Ikshvaku dynasty

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The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a mythical dynasty[1] founded by Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku, literally means "sugar cane". The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). Rama, hero of the Ramayana belonged to this dynasty.[2] Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty.[3]

The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara,[4] Raghu, Rama and Prasenajit. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty,[5] who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

Hinduism

In Hinduism, Ikshvaku, is the grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. They ruled from the Kosala Kingdom, today known as Oudh in the state of Uttar Pradesh along the banks of river Sarayu with saketa, Ayodhya today as their capital. Ikshvaku is the first king who executed the Manusmrti or religious rules of Hindu living which were composed by his father Manu. Ikshvaku, ruled as Monarch at the beginning of the Treta Yuga or second yuga, had hundred sons. His estates descended to his eldest son Vikukshi.[6]

Ikshvaku dynasty lineage

The lists of kings of Ikṣvāku or Aikṣvāka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of the kings of this dynasty.[7][8]

To Kusha

The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty to Rama is mentioned in the Ramayana in two lists . The only difference between the two lists is that, Kukshi is mentioned only in the second list . In the first list, Vikukshi is mentioned as the son of Ikshvaku.[9] The genealogy is as follows:[citation needed]

Brahma

Marichi

Kashyapa

Vivasvan or Surya

  1. Vaivasvata Manu

The begin Of Ikshwaku Dynasty

  1. Vivasvan Manu (wife:- Shraddha)
  2. Ikshvaku
  3. Kukshi :- Kukshi is the son of King Ikshvaku, the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Sun Dynasty (Suryavansha). Among the hundred sons of king Ikshvaku, Kukshi is the eldest one. Because he has very broad chest of a warrior, he was called as Kukshi.
  4. Vikukshi (Shashad) (he who eats the meat of a rabbit so he named Shashad) (contemporary to King Pururava who was founder of Chandravansh)
  5. Baan (contemporary to 2nd Chandravanshi King Aayu & Vijaya-1)
  6. Kakutstha (Puranjaya or Indrahomi or Indravahu) ruled 10,900 years (contemporary to 2nd Chandravanshi King Aayu)
  7. Anena (Anaranya or Suyodhana) (contemporary to 3rd Chandravanshi King Nahusha)
  8. Prithu (contemporary to 4th Chandravanshi King Yayati and demon king Vrushaparva)
  9. Vishvarandhri (Vishvagandhi or Vishvamshaha) (contemporary to 5th Chndravanshi King Yadu, Puru, Suhotra)
  10. Chandra (Aayu in Agni Puran or Indu in Matsya Puran or Aadra in Vishnu Puran)
  11. Yuvanashva-1
  12. Shashvat (Shravant of Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran, Agni Puran) who built town Saraswati
  13. Brihadasva
  14. Kuvalayasva (or) Dubdhunara (21,000 sons and Here time duration is many thousands years long)
  15. Dridhasva, Kapilashva, Bhadrashva (Dand in Agni Puran & Matsya Puran, Chandrashva in Vishnu Puran & Harivansh Puran)
  16. Pramod
  17. Haryasva (Pramodak or Vayarshvah in Vishnu Puran)
  18. Nikumbha
  19. Baharnashva (Shanhatashva in Agni Puran, Matsya Puran, Harivasnh Puran)
  20. Giritashva
  21. Krisasva (Akrutashva in Agni Puran, Matsya Puran)
  22. Prasenajit-1 (Seinya Jeet, Ranashva in Agni Puran)
  23. Yuvanashva(2) (who was contemporary to Chandravanshi King Gandhara who was founder of Gandhara Kingdom, Shakuni born 95 generation after King Gandhara)
  24. Mandhata (Chakravarti Samrat) killed by Lavanasura in Mathura (He was defeated by Ravana)
  25. Purukutsha (married with Narmada), Ambarisha (adopted by Yuvanashva), Muchukanda (helped Deva in Deva-Asur War & latter he killed Kaal Yavan by fire from his eyes at the time of Sri Krishna Avatara in end of Dwaparayuga) (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Shibi who was founder of Keikaya & Madra Kingdom)
  26. Vasud
  27. Trayadasyu (Sambhuti in Agni Puran)
  28. Sambhrut (Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran, Matsya Puran)
  29. Anaranya-1 (killed by Ravana, Anaranya cursed Ravana that one day one king of Ikshvaku line age will kill Ravana & Sri Rama killed Ravana)
  30. Pushadashva (Vishnu Puran)
  31. Haryasva(2)
  32. Sumana (Sudhanava in Harivansh Puran, Vasuman, Paarjitar)
  33. Tridhanva (Vishvamitra was chief minister in his court, contemporary to God Parashurama)
  34. Thrayaruni
  35. Tribandhan
  36. Satyavrata (or) Trishanku
  37. Harishchandra (contemporary to Shahashtra Bahu Kartivirya Arjuna)
  38. Rohit (Rohitashva) (Kanyakubj or Kannauj dynasty ended during Rohitashva's reigned)
  39. Harita (Haritashva) (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Dushyant)
  40. Champ (Chunchu) (Conntemporary of Chakravarti Samrat Bharata of Chandravansh in line age of Puru)
  41. Sudeva (Chakshu in Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran)
  42. Vijaya (Ramayana was written by Valmiki during reign of this king) (contemporary to Maharshi Bharadwaja)
  43. Bharuk (Ruruk in Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran)
  44. Pratapendra
  45. Bruk
  46. Sushandhi
  47. Bahuk
  48. Bharat (Ramayana)
  49. Asit (Kalinda in Ramayana)
  50. Sagara (Chakravartin Samrat) he ended Haihaya Dynasty. Sagar had 60,000 sons but only Asamanjash live (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Hasti who founded Hatinapura)
  51. Asamanjash (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Ajaamidha who was founder of Panchala Kingdom)
  52. Anshumaan
  53. Dilīpa
  54. Bhagiratha (He brought river Ganga on earth)
  55. Srutha
  56. Kukutsa-2
  57. Raghu-1
  58. Naabh (Nabhag in Matsya Puran, Harivansh Puran)
  59. Ambarisha(2) (great devotee of God Maha Vishnu)
  60. Shindhudwip
  61. Avyutayu (Shrutayu in Agni Puran)
  62. Rituparna
  63. Sarvakama (Sarvakarma, Aartupani in Harivansha Puran)
  64. Sudas (contemporary to King Kuru-1 of Chandravansh who founded Magadha Kingdom)
  65. Saudasa (or) Kalmashapada (married to Madayanti)
  66. Asmaka
  67. Mulaka (Naari Kavacha) (Contemporary to Yadava King Shakuni who was father of Rashasha "Bhasmasura")
  68. Dasharatha-1
  69. Adwil (Ilabil in Vishnu Puran)
  70. Vishvamashaha
  71. Anaranya-2
  72. Nidhn
  73. Animitra
  74. Dululaha (Harivansh Puran)
  75. Krisakarma
  76. Dilipa(2) (or) Khatvanga (in Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran)
  77. Deerghabahu
  78. Raghu-2 (Chakravartin Samrat) (Raghuvansh, Raghava, Raghuvir word use in honour of this king)
  79. Aja (married to Indumati)
  80. Dasharatha was of age 60,000 years when Sri Rama born mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana (contemporary to Videha King Siradwaja (Janaka-2) father of Seeta)
  81. Rama ruled 11,000 years mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Vishnu Purana, Harivansha Puran, Agni Puran, Sbhagavat Maha Puran (Lakshmana, Bharata & Shatrughna are his siblings and he is also avatar of lord Vishnu)

In the Ramayana, we find that, Lava and Kusha were the sons of Rama.

Average lifespan of Ikshvakuvanshi Kings in Satyayuga and Tretayuga was 37,333 years.

Kusha to Brihadbala

The Puranas provide a genealogical list from Kusha to Brihadbala, who was killed by Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war. This list is corroborated by the Raghuvamsha till Agnivarna:[10]

  • Kusha
  • Atithi, the son of Kusha
  • Nishadha, the son of Atithi
  • Nala, the son of Nishadha
  • Nabhas, the son of Nala
  • Pundarika, the son Nabhas
  • Kshemadhanvan, the son of Pundarika
  • Devanika, the son of Kshemadhanvan
  • Ahinagu, the son of Davanika
  • Paripatra, the son of Ahinagu
  • Dala (or Bala), the son of Ahinagu
  • Uktha, the son of Dala
  • Vajranabha, the son of Uktha
  • Shankhana, the son of Vajranabha
  • Vyushitashva, the son of Shankhana
  • Vishvasaha, the son of Vyushitashva
  • Hiranyanabha, the son of Vishvasaha
  • Pushya, the son of Hiranyanabha
  • Dhruvasandhi, the son of Pushya
  • Agnivarna, the son of Dhruvasandhi
  • Shighra, the son of Agnivarna
  • Maru, the son of Shighra
  • Prasushruta, the son of Maru
  • Susandhi, the son of Prasushruta
  • Amarsha and Sahasvanta, the sons of Susandhi
  • Vishrutavanta, the son of Amarsha
  • Brihadbala, the son of Vishrutavanta.

Brihadbala to Sumitra

The Puranas also provide the list of the kings from Brihadbala to the last ruler Sumitra. But these lists mention Shakya as an individual, and incorporate the names of Shakya, Shuddodhana, Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha) and Rahula between Sanjaya and Prasenajit. The names of the kings are:[11]

  • Birhadbala
  • Brihatkshaya
  • Urukshaya
  • Vatsavyuha
  • Prativyoma
  • Divakara
  • Sahadeva
  • Brihadashva
  • Bhanuratha
  • Pratitashva
  • Supratika
  • Marudeva
  • Sunakshatra
  • Kinnara
  • Antariksha
  • Suvarna
  • Sumitra Amitrajit
  • Dharmin
  • Kritanjaya
  • Sanjaya Mahakoshala
  • Prasenajit (c. 6th century BCE)
  • Kshudraka
  • Kulaka
  • Suratha
  • Sumitra, defeated by Mahapadma Nanda

In Buddhist tradition

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara.[12] The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:[13][14]

  1. Okkaka
  2. Okkamukha
  3. Sivisamjaya
  4. Sihassara
  5. Jayasena
  6. Sihahanu
  7. Suddhodana
  8. Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)
  9. Rahula

In Jain tradition

The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jainism, as twenty-two Tirthankaras were born in this dynasty.[15]

See also

Notes

  1. Geography of Rigvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
  2. Zimmer 1952, p. 218.
  3. Zimmer 1952, p. 220.
  4. Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
  5. Malalasekera, G. P. (2007) [1937]. Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. http://www.gloriousindia.com/history/dynasties/ikshvaku/ikshvaku.html
  7. Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 90–91.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Valmiki, Arshia Sattar (1996). The Ramayana. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029866-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Vyas, R.T. (ed.) (1992). Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Text as Constituted in its Critical Edition. Vadodara: Oriental Institute, Vadodara. pp. 91–2, 255–56. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. p. 149.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, pp.283-8, 384
  12. Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
  13. Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
  14. Geiger, Wilhelm (tr.) (1912). "Mahavamsa, Chapter II". Ceylon Government Information Dept.,Colombo (in lakdvia.org website). Retrieved 2009-10-26. line feed character in |publisher= at position 18 (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Jain 1991, p. 2.
  16. Jain 1991, p. 5.
  17. Shah 2004, p. 15.
  18. Shah, Chandraprakash, Shri Shantinatha, 16th Tirthankara<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Jain 1991, p. 161.

References

Preceded by
Kulkara (in Jainism)
Ikshvaku Dynasty Succeeded by