Karramiyya

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Karramiyya (Arabic: كرّاميّه ‎, translit.  Karrāmiyyah) is a sect in Islam which flourished in the central and eastern parts of the Islamic worlds, and especially in the Iranian regions, from the 9th century until the Mongol invasions in 13th century.[1]

The sect was founded by Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Karrām[2] (d. 896) who was a popular preacher in Khurasan in the 9th century.

Doctrine

The doctrine of the Karramiyya consisted of literalism and anthropomorphism. Ibn Karram considered that God was a substance and that He had a body (jism) finite in certain directions when He comes into contact with the Throne.[3][4][5]

They also believed that Munkar and Nakir angels were actually the same as guardian angels on the right and left side of every person.[4]

The Karramiyya also held the view that the world was eternal and that God's power was limited.[3]

These beliefs were rejected by many Sunni theologians as heretical and eventually disappeared. The Karramiyya operated center's of worship and propagated asceticism.[6]

References

  1. Karrāmiyya. BRILL. Retrieved August 28, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Encyclopedia Iranica, "KARRĀMIYA"
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1997) [1st. pub. 1978]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume IV (Iran-Kha). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 667. ISBN 9004078193.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 J. Hoffman, Valerie (2012). The Essentials of Ibadi Islam. Syracuse University Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0815650843. Retrieved August 28, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Fleming, Benjamin; Mann, Richard (2014). Material Culture and Asian Religions: Text, Image, Object. Routledge. p. 333. ISBN 978-1-135013738. Retrieved August 28, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Porter Berkey, Jonathan (2003). The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. 2 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 286. ISBN 9780521588133. Retrieved August 28, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>