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|Built by||Soviet Union|
Kapustin Yar (Russian: Капустин Яр) is a Russian rocket launch and development site in Astrakhan Oblast, between Volgograd and Astrakhan. Known today as Znamensk (Russian: Знаменск), it was established in Soviet Union era on 13 May 1946 and in the beginning used technology, material and scientific support from defeated Germany. Numerous launches of test rockets for the Russian military were carried out at the site, as well as satellite and sounding rocket launches.
The 4th Missile Test Range "Kapustin Yar" was established by a decree of the Soviet Government "On Questions of Jet Propelled Weapons" on 13 May 1946. The test range was created under the supervision of General-lieutenant Vasily Voznyuk (commander in chief of the test range 1946-1973) in the desert north end of the Astrakhan region. The first rocket was launched from the site on 18 October 1947; it was one of eleven German A-4s that had been captured.
The State R&D Test Range No 8 (GNIIP-8, "test range S") was established at Kapustin Yar in June 1951.
As of 1959 Kapustin Yar was the only publicly known Soviet missile test range. Non-Soviet observers believed at first that Sputnik 1 and 2 launched from the site. With the further growth and development, Kapustin Yar became a cosmodrome, serving in this function since 1966. The rate of space launches was very low, usually 1-2 a year and during the Soviet era, it hosted only the two smallest launch vehicles, the R-12 and R-14 derived Kosmos boosters. There were no space launches at all from 1988-1998. The town of Znamensk was established to support the scientists working on the facilities, their families and supporting personnel. Initially this was a secret city, not shown on maps and requiring official permission to visit.
Evidence of the importance of Kapustin Yar was obtained by Western intelligence through debriefing of returning German scientists and spy flights. The first such flight reportedly took place in mid-1953 using a high flying Canberra aircraft of the RAF. Numerous circumstantial reports suggest this flight took place, using the Canberra PR3 WH726, but the UK Government has never admitted such a flight took place nor have any of the supposed participants provided direct evidence The Canberra took off from Giebelstadt Air Base, Germany, and, flying via the Volga to the Caspian Sea, landed at Tabriz, Iran.
- October 1947 - A-4 (V-2)
- 18 October 1947 - Articul T (exact copy of V-2)
- ? - S-25 Berkut
- 10 October 1948 - R-1
- 3 January 1955 - R-11FM
- 20 January 1955 - R-5M
- 2 February 1956 - R-5M with standard nuclear warhead
- 22 June 1957 - R-12
- March 1959 - R-13
- 6 July 1960 - R-14 Chusovaya
- 11 February 1962 - R-14U
- 16 March 1962 - 11K63 Cosmos
- 21 September 1974 - RT-21M RSD-10 Pioneer
- 12 February 1999 - S-400
- 3 March 2011 - S-500
- 4 March 2014 - RS-12M
- 20 May 2014 - RS-12M
|Burya Launch Complex||Kapustin Yar Burya||Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.||Burya. Elaborate complex consisting of horizontal assembly building, huge circular rail line, and mobile erector/launcher. Built at the Soviet Vladimirovka flight test facility south of Kapustin Yar.|
|Area 84||Kapustin Yar LC84||Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.||Launch pads: 1. R-5, RT-15. R-5 Launch complex consisting of three pads.|
|Area 86||Kapustin Yar LC86||Launch pads: 4. Kosmos 11K63, Kosmos 63S1, Kosmos 63S1M, R-31. Single launch complex consisting of four launch pads.|
|Area 107||Kapustin Yar LC107||Launch pads: 2. Kosmos 11K65M, Kosmos 65MP, R-14. Single launch complex consisting of two launch pads.|
|Mayak-1 silo||Kapustin Yar Mayak-1||Launch pads: 1. R-12.|
|Mayak-2 silo||Kapustin Yar Mayak-2||Launch pads: 1. Kosmos 63S1, R-12.|
|Pioner Launch Complex||Kapustin Yar Pioner||Rail-served launch complex.|
|Area 1||Kapustin Yar PL1||Launch pads: 1. R-12.|
|Area 87||Kapustin Yar PL87||Launch pads: 1. RT-2.|
|R-1 Launch Area||Kapustin Yar R-1|
|R-11 Launch Area||Kapustin Yar R-11||Naval missile test area.|
|R-14 Silo Prototype||Kapustin Yar R-14|
|R-2 Launch Area||Kapustin Yar R-2|
|R-5 Initial Launch Area||Kapustin Yar R-5|
|SM-49 submarine simulator||Kapustin Yar SM-49||Launch pads: 1. R-11FM.|
|Sounding rocket launch area||Kapustin Yar Sounding|
|V-2 Launch Area||Kapustin Yar V-2||Original site for V-2 launches in 1946. First complex at Kapustin Yar.|
|Vertikal Launch Pad||Kapustin Yar Vertikal||Launch pads: 1. Launch site for R-5 scientific launches, located well east of the primary military launch areas.|
- Ley, Willy (October 1959). "For Your Information". Galaxy. p. 73. Retrieved 14 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lashmar, Paul: "Spy Flights of the Cold War" Sutton Publishing 1998 ISBN 0-7509-1970-1 pp 76-83.
- Pedlow, Gregory W and Welzenbach, Donald E: "The CIA and the U-2 Program, 1954-1974" History Staff Centre for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency p23.
- Featured in the 2005 UFO Files documentary episode "Russian Roswell" which aired on the History Channel.
- Naimark, Norman (1995). The Russians in Germany. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-78405-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kurt, Magnus (1999). Raketensklaven. Deutsche Forscher hinter rotem Stacheldraht. Elbe-Dnjepr-Verlag. ISBN 3-933395-67-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>