Kanada (philosopher)

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Kanada
Born 2nd Century BCE
School Vaisheshika
Notable ideas
Atomism

Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद) was a Hindu sage and philosopher who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika and authored the text Vaisheshika Sutra.[1][2] He probably lived around the 2nd century BCE,[3]

His primary area of study was Rasavādam, considered to be a type of alchemy. He is said to have believed that all living beings are composed of five elements: water, fire, earth, air, Aether (classical element). Vegetables have only water, insects have water and fire, birds have water, fire, earth and air, and Humans, the top of the creation, have ether—the sense of discrimination (time, space, mind) are one.

The concept of anu (atom)

It was Kanada who originated the idea that anu (atom) was an indestructible particle of matter.[4] An interesting story states that this theory occurred to him while he was walking with food in his hand. As he nibbled at the food in his hand, throwing away the small particles, it occurred to him that he could not divide the food into further parts and thus the idea of a matter which cannot be divided further came into existence. He called that indivisible matter anu, i.e. molecule, which was misinterpreted as atom. He also stated that anu can have two states — absolute rest and a state of motion.[5]

Adherents of the school of philosophy founded by Kanada, considered the atom to be indestructible, and hence eternal. They believed atoms to be minute objects invisible to the naked eye which come into being and vanish in an instant. Vaiseshikas further held that atoms of same substance combined with each other to produce dvyanuka (Diatomic molecules) and tryanuka (triatomic molecules). Kanada also put forward the idea that atoms could be combined in various ways to produce chemical changes in presence of other factors such as heat. He gave blackening of earthern pot and ripening of fruit as examples of this phenomenon.[1]

This Indian conception of the atom was developed independently[6] and possibly prior[1] (depending on which dates one accepts for the life of Kanada) to the development of the idea in the Greco-Roman world. Indian theories about the atom are abstract and enmeshed in philosophy as they were based on logic and not on personal experience or experimentation. Thus the Indian theories lacked an empirical base, but in the words of A.L. Basham, the veteran Australian Indologist “they were brilliant imaginative explanations of the physical structure of the world, and in a large measure, agreed with the discoveries of modern physics.”[6]

Laws of Motion by Maharishi Kanada : 600BC

जी हाँ दोस्तों , शीर्षक बिलकुल सही है इस संसार को गति के नियम महर्षि कणाद ने दिए है।

वैशेषिक दर्शन (Vaisheshika Sutra) के रचनाकार महर्षि कणाद लगभग २ या ६ ईसा पूर्व प्रभास क्षेत्र द्वारका के निकट गुजरात में जन्मे । दुनिया को पहला परमाणु का ज्ञान देने वाले भी ऋषि कणाद ही है । इन्ही के नाम पर परमाणु का एक नाम कण पड़ा ।

वैशेषिक दर्शन में इन्होने गति के लिए कर्म शब्द प्रयुक्त किया है । इसके पांच प्रकार हैं यथा :

उत्क्षेपण (upward motion) अवक्षेपण (downward motion) आकुञ्चन (Motion due to the release of tensile stress) प्रसारण (Shearing motion) गमन (General Type of motion)

विभिन्न कर्म या motion को उसके कारण के आधार पर जानने का विश्लेषण वैशेषिक में किया है।

(१) नोदन के कारण-लगातार दबाव (२) प्रयत्न के कारण- जैसे हाथ हिलाना (३) गुरुत्व के कारण-कोई वस्तु नीचे गिरती है (४) द्रवत्व के कारण-सूक्ष्म कणों के प्रवाह से

Dr. N.G. Dongre अपनी पुस्तक 'Physics in Ancient India' में वैशेषिक सूत्रों के ईसा की प्रथम शताब्दी में लिखे गए प्रशस्तपाद भाष्य में उल्लिखित वेग संस्कार और न्यूटन द्वारा 1675 में खोजे गए गति के नियमों की तुलना की है ।

महर्षि प्रशस्तपाद लिखते हैं ‘वेगो पञ्चसु द्रव्येषु निमित्त-विशेषापेक्षात्‌ कर्मणो जायते नियतदिक्‌ क्रिया प्रबंध हेतु: स्पर्शवद्‌ द्रव्यसंयोग विशेष विरोधी क्वचित्‌ कारण गुण पूर्ण क्रमेणोत्पद्यते।‘

अर्थात्‌ वेग या मोशन पांचों द्रव्यों (ठोस, तरल, गैसीय) पर निमित्त व विशेष कर्म के कारण उत्पन्न होता है तथा नियमित दिशा में क्रिया होने के कारण संयोग विशेष से नष्ट होता है या उत्पन्न होता है।

उपर्युक्त प्रशस्तिपाद के भाष्य को तीन भागों में विभाजित करें तो न्यूटन के गति सम्बंधी नियमों से इसकी समानता ध्यान आती है।

(१) वेग: निमित्तविशेषात्‌ कर्मणो जायते

The change of motion is due to impressed force (Principia)

(२) वेग निमित्तापेक्षात्‌ कर्मणो जायते नियत्दिक्‌ क्रिया प्रबंध हेतु

The change of motion is proportional‌ to the motive force impressed and is made in the direction of the right line in which‌ the force is impressed (Principia)

(३) वेग: संयोगविशेषाविरोधी

To every‌ action there is always an equal‌ and opposite reaction (Principia)

वैशेषिक सूत्र में गति के साथ साथ ब्रह्माण्ड , समय तथा अणु /परमाणु का ज्ञान भी है जिसके अंग्रेज भी बहुत दीवाने है देखिये , ये निम्न एक पीडीऍफ़ फाइल दे रहा हूँ ये मुझे अमेरिका के एक कॉलेज की साईट पर मिली

Division of Electrical & Computer Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 3101 P. F. Taylor Hall • Louisiana State University • Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA

Space, Time and Anu (Atom) in Vaisheshika -> http://www.ece.lsu.edu/kak/roopa51.pdf

चाहे तो http://www.ece.lsu.edu/ में जाएँ और सर्च बॉक्स में kanad लिखें

http://phys.org/news106238636.html

वैशेषिक सूत्र आप पढना चाहें तो यहाँ से डाउनलोड कर सकते है :-- http://www.jainlibrary.org/…/0…/Vaisheshika_Sutra_002759.pdf http://darshanapress.com/The%20Vaisheshika%20Darshana.pdf

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Kapoor, Subodh. The Indian Encyclopaedia, Volume 1. Cosmo Publications. P. 5643. ISBN 8177552570.
  2. Full Text at archive.org of "The Vaisesika sutras of Kanada. Translated by Nandalal Sinha", https://archive.org/stream/thevaiasesikasut00kanauoft/thevaiasesikasut00kanauoft_djvu.txt
  3. Oliver Leaman, Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy. Routledge, 1999, page 269.
  4. Bal Ram Singh (2003). "Use of Chemistry to Understand Vedic Knowledge" (PDF). Center for Indic studies, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth. Retrieved 29 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Roopa Narayan. "Space, Time and Anu in Vaisheshika" (PDF). Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA. Retrieved 29 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 Anu and Parmanu—Indian ideas about Atomic physics, http://www.newsfinder.org/site/more/anu_and_parmanu_indian_ideas_about_atomic_physics/

External links