List of Mongol states

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This is a list of Mongol states. The Mongols are responsible for establishing many states such as the vast Mongol Empire and its descendants. The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.

Pre-modern states

Name Years Area Map Capital
Khanates in the 10th-12th centuries
Khamag Mongol Khanate 10th century–1206 Mongol Empire c.1207.png
Merkit Khanate 11th–mid 12 century
Naiman Khanate –1204
Tatar Khanate 6th—10th century/(9th – mid 12th century?)
Flag of the Mongol Empire.svg Mongol Empire and Yuan dynasty
Mongol Empire 1206–1368 33,000,000 km2[1][2] Mongol dominions.jpg Avarga (1206–35)
Karakorum (1235–60)
Khanbaliq (1260–1368)
Yuan dynasty 1271-1368 14,000,000 km2(1310)[3] Yuan Dynasty 1294.png Khanbaliq
(Dadu, Beijing)
Flag of Golden Horde-2-.svg Golden Horde
Golden Horde 1240–1502 6,000,000 km2(1310)[1] GoldenHorde1300.png Sarai Batu
Great Horde 1466–1502
Flag of the Chagatai Khanate.svg Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s 3,500,000 km2(1310)[1][3] Chagatai Khanate map en.svg Almaliq
Western Chagatai Khanate 1340s–1370
Moghulistan 1340–1462 Moghulistan.png
Kara Del Khanate 1383–1513
Flag of the Ilkhanate.svg Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate 1256–1335 3,750,000 km2
Ilkhanate in 1256–1353.PNG Maragha (1256–1265)
Tabriz (1265–1306)
Soltaniyeh (1306–1335)
Chobanids 1335–1357 IranaftertheIlkhanate.png Tabriz
Injuids 1335–1357 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411–1432)
Jalayirid Sultanate 1335–1432 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411–1432)
Arghun dynasty 1479?–1599?
Genghisid Northern Yuan dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
1368–1691 5,000,000 km2(1550)[3] Northern Yuan.png Shangdu (1368–69)
Yingchang (1369–70)
Karakorum (1371–88)
Khotogoid Khanate
(subject of the Northern Yuan)
late 16th – late 17th century Khotogoid.png in Mongolia
Oirats - Non-Genghisid states
Four Oirat 1399–1634 1,000,000 km2
(15th - late 16th)
~1,600,000 km2
(early 17th century)
Location of the Oirats.png
Dzungar Khanate 1634–1758 3,500,000—4,000,000 km2 Zunghar Khanate at 1750.jpg
Khoshut Khanate 1642?–1717 ~1,400,000 km2 Khoshut Khanate.png
Kalmyk Khanate 1630–1771 Kalmyk Khanate.png
Timurid states (Persianate Turco-Mongol states)
Timurid Empire 1370–1507 4,400,000 km2
Das Reich Timur-i Lenks (1365-1405).GIF Samarkand (1370–1505)
Mughal Empire 1526–1857 3,200,000 km2
The Mughal Empire.jpg Agra (1526–1571)
Fatehpur Sikri (1571–1585)
Lahore (1585–1598)
Agra (1598–1648)
Shahjahanabad/Delhi (1648–1857)

Modern states

Name Years Area Map Capital
Balagad state
1919–1926[4][5][6][7] In Kizhinginsky District, Buryatia
Republic of Oirat-Kalmyk 1930 Kalmykia
Republic of Southern Mongolia 1945 In Inner Mongolia
Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg State of Mongolia
(Bogd Khaganate)
1911-1924 Mongolia 1915.jpg Ikh Khuree
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1949-1992).svg People's Republic of Mongolia 1924-1992 Ulaanbaatar
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia 1992–present 1,564,115.75 km2 90px

Autonomous areas

In Russia

Name Years Capital Area Map
State of Buryat-Mongolia 1917–1921 Chita
Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Oblast 1922–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Oblast 1921–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1923–1958 Ulan-Ude Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1925.jpg
Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1958–1992 90px
Republic of Buryatia 1992–present 351,300 km2
Agin Buryat-Mongol National Okrug 1937–1958 Aginskoye 90px
Agin-Buryat National Okrug 1958–1977
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1977–2008 9,6002
Ust-Orda Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Okrug 1937–1958 Ust-Ordynsky 90px
Ust-Orda Buryat National Okrug 1958–1978
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1978–2008 22,1382
Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast 1920–1935
Astrakhan (till 1928)
Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Автономная Калмыцкая область.jpg
Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1935–1943
Elista 90px
Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992
Kalmyk Republic-Halmg-Tangch 1992–1994
Kalmyk Republic 1994–present 76,100 km2

In China

Name Years Capital Area Map
Mengjiang state 1936–1945 Kalgan
Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region 1947–present Huhhot 1,183,000 km2
Inner Mongolia in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Gansu Province
Subei Mongol Autonomous County Location of Subei within Gansu (China).png
Hebei Province
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County
Heilongjiang Province
Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County
Jilin Province
Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County
Liaoning Province
Harqin Left Mongol Autonomous County
Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County
Qinghai Province
Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Qinghai subdivisions - Haixi.svg
Henan Mongol Autonomous County
Xinjiang Province
Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Korla 462,700 km2
China Xinjiang Bayingolin.svg
Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Bortala
China Xinjiang Bortala.svg
Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County Hoboksar
Location of Hoboksar within Xinjiang (China).png

See also



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Jonathan M. Adams, Thomas D. Hall and Peter Turchin (2006). East-West Orientation of Historical Empires.Journal of World-Systems Research (University of Connecticut). 12 (no. 2): 219–229.
  2. Morgan. The Mongols. p. 5.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504.
  4. Бидия Дандарон (Russian)
  5. Балагатское движение (Russian)
  6. Теократическое движение в Хоринском ведомстве Бурятии :1919–1926 гг. (Russian)


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