Karl Smidt

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Karl Smidt
Nickname(s) Karolus
Born (1903-08-30)30 August 1903
Neuenhaus
Died 11 January 1984(1984-01-11) (aged 80)
Rendsburg
Allegiance  Weimar Republic (to 1933)
 Nazi Germany (to 1945)
 West Germany
Service/branch  Reichsmarine
 Kriegsmarine
 German Navy
Years of service 1922–45
1956–63
Rank Kapitän zur See (Kriegsmarine)
Konteradmiral (Bundesmarine)
Unit SSS Niobe
Hannover
Berlin
cruiser Karlsruhe
Panzerschiff Deutschland
Commands held torpedo boat Jaguar
destroyer Z12 Erich Giese
destroyer Z27
Battles/wars Spanish Civil War
World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Other work German Mine Sweeping Administration

Karl Ernst Smidt[Note 1] (30 August 1903 – 11 January 1984[Note 2]) was a Kapitän zur See with the Kriegsmarine during World War II and later a Konteradmiral with the Bundesmarine. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Smidt was a member of the Confessing Church. From 1961 to 1963 he was the NATO Commander-in-Chief of the German Fleet of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, i.e. the "Flag Officer Germany" of the NATO (CINCGERFLEET).

Early life and pre-war service

Smidt was born in Neuenhaus, district of Grafschaft Bentheim, in the Province of Hanover on 30 August 1903, the son of pastor Reinhard Petrus Wolbertus Smidt. He began his naval career with the Reichsmarine on 31 March 1922 as a member "Crew 1922" (the incoming class of 1922) after graduation from the humanistische Gymnasium (humanities-oriented secondary school) in Hameln with his Abitur (diploma). Smidt married Ruth Kühl in 1930. The marriage produced two daughters and a son, Antje, Wolbert K., former director of the Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst) and Hilke. Smidt joined the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) with pastor Hermann Steen in Holthusen, district of Weener, after making an official visit to the Emsland-concentration camp Esterwegen near Papenburg in 1935.[3]

Awards

Notes

  1. His full name was Karl Ernst Smidt, but he was usually referred to as Karl Smidt. For unknown reasons (probably to a confusion with another navy officer called Alfred Schmidt) he is widely known in recent military history literature under the name "Alfred-Karl", in contradiction to his own personal documents and his own use of the name.
  2. According to Dörr date of death is 10 January 1984, according to Scherzer 11 January 1984; his death announcements and obituaries in German newspapers proof that it was 11 January.[1][2]

References

Citations

  1. Dörr 1996, p. 261.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Scherzer 2007, p. 708.
  3. Alfred de Zayas. "Karl Ernst Smidt" (PDF). Ostfriesische Landschaft (in German). Retrieved 1 January 2012. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Dörr 1996, p. 262.
  5. Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 447.
  6. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 402.

Bibliography

  • Dörr, Manfred (1996). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Überwasserstreitkräfte der Kriegsmarine—Band 2: L–Z (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2497-6. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Konteradmiral Rolf Johannesson
Commander-in-Chief German Fleet (CINCGERFLEET)
1961 – 1963
Succeeded by
Vizeadmiral Heinrich Gerlach