List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities

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The following is a list of adjectival forms of cities in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these cities.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms.[dubious ] Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms.

The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as", respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' /tʃ/ sound (e.g. the adjective Czech in /k/ does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name.

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. Additionally, sometimes the use of one or more additional words is optional. Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds.

Note: Many of these adjectivals and demonyms are not used in English as frequently as their counterparts in other languages. A common practice is to use a city's name as if it were an adjective, as in "Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra", "Melbourne suburbs", etc.


City Country Adjective Demonym (colloquial)
Aberdeen United Kingdom Aberdonian Aberdonian
Adelaide Australia Adelaidean Adelaidean
Albany United States Albanian Albanian
Albuquerque United States Burqueño Burqueño
Aleppo Syria Aleppine Aleppine
Alexandria Egypt Alexandrian Alexandrine
Almería Spain Almerian, Almeriense, Urcitano Almerian, Almeriense, Urcitano
Amalfi Italy Amalfitan Amalfitan
Angeles Philippines Angelino Angelino
Aosta Italy Aostan, Aostain Aostan, Aostain
Armagh United Kingdom Armachian Armachian
Armidale Australia Armidilian Armidilian
Asheville United States Ashevillain Ashevillain
Athens Greece Athenian Athenian
Atlanta United States Atlantan Atlantian
Auckland New Zealand Auckland Aucklander, Jafa
Austin United States Austonian Austinite
Bacolod Philippines Bacolodnon Bacolodnon
Baltimore United States Baltimorean Baltimorean
Bandung Indonesia Bandungite Bandungite
Bangalore India Bangalorean Bangalorean
Bangkok Thailand Bangkokian Bangkokian
Barcelona Spain Barcelonian Barcelonian
Baton Rouge United States Baton Rougean Baton Rougean
Bedford United Kingdom Bedfordian (not Bedfordite) Bedfordian
Beijing (Peking) China Pekinese Beijinger, Pekinese
Beirut Lebanon Beiruti Beiruti
Belfast United Kingdom Belfast Belfastite
Belo Horizonte Brazil Belo-Horizontino Belo-Horizontino
Belgrade Serbia Belgradian Belgradian, Belgrader
Benevento Italy Beneventan Beneventan
Bergamo Italy Bergamasque Bergamasque
Berlin Germany Berliner Berliner
Bern Switzerland Bernese Bernese
Birmingham United Kingdom Birminghamian, Brummie Birminghamian, Brummie
Birmingham United States Birminghamian Birminghamian, Birminghamster
Bologna Italy Bolognese Bolognese
Bogota Colombia Bogotan Bogotan
Bolton United Kingdom Boltonian Boltonian
Bordeaux France Bordelais Bordelais
Boston United States Bostonian Bostonian
Brasilia Brazil Brasiliense Brasiliense
Bratislava Slovakia Bratislavan Bratislavčan
Brescia Italy Brescian Brescian
Brighton United Kingdom Brightonian Brightonian
Brisbane Australia Brisbanite Brisbanite, Brisvegan
Bristol United Kingdom Bristolian Bristolian
Brussels Belgium Bruxellois,[lower-alpha 1] Brusselaar,[lower-alpha 2] Brusseleir[lower-alpha 3]
Bucharest Romania Bucharestian Bucharester
Budapest Hungary Budapesti Budapester
Buenos Aires Argentina Bonaerense, Porteño Bonaerense, Porteño
Buffalo United States Buffalonian Buffalonian
Cádiz Spain Gaditano, Gaditano
Cagayan de Oro Philippines Cagayanon Cagayanon
Cairns Australia Cairnsitte Cairnsitte
Cairo Egypt Cairene Cairene
Calgary Canada Calgarian Calgarian
Cambridge United Kingdom Cantabrigian Cantabrigian
Cambridge United States Cantabrigian Cantabrigian
Campinas Brazil Campineiro Campineiro
Campo Grande Brazil Campo-grandense campo-grandense
Canberra Australia Canberran Canberran
Cape Town South Africa Capetonian Capetonian
Caracas Venezuela Caraquenian Caraquenian
Cardiff United Kingdom Cardiffian Cardiffian
Carlisle United Kingdom Carlislian Carlislian
Carson City United States Carsonite Carsonite
Carystus Greece Carystian Carystian
Cebu Philippines Cebuano Cebuano
Charlotte United States Charlottean Charlottean
Chelmsford United Kingdom Chelmsfordian Chelmsfordian
Chennai India Chennaite Chennaite
Chicago United States Chicagoan Chicagoan
Christchurch New Zealand Cantabrian Cantabrian
Cincinnati United States Cincinnatian Cincinnatian
Cleveland United States Clevelander Clevelander
Columbus United States Columbusite Columbusite
Copenhagen Denmark Copenhagener Copenhagener
Córdoba Spain Cordobés, Cordobense Cordobés
Corinth Greece Corinthian Corinthian
Cork Republic of Ireland Cork Corkonian, Leesider
Culiacán Mexico Culichi Culichi
Kraków (Cracow) Poland Krakovian, Cracovian Krakovian, Cracovian
Curitiba Brazil Curitibano Curitibano
Dallas United States Dallasite, Dallasonian
Da Lat Vietnam Dalatese Dalatese
Damascus Syria Damascene Damascene
Darwin Australia Darwinian[lower-alpha 4] Darwinian[lower-alpha 4]
Davao Philippines Davaoeño Davaoeño
Delhi India Delhiite Delhiite
Denver United States Denver, Mile High Denverite
Derry United Kingdom Derry Derrian
Detroit United States Detroiter
Devonport Australia Devonportian Devonportian
Dresden Germany Dresdener Dresdener
Dublin Republic of Ireland Dublin Dubliner, Dub
Dubai United Arab Emirates Dubaite Dubaite
Duluth United States Duluthian Duluthian
Dundee United Kingdom Dundonian Dundonian
Dunedin New Zealand Dunedin Dunedinite
Durban South Africa Durban Durbanite
East Troy United States East Trojan East Trojan
Edinburgh United Kingdom Edinburgensian[lower-alpha 5][1] Edinburger[lower-alpha 6][2]
Edmonton Canada Edmontonian Edmontonian
Epidaurus Greece Epidaurian Epidaurian
Florence Italy Florentine Florentine
Fort Lauderdale United States Fort Lauderdaler, Fort Lauderdalian
Fort Wayne United States Fort Wayniac
Foz do Iguaçu Brazil Iguaçuense Iguaçuense
Frankfurt Germany Frankfurter Frankfurter
Fredericton Canada Frederictonian Frederictonian
Fresno United States Fresnan Fresnan, Fresnoan, Fresnian
Galway Republic of Ireland Galway Galwegian
Geneva Switzerland Genevan, Genevese Genevan, Genevese
Genoa Italy Genoese Genoese
Germiston South Africa Germistonian Germistonian
Glasgow United Kingdom Glaswegian Glaswegian
Graz Austria Grazer Grazer
Gold Coast Australia Gold Coast Gold Coaster
Granada Spain Granadino, Granadí, Iliberitano Granadino, Iliberitano
Grand Rapids United States Grand Rapidian Grand Rapidian
Guadalajara Mexico Tapatío Tapatío
Halifax Canada Haligonian Haligonian
Hamburg Germany Hamburger Hamburger
Hamilton Canada Hamiltonian Hamiltonian
Hamilton New Zealand Hamiltonian Hamiltonian
Hanoi Vietnam Hanoian Hanoian
Hanover Germany Hanoverian Hanoverian
Hartlepool United Kingdom Hartlepudlian Hartlepudlian, Monkey hanger
Hastings New Zealand Hastingite Hastingite
Helsinki Finland Helsinkian Helsinkian
Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam Saigonese Saigoner
Hobart Australia Hobartian Hobartian
Hong Kong China Hong Kong, Hongkongish, Hongkongese Hongkonger, Hongkongish, Honger, HongKongese
Honolulu United States Honolulan Honolulan
Houston United States Houstonian Houstonian
Huelva Spain Onubense, Huelveño Onubense, Huelveño
Hyderabad India Hyderabadi Hyderabadi
Iloilo Philippines Ilonggo Ilonggo
Indianapolis United States Hoosier Hoosier, Indianapolitan
Invercargill New Zealand Invercargill Invercargillite, Invercargillonian
Inverness United Kingdom Invernessian Invernessian
Iqaluit Canada Iqalummiuq, Iqalummiut
Islamabad Pakistan Islamabadi Islamabadian
Itabira Brazil Itabirano Itabirano
Istanbul Turkey Istanbulite Istanbulite
Jacksonville United States Jacksonvillian, Jaxon Jacksonvillian, Jaxon[3]
Izmir Turkey Izmirian Izmirian
Jaén Spain Jienense, Jaenés, Aurgitano Jienense, Aurgitano
Jakarta Indonesia Jakartan Jakartanais, Jakartan
Jerusalem Israel Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi
Johannesburg South Africa Johannesburg Johannesburger
Juiz de Fora Brazil Juiz-forano Juiz-forano
Juneau City/Borough United States Juneauite
Kaluga Russian Federation Kaluzhanin Kaluzhane
Karachi Pakistan Karachiite Karachiite
Kastoria Greece Kastorian Kastorian
Kenosha United States Kenoshan Kenoshan
Kiev Ukraine Kievan Kievan
Kingston United States Kingstonian Kingstonian
Kitchener Canada Kitchenerite Kitchenerite
Knoxville United States Knoxvillian Knoxvillian
Kuching Malaysia Kuchingite Kuchingite
Lagos Nigeria Lagosian Lagosian
Lahore Pakistan Lahori Lahori
Lancaster United Kingdom Lancastrian Lancastrian
La Paz Bolivia Paceño Paceño
Las Vegas United States Las Vegan Las Vegan
Laval Canada Lavalois(e) Lavalois(e)
Leeds United Kingdom Leodensian Leodensian, Loiner
León Spain Leonese Leonese
Lima Peru Limeño Limeño
Linz Austria Linzer Linzer
Lisbon Portugal Lisboeta Alfacinha
Liverpool United Kingdom Liverpudlian, Scouse Liverpudlian, Scouser
Livorno Italy Leghornese, Livornese Leghornese, Livornese
London United Kingdom London Londoner
Londrina Brazil Londrinense Londrinense
Los Angeles United States Angeleno Angeleno
Lucca Italy Lucchese Lucchesi
Lviv Ukraine Leopolitan Lviviane
Lyon (Lyons) France Lyonese, Lyonnais Lyonese, Lyonnais
Macau China Macanese Macanese
Madrid Spain Madrilenian, Madrileño Madrilenian, Madrileño
Malacca Malaysia Malaccan Malaccan
Málaga Spain Malagenean, Malagueño, Malacitano Malagenean, Malagueño, Malacitano
Manaus Brazil Manauara, Manauense Manauara, Manauense
Manchester United Kingdom Mancunian Mancunian, Manc
Manila Philippines Manileño Manileño
Mantua Italy Mantuan Mantuan
Marathon Greece Marathonian Marathonian
Marseille France Marseillais Marseillais
Megara Greece Megarian Megarian
Melbourne Australia Melburnian Melburnian
Memphis United States Memphian Memphian
Messina Italy Messinese Messinese
Mexico City Mexico Capitalino Capitalino, Chilango, Defeño
Miami United States Miamian
Milan Italy Milanese Milanese
Milan United States Milanites, Milaner
Milwaukee United States Milwaukeean Milwaukeean
Misrata Libya Misratan Misratan
Minneapolis United States Minneapolitan Minneapolitan
Minot United States Minotian Minoter
Modena Italy Modenese Modenese
Monterrey Mexico Regiomontano Regiomontano
Montreal Canada Montrealer Montrealer, Montrealais
Moose Jaw Canada Moose Jaw Moose Javians
Moscow Russia Muscovite Muscovite
Mumbai India Mumbaikar Mumbaikar
Muncie United States Munsonian Munsonian
Munich Germany Münchner Münchner
Napier New Zealand Napieran Napieran
Naples Italy Neapolitan Neapolitan
Nashville United States Nashvillian Nashvillian
Nassau The Bahamas Nassuvian Nassuvian
Navarre United States Navarrian Navarrian
Nelson New Zealand Nelson Nelsonian
New Orleans United States New Orleanian New Orleanian, New Orleaner, Yat
New York City United States New York New Yorker, Knickerbocker
New York CityThe Bronx United States Bronx Bronxite, Bronxer
New York CityBrooklyn United States Brooklyn Brooklynite, Trolley Dodger (archaic)
New York CityManhattan United States Manhattan Manhattanite
New York CityQueens United States Queens Queensite
New York CityStaten Island[lower-alpha 7] United States Staten Island Staten Islander
Newcastle Australia Novocastrian Novocastrian
Newcastle upon Tyne United Kingdom Novocastrian, Geordie Novocastrian, Geordie
Nice France Niçois Niçois
Nicosia Cyprus Nicosian Nicosian
Norfolk United States Norfolker, Norfolkian Norfolker, Norfolkian
Northampton United Kingdom Northamptonian Northamptonian
Oakbank Canada Oakbankian Oakbankian
Oakland United States Oaklander Oaklander
Oamaru New Zealand Oamaru, Oamaruvian Oamaruvian
Odessa Ukraine Odessit, Odessite Odessite
Omak United States Omakian Omakian[4]
Oslo Norway Oslovian Oslovian
Osaka Japan Osakan Naniwakko, Osakan
Ottawa Canada Ottawan Ottawan
Oxford United Kingdom Oxonian[lower-alpha 8] Oxonian[lower-alpha 8]
Paddock Lake United States Paddock Laker Paddock Laker
Padua Italy Paduan Paduan
Palermo Italy Palermitan Palermitan
Palmerston North New Zealand Palmerstonian Palmerstonian
Paris France Parisian Parisian
Parma Italy Parmesan Parmesan
Penang Malaysia Penangite Penangite
Perth Australia Perthert, Perthite, Perthian
Perugia Italy Perugian Perugian
Peterborough United Kingdom Peterbourian Peterbourian
Philadelphia United States Philadelphian Philadelphian
Phoenix United States Phoenician, Phoenixer Phoenician, Phoenixer
Pisa Italy Pisan Pisan
Pittsburgh United States Pittsburgher Pittsburgher
Polmont United Kingdom Polmontarian Polmontarian
Pompeii Italy Pompeian, Pompeiian Pompeian, Pompeiian
Ponferrada Spain Ponferradian Ponferradian
Port Harcourt Nigeria Harcourtian, Port Harcourtian Harcourtian, Port Harcourtian
Porto Portugal Portuense Tripeiro
Porto Alegre Brazil Porto-Alegrense Porto-Alegrense
Portland United States Portlander Portlander
Prague Czech Republic Praguer Praguer
Pristina Kosovo Prishtinali, Prishtina, Prištinci, Prištevci
Providence United States Providentian Providentian
Pylos Greece Pylian Pylian
Quebec City Canada Québécois[lower-alpha 9] Québécois[lower-alpha 9]
Randall United States Randallite Randallite
Reading United Kingdom Readingite Readingite
Red Deer Canada Red Deerian Red Deerian
Regina Canada Regina, Reginan Reginan
Reno United States Renoite Renoite
Rethymno Greece Rethymnian Rethymnian
Reims (Rheims) France Rémois, Cornichon Rémois
Richmond United States Richmonder Richmonder
Riga Latvia Rigan Rigan
Rio de Janeiro Brazil Carioca Carioca
Rhodes Greece Rhodian Rhodian
Rochester United States (Rochesterian) Rochesterian
Rome Italy Roman Roman
Rotorua New Zealand Rotoruan Rotoruan
St. Louis United States St. Louisan St. Louisan
Sacramento United States Sacramentan Sacramentan
Saint Petersburg Russia Saint Petersburgian Saint Petersburgian, (Saint) Petersburger
Salem United States Salemite Salemite
Salerno Italy Salernitan Salernitan
Salt Lake City United States Salt Lake Salt Laker
Salvador Brazil Soteropolitano Soteropolitano
San Antonio United States San Antonian San Antonian
San Diego United States San Diegan San Diegan
San Francisco United States San Franciscan San Franciscan
San Jose United States San Josean San Josean
Santa Clarita United States Santa Claritan Santa Claritan
Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia Cruceño Cruceño
São Carlos Brazil Sãocarlense, Carlopolitano Sãocarlense, Carlopolitano
São Luís Brazil Ludovicense Ludovicense
São Paulo Brazil Paulistano Paulistano
Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevan Sarajevan
Saskatoon Canada Saskatoon, Saskatonian Saskatonian, Saskabusher
Savannah United States Savannaian Savannian
Seattle United States Seattleite Seattleite
Seoul South Korea Seoulite Seoulite
Serres Greece Serrean Serrean
Seville Spain Sevillian, Sevillano, Hispalense Sevillian, Sevillano, Hispalense
Shanghai China Shanghainese Shanghaine
Siena (Sienna) Italy Sienese, Siennese Sienese, Siennese
Silver Lake United States Silver Laker Silver Laker
Sheffield United Kingdom Sheffielder
Skopje Macedonia Skopjan Skopjan
Slough United Kingdom Sluff Sluff
Sofia Bulgaria Sofian Sofian
Solihull United Kingdom Silhillian Silhillian
Somers United States Somersite Somersite
Sorrento Italy Sorrentine Sorrentine
Sparta Greece Spartan Spartan
Spoleto Italy Spoletian Spoletian
Shkoder Albania Shkodran Shkodran
Stockholm Sweden Stockholmer Stockholmer
Strasbourg France Strasbourgeois Strasbourgeois
Stuttgart Germany Stuttgarter Stuttgarter
Sunderland United Kingdom Mackem
Swindon United Kingdom Swindonian Swindonian
Sydney Australia Sydney Sydneysider
Syracuse Italy Syracusan Syracusan
Syracuse New York/United States Syracusian Syracusian
Tallinn Estonia Tallinner Tallinner
Taranto Italy Tarantine, Tarentine Tarantine, Tarentine
Tbilisi Georgia Tbilisian Tbilisian, Tbiliselebi
Thebes Greece Theban Theban
Thessaloniki Greece Thessalonian Thessalonian
Tirana Albania Tiranas Tirons
Tokyo Japan Edokko, Tokyoite
Toowoomba Australia Toowoomban Toowoomban
Toronto Canada Torontonian Torontonian[5]
Tournai Belgium Tournaisian Tournaisian
Townsville Australia Townsvillian Townsvillian
Trevor United States Trevorite Trevorite
Trent Italy Tridentine Tridentine
Trieste Italy Triestine Triestine
Tripoli Libya Tripolitan Tripolitan
Trois-Rivières Canada Trifluvien, Trifluvienne, Trifluvian Trifluvien, Trifluvienne, Trifluvian
Trois-Rivières France Trois-rivieran Trois-rivieran
Tucson United States Tucsonan Tucsonan
Tulsa United States Tulsan Tulsan
Turin Italy Turinese Turinese
Twin Lakes United States Twin Laker Twin Laker
Uberlândia Brazil Uberlandense Uberlandense
Valencia Spain Valencian Valencian
Valladolid Spain Vallisoletano, Pucelano, Pinciano Vallisoletano, Pucelano, Pinciano
Vancouver Canada Vancouverite Vancouverite
Venice Italy Venetian Venetian
Veracruz Mexico Veracruzano Veracruzano, Jarocho
Verona Italy Veronese Veronese
Vicenza Italy Vicentine Vicentine
Vichy France Vichyssois Vichyssois
Vienna Austria Viennese, Wiener Viennese, Wiener
Vilnius Lithuania Vilnian Vilnian
Warsaw Poland Varsovian Varsovian
Washington, D.C. United States Washingtonian[lower-alpha 10] Washingtonian[lower-alpha 10]
Waterford Republic of Ireland Waterfordian Waterfordian, Déise, Suirsider
Wellington New Zealand Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonian
Wheatland United States Wheatlander Wheatlander
Wichita United States Wichitan Wichitan
Wilmot United States Wilmotter Wilmotter
Winchester United Kingdom Wintonian
Winnipeg Canada Winnipeggers, Winnipeger
Wolverhampton United Kingdom Wulfrunian
Xalapa Mexico Xalapeño Xalapeño
Xanthi Greece Xanthian Xanthian
Yerevan Armenia Yerevantsi Yerevantsi
Zagreb Croatia Zagrebian Zagreber, Zagrebian
Zamboanga Philippines Zamboangueño Zamboangueño
Zintan Libya Zintani Zintani
  1. Used to identify francophones.
  2. Used to identify Dutch speakers.
  3. Used to identify those bi- or multilingual citizens merely belonging to Brussels.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Not to be confused with the movements and concepts of English naturalist Charles Darwin.
  5. Rare.
  6. Rare.
  7. Formerly Richmond.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Also used to identify graduates of the University of Oxford.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Often confused with residents of the Province of Québec. If it is necessary to distinguish between residents of the city and the province, French-speakers will use québécois/e de Québec for the city and québécois/e du Québec for the province.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Not to be confused with the inhabitants of Washington State.

See also


  1. Google Books
  2. Google Books
  3. "Call Box". The Florida Times-Union. April 26, 2000. Retrieved July 17, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Clark, Doug (March 26, 1996). "Town Tradition Goads Residents Into Donations". The Spokesman-Review. Cowles Publishing Company. Retrieved April 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Street, Hudson (September 13, 1911). "Old Torontonian: If He Likes Toronto So Much, Why Live Here?". The New York Times. p. 8. Retrieved February 23, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>