John Lewis Gaddis

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John Lewis Gaddis
Born 1941
Cotulla, Texas
Residence United States
Citizenship United States
Nationality United States
Fields Foreign relations of the United States
Institutions Ohio University
Yale University
Naval War College
University of Oxford
Princeton University
Alma mater University of Texas, Austin
Doctoral advisor Robert A. Divine

John Lewis Gaddis (born 1941) is the Robert A. Lovett Professor of Military and Naval History at Yale University.[1] He is best known for his work on the Cold War and grand strategy,[1] and has been hailed as the "Dean of Cold War Historians" by The New York Times.[2] Gaddis is also the official biographer of the seminal 20th-century American statesman George F. Kennan.[3] George F. Kennan: An American Life (2011), his biography of Kennan, won the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography.[4]

Biography

Gaddis was born in Cotulla, Texas, in 1941.[5] He attended the University of Texas at Austin, receiving his BA in 1963, MA in 1965, and PhD in 1968,[6][7] the latter under the direction of Robert Divine. Gaddis then taught briefly at Indiana University Southeast, before joining Ohio University in 1969.[6] At Ohio, he founded and directed the Contemporary History Institute,[8] and was named a distinguished professor in 1983.[6]

In the 1975–77 academic years, Gaddis was a Visiting Professor of Strategy at the Naval War College. In the 1992–93 academic year, he was the Harmsworth Visiting Professor of American History at Oxford.[9] He has also held visiting positions at Princeton University and the University of Helsinki. He served as president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations in 1992.[10]

In 1997, he moved to Yale University to become the Lovett Professor of Military and Naval History. In the 2000–01 academic year, Gaddis was the George Eastman Professor at Oxford, the second scholar (after Robin Winks) to have the honor of being both Eastman and Harmsworth professor.[11] In 2005, he received the National Humanities Medal.[12] He sits on the advisory committee of the Wilson Center's Cold War International History Project,[13] which he helped establish in 1991.[12]

Gaddis is also known for his close relationship with the late George Kennan and his wife, whom Gaddis described as "my companions".[14] He was also fairly close to President George W. Bush, making suggestions to his speech writers,[15] and has been described as an "overt admirer" of the 43rd President.[16] After leaving office, Bush took up painting as a hobby at Gaddis's recommendation.[17]

Scholarship

Gaddis is probably the best known historian writing in English about the Cold War.[18] His most famous work is perhaps the highly influential Strategies of Containment (1982; rev. 2005),[19] which analyzes in detail the theory and practice of containment that was employed against the Soviet Union by Cold War American presidents, and his 1983 distillation of post-revisionist scholarship similarly became a major channel for guiding subsequent Cold War research.[20]

We Now Know (1997), an analysis of the Cold War through to the Cuban Missile Crisis that incorporated new archival evidence from the Soviet bloc, was likewise predicted as "likely to set the parameters for a whole new generation of scholarship",[21] while also praised as "the first coherent and sustained attempt to write the Cold War's history since it ended."[22]

The Cold War (2005), praised by John Ikenberry as a "beautifully written panoramic view of the Cold War, full of illuminations and shrewd judgments,"[23] was described as an examination of the history and effects of the Cold War in a more removed context than had been previously possible,[24] and won Gaddis the 2006 Harry S. Truman Book Prize.[25] Critics were rather less impressed, with Tony Judt summarising the book as "a history of America's cold war: as seen from America, as experienced in America, and told in a way most agreeable to many American readers."[26]

His 2011 biography of George Kennan garnered multiple prizes, including a Pulitzer.[4]

Gaddis is known for arguing that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's personality and role in history constituted one of the most important causes of the Cold War. Within the field of U.S. diplomatic history, he is most associated with the concept of post-revisionism, the idea of moving past the revisionist and orthodox interpretations of the origins of the Cold War to embrace what were (in the 1970s) interpretations based upon the then-growing availability of government documents from the United States, Great Britain and other western government archives.[citation needed]

Awards and distinctions

Former U.S. President George W. Bush and first lady Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient John Lewis Gaddis on November 10, 2005 in the Oval Office at the White House.

Selected publications

Books

Articles and chapters

  • "Grand strategies in the Cold War". In Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume II: Crises and Détente (pp. 1–21). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-83720-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Ending Tyranny: The past and future of an idea". The American Interest (Sep–Oct 2008). Retrieved 15 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • "A Grand Strategy of Transformation". Foreign Policy (Nov–Dec 2002): 50–57. Retrieved 15 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "On Starting All Over Again: A Naïve Approach to the Study of the Cold War". In Odd Arne Westad, ed., Reviewing the Cold War: Approaches, Interpretations, Theory (pp. 27–42). London & Portland, OR: Frank Cass. 2000. ISBN 978-0-714-65072-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • "The Cold War: Some Lessons for Policy Makers". Naval War College Review. 27 (3): 2–15. 1974.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

See also

References

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Yale Department of History » John Gaddis". history.yale.edu. Retrieved 3 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Priscilla Johnson McMillan (25 May 1997). "Cold Warmonger". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Douglas Brinkley (17 February 2004). "Celebrating a Policy Seer And His Cold War Insight". nytimes.com. Retrieved 19 August 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Profile of Kennan on his 100th birthday, includes several paragraphs detailing his relationship with Gaddis.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "The 2012 Pulitzer Prize Winners: Biography or Autobiography". pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Alden Branch, Mark. "Days of Duck and Cover". Yale Alumni Magazine (March 2000). Retrieved 3 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Historians will debate Cold War". The Lewiston Daily Sun. 23 January 1989. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Princeton University Library Finding Aids: 'John Lewis Gaddis Papers on George F. Kennan, 1982–1989', Collection Creator Biography". findingaids.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Honorary Alumni: John Lewis Gaddis". Ohio University Today (Fall 1990): 6. Retrieved 7 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Harold Vyvyan Harmsworth Visiting Professor of American History". rai.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 11 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Past Presidents". shafr.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Winks honored by Oxford, National Parks". Yale Bulletin & Calendar. 27 (31). 1999. Retrieved 3 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Awards & Honors: 2005 National Humanities Medalist John Lewis Gaddis". neh.gov. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "CWIHP Advisory Committee". wilsoncenter.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Costigliola 2011.
  15. Gaddis 2008.
    Hartung 2003 criticizes Gaddis for holding a "relatively positive assessment" of post-9/11 Bush foreign policy.
  16. Jonathan Haslam (17 April 2012). "George F Kennan: An American Life by John Lewis Gaddis – review". theguardian.com. Retrieved 29 August 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Baker, Dorie (April 26, 2013). "Yale professor's advice to former U.S. president: Paint". YaleNews. Yale University. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Painter 2006, p. 527.
  19. Leffler 1999, p. 503, which describes Strategies of Containment as "one of the most influential books ever written on post-World War II international relations."
  20. Hogan 1987, p. 494.
  21. Leffler 1999, p. 502.
  22. Ascherson 1997.
  23. Ikenberry 2006.
  24. Michael C. Boyer (22 January 2006). "A world divided: A leading historian evaluates the causes and ultimate collapse of the Cold War". Boston Globe. Retrieved 26 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 "John Lewis Gaddis Wins 2006 Harry S. Truman Book Award". trumanlibrary.org. 16 April 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Judt 2006.
  27. "New-York Historical Society Awards Its Annual American History Book Prize to John Lewis Gaddis for George F. Kennan: An American Life". nyhistory.org. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "All Past National Book Critics Circle Award Winners and Finalists". bookcritics.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "DeVane Medalists, 1966–Present". pbk.yalecollege.yale.edu. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Eastman Professors at the University of Oxford". americanrhodes.org. Retrieved 12 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 31.0 31.1 "Fulbright Alumni » Notable Fulbrighters". eca.state.gov. Retrieved 4 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Gaddis Named to American Academy of Arts and Sciences". ohio.edu. May 1995. Retrieved 4 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Alphabetical Index of Active AAAS Members as of 5 November 2013" (PDF). amacad.org. Retrieved 20 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Notable Achievements of Members". Perspectives. 33 (6). 1995. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Ohio University Historian Selected as Woodrow Wilson Fellow". ohio.edu. April 1995. Retrieved 4 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "The Whitney H. Shepardson Fellowship". cfr.org. Retrieved 16 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "John Lewis Gaddis: 1986 Fellow, U.S. History". gf.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "Distinguished Professors (Current–1959)". ohio.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "The Bancroft Prizes: Previous Awards". library.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Gaddis 1974, p. 14, for "Best First Work of History".
  41. "Author and historian John Lewis Gaddis to give lecture April 21". middlebury.edu. 11 April 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Bibliography

Ascherson, Neal (1997). "Khrushchev's Secret". London Review of Books. 19 (20): 26–28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Costigliola, Frank (2011). "Is This George Kennan?". The New York Review of Books. 58 (19): 4–8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Judt, Tony (2006). "A Story Still to Be Told". The New York Review of Books. 53 (5): 11–15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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External links