM in Africa: highly stigmatized, vulnerable and in need of urgent HIV prevention". Aidsportal.org. Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "UNAIDS: Men who have sex with men". UNAIDS. Archived from the original (asp) on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Greenwood, Cseneca; Mario Ruberte (9 April 2004). "African American Community and HIV (Slide 14 mentions TG women)" (ppt). East Bay AIDS Education and Training Center. Retrieved 24 July 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Operario D, Burton J (April 2000). "HIV-related tuberculosis in a transgender network—Baltimore, Maryland, and New York City area, 1998–2000". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49 (15): 317–20. PMID 10858008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "STI Epi Update: Oral Contraceptive and Condom Use". Public Health Agency of Canada. 23 April 1998. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cber / Fda. "FDA Policy on Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mravack, Sally A. (July 2006)."Primary Care for Lesbians and Bisexual Women", American Family Physician 74 (2) p. 279–286.
- Catalyst, Sr. Kitty, Staff of San Francisco City Clinic; "Reading This Might Save Your Ass"; 2001, San Francisco HIV Prevention and STD Prevention and Control.
- Men Like Us: The GMHC Complete Guide to Gay Men's Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Well-being; Wolfe, Daniel; Gay Men's Health Crisis, Inc; Published by Ballantine Books, 2000; ISBN 0-345-41496-9, 9780345414960.
- Schlager, Neil, ed. (1998). Gay & Lesbian Almanac. St. James Press. ISBN 1-55862-358-2, p. 152.
- "Black gay men, lesbians, have fewer mental disorders than whites, says Mailman School of PH study". Eurekalert.org. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gibson, P. (1989), "Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide", in Fenleib, Marcia R. (ed.), Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, United States Government Printing Office, ISBN 0-16-002508-7 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Caruso, Kevin, "Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Suicide", Suicide.org, retrieved 4 May 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Wilson, Jacque (2 July 2008). "24-hour help for gay youth". CNN. Retrieved 26 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- SHYAMANTHA, ASOKAN (11 December 2013). "India's Supreme Court turns the clock back with gay sex ban". Reuters. Retrieved 23 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gwynn Guilford (December 11, 2013). "India's latest ban against gay sex has its origin in a five-century-old British power struggle". Quartz. Retrieved 23 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ottosson, Daniel (November 2006), LGBT world legal wrap up survey (PDF), ILGA, retrieved 21 September 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Donovan, James M; American Association of Law Libraries Standing Committee on Lesbian and Gay Issues (2007), Sexual Orientation and the Law, William S. Hein & Co., ISBN 0-8377-0166-X<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> § 5:17
- "Executive Order 13087 of May 28, 1998" (PDF), Federal Register, 63 (105), 2 June 1998, retrieved 7 September 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ashton v. Civiletti, 613 F.2d 923, 20 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1601, 21 Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH) P 30297 (D.C. Cir. 1979)
- Kelly v. City of Oakland, 198 F.3d 779, 81 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1455, 77 Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH) P 46281 (9th Cir. 1999)
- Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., 523 U.S. 75, 118 S. Ct. 998, 1002 (1998)
- Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989)
- Renter's Rights Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination, archived from the original on 10 December 2007, retrieved 7 September 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "State Hate Crime Laws" (PDF), Anti-Defamation League, June 2006, retrieved 4 May 2007<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "President Barack Obama Signs Hate Crimes Legislation Into Law". HRC. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
- Salt Lake City, UT (20 October 2004). "First Presidency Message on Same-Gender Marriage". Newsroom.lds.org. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Brownback, Sam (9 July 2004). "Defining Marriage Down – We need to protect marriage". National Review. Archived from the original on 1 June 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Family: A Proclamation to the World". Lds.org. 23 September 1995. Retrieved 24 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Doughty, Steve (28 November 2007). "Gay hate law 'threat to Christian free speech'". London: Daily Mail.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Doughty, Steve (6 September 2006). "Christian faces court over 'offensive' gay festival leaflets". London: Daily Mail.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gove, Michael (24 December 2002). "I'd like to say this, but it might land me in prison". London: The Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Christian group likens Tory candidate review to witch hunt". CBC News. 28 November 2007. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kempling, Chris (9 April 2008). "Conduct unbecoming a free society". National Post.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Moldover, Judith (31 October 2007). "Employer's Dilemma: When Religious Expression and Gay Rights Cross". New York Law Journal.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ritter, Bob (January–February 2008). "Collision of religious and gay rights in the workplace". Humanist.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Bishop loses gay employment case". BBC News. 18 July 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Beckford, Martin (5 June 2008). "Catholic adoption service stops over gay rights". London: Telegraph.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- LeBlanc, Steve (10 March 2006). "Catholic Charities to halt adoptions over issue involving gays". Boston Globe.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mercer, Greg (24 April 2008). "Christian Horizons rebuked: Employer ordered to compensate fired gay worker, abolish code of conduct". The Record. Retrieved 21 August 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gallagher, Maggie (15 May 2006). "Banned in Boston:The coming conflict between same-sex marriage and religious liberty". 011 (33).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Capuzzo, Jill (14 August 2007). "Church Group Complains of Civil Union Pressure". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Capuzzo, Jill (18 September 2007). "Group Loses Tax Break Over Gay Union Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Moore, Carrie (15 May 2008). "LDS Church expresses disappointment in California gay marriage decision". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Chin, James (12 March 2007). "The risks in hiding the HIV/AIDS truth". 9. Business Day.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
- "The people punish Mr Blair". London: Daily Mail (UK). 6 May 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- American Psychological Association Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2004. Minutes of the meeting of the Council of Representatives July 28 & 30, 2004, Honolulu, HI. Retrieved November 18, 2004 February 2010/https://web.archive.org/web/20100215235251/http://www.apa.org/about/governance/council/policy/military.aspx Archived February 15, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- American Psychological Association: [Report of the APA Joint Divisional Task Force on Sexual Orientation & Military Service]
- "Charge #1 and specifications preferred by the Presbytery of Southern California against The Rev. C. Lee Irons" (PDF). Presbytery of Southern California of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
claiming that homosexuality is an unchosen "condition," rather than a sin of the heart, [...] contradicts the teaching of Scripture that both the desire and the act are sin.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sex and Society – Volume 3 – Page 824
- The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Religion and Social Justice – Page 543, Michael D. Palmer, Stanley M. Burgess – 2012
- Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, Eugene V. Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft – 2006
- Cabezón, p. vii, "Introduction"
- "Queer Spirituality". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bromberger, Brian (October 15, 2015). "New book details Windsor Supreme Court victory". Bay Area Reporter. Retrieved October 16, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Religion Dispatches magazine, Candace Chellew-Hodge
- In the United States, a February 2012 Pew Research Center poll shows that Catholics support gay marriage by a margin of 52% to 37%.(ANALYSIS February 7, 2012 (2012-02-07). "Religion and Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2012-07-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>) That is a shift upwards from 2010, when 46% of Catholics favored gay marriage.(Biden's support for gay marriage matches most Catholics' views, By Dan Gilgoff, CNN.com Religion Editor )
- Ratzinger J., et al. 1995. Part Three Life in Christ. In: Catechism of the Catholic Church. 1540 Broadway, New York, New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. p. 625.
- ILGA: 2009 Report on State Sponsored Homophobia (2009) Archived October 29, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "ILGA:7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Homosexuality and Islam – ReligionFacts".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "ILGA: Lesbian and Gay Rights in the World (2009)" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Steven Eke (28 July 2005). "Iran 'must stop youth executions'". BBC News.
Human Rights Watch calls on Iran to end juvenile executions, after claims that two boys were executed for being gay.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Moore, Patrick (January 31, 2006). Murder and Hypocrisy. The Advocate. p. 37. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
Homan, and organization for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Iranians in exile, estimates that more than 4,000 gay Iranians have been executed in the country since the Islamic revolution of 1979.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Whitaker, Brian (18 March 2005). "Arrests at Saudi 'gay wedding'". The Observer. London.
Saudi executions are not systematically reported, and officials deny that the death penalty is applied for same-sex activity alone.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Aldrich, Robert (2006). Gay life and culture : a world history. Universe. ISBN 978-0-7893-1511-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bruce-Jones, Eddie; Itaborahy, Lucas Paoli (May 2011). "State-sponsored Homophobia" (PDF). ilga.org. Retrieved October 15, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- G. Legman "The Guilt of the Templars" (New York: Basic Books, 1966): 11.
- Crompton, Louis, Homosexuality and Civilization, Harvard University, 2003. Page 187
- Crompton, Louis, Homosexuality and Civilization, Harvard University, 2003
- Francoeur, Robert T.; Noonan, Raymond J. (2004). The Continuum complete international encyclopedia of sexuality. The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN 0-8264-1488-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "History of Chinese homosexuality". Shanghai Star. 2004-04-01. Retrieved July 3, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Global Gayz. "Gay North Korea News & Reports 2005". Archived from the original on 2005-10-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>. Retrieved on May 5, 2006
- Spartacus International Gay Guide, page 1217. Bruno Gmunder Verlag, 2007.
- Ember, Carol R; Ember, Melvin (2004). Encyclopedia of sex and gender : men and women in the world's cultures. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-306-47770-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Epprecht, Marc (2004). Hungochani : the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa. Montreal. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7735-2751-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Under African Skies, Part I: 'Totally unacceptable to cultural norms' Kaiwright.com
- Veit-Wild, Flora; Naguschewski, Dirk (2005). Body, sexuality, and gender. Rodopi. p. 93. ISBN 978-90-420-1626-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Canaan Banana, president jailed in sex scandal, dies The Guardian
- "Mental Health American, Bullying and Gay Youth". Mental Health America formerly National Mental Health Association. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Half of young Dutch people reject homosexuality". Expatica/COC. Retrieved 9 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Riddle Homophobia Scale, from Allies Committee website, Department of Student Life, Texas A&M University". Retrieved June 1, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
- Michael Lamb, Ph.D.: Affidavit – United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (2009)
- Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D.: Facts About Homosexuality and Child Molestation
- American Psychological Association: Lesbian & Gay Parenting
- "Victims", FBI, retrieved 26 July 2013<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ""Honor killings" target Turkey's LGBT community". CBS News. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Di Piero Russo. ""Sei il disonore della famiglia" e accoltella il fratello gay". bari.repubblica.it. Retrieved 23 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Father confesses to killing his own son in landmark homosexual murder case". hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved 23 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Smith, Dinitia (7 February 2004). "Love That Dare Not Squeak Its Name". the New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gordon, Dr Dennis (10 April 2007). "'Catalogue of Life' reaches one million species". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Gay Lib for the Animals: A New Look At Homosexuality in Nature – 2/1/1999 – Publishers Weekly". Publishersweekly.com. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Adam, Barry (1987). The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement, G. K. Hall & Co. ISBN 0-8057-9714-9
- Boswell, John (1980), Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-06711-7, archived from the original on 28 September 2006<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dover, Kenneth J., Greek Homosexuality, Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. 1979, ISBN 0-674-36261-6 (hardcover), ISBN 0-674-36270-5 (paperback)
- d'Emilio, John Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940–1970, University of Chicago Press 1983, ISBN 0-226-14265-5
- Foucault, Michel (1986), The History of Sexuality, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-41775-5<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Roth, Norman. The care and feeding of gazelles: Medieval Arabic and Hebrew love poetry. IN: Lazar & Lacy. Poetics of Love in the Middle Ages, George Mason University Press 1989, ISBN 0-913969-25-7
- Bagemihl, Bruce (1999), Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-19239-8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bérubé, Allan, Coming out under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two, New York: MacMillan 1990, ISBN 0-02-903100-1
- Brown, Lester B. (1997), Lester B. Brown, ed., Two spirit people: American Indian, lesbian women and gay men, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7890-0003-3<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bullough, Vern L.; Brundage, James A. (2000), Handbook of medieval sexuality, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-8153-3662-4<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Chauncey, George (1995), Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940 (reprint, illustrated ed.), Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-02621-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dynes, Wayne R.; Johansson, Warren; Percy, William A.; Donaldson, Stephen (1990), Encyclopedia of homosexuality (2 Volumes), Garland Pub., ISBN 978-0-8240-6544-7<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Faderman, Lillian (1993), Odd girls and twilight lovers: a history of lesbian life in twentieth-century America (4 ed.), Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-07488-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hinsch, Bret, Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China, The University of California Press, 1990, ISBN 0-520-06720-7
- Johansson, Warren; William A. Percy (1994), Outing: shattering the conspiracy of silence, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-56024-419-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Michael, Robert T. (1994), Sex in America: a definitive survey, Little, Brown, ISBN 978-0-316-91191-7<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Percy, William Armstrong (1998), Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 978-0-252-06740-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ramos, Juanita (1987), Compañeras: Latina lesbians (an anthology), Latina Lesbian History Project<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Rousseau, George, Perilous Enlightenment: Pre- and Post-Modern Discourses—Sexual, Historical, Manchester University Press 1991, ISBN 0-7190-3301-2
- Schmitt, Arno; Jehoeda Sofer (1992), Arno Schmitt; Jehoeda Sofer, eds., Sexuality and eroticism among males in Moslem societies, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-56024-047-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Terry, Jennifer (1999), An American obsession: science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-79367-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bernstein, Elizabeth; Schaffner, Laurie (2005), Regulating sex: the politics of intimacy and identity, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-94869-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bullough, Vern L. (2002), Before Stonewall: activists for gay and lesbian rights in historical context, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-56023-193-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Davidson, James (2007). The Greeks And Greek Love: A Radical Reappraisal of Homosexuality In Ancient Greece. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81997-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gunther, Scott Eric (2009). The Elastic Closet, A History of Homosexuality in France, 1942-present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-59510-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Johnson, David K. (2004), The lavender scare: the Cold War persecution of gays and lesbians in the federal government, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-40481-3<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Myers, JoAnne (2003), Historical dictionary of the lesbian liberation movement: still the rage, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 978-0-8108-4506-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Vanita, Ruth (2002), Queering India: same-sex love and eroticism in Indian culture and society, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-92950-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Burr, Chandler. Homosexuality and biology. The Atlantic, June 1997, ISSN 1072-7825. An overview of recent research in layman's language.
- BBC News (Feb 1998): Fingerprints Study
- BBC News (Apr 1999): Doubt cast on 'gay gene'
- January 2008/https://web.archive.org/web/20080110000912/http://my.webmd.com/content/article/22/1728_56075?src=Inktomi&condition=Home+&+Top+Stories WebMD (March 2000) at the Wayback Machine (archived January 10, 2008)[dead link]: Pointing the Finger at Androgen as a Cause of Homosexuality
- BBC News (Oct 2004): Genetics of homosexuality
- James Davidson, London Review of Books, 2 June 2005, "Mr and Mr and Mrs and Mrs"—detailed review of The Friend, by Alan Bray, a history of same-sex marriage and other same-sex formal bonds
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|