List of palaces

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China

The English word "palace" is used to translated the Chinese word 宮 (pronounced "gōng" in Mandarin). This character represents two rooms connected (呂), under a roof (宀). Originally the character applied to any residence or mansion, but starting with the Qin Dynasty (3rd century BC) it was used only for the residence of the emperor and members of the imperial family. Chinese palaces are different from post-Renaissance European palaces in the sense that they are not made up of one building only (however big and convoluted the building may be), but are in fact huge spaces surrounded by a wall and containing large separated halls (殿 diàn) for ceremonies and official business, as well as smaller buildings, galleries, courtyards, gardens, and outbuildings, more like the Roman or Carolingian palatium.

List of Chinese imperial palaces, in chronological order

Hall of Supreme Harmony, Forbidden City, Beijing
Xinhua Gate, formal entrance to the Zhongnanhai compound.
  • Forbidden City (紫禁城), now known in China as Beijing's Old Palace (北京故宫), in Jingshi (京師), now called Beijing (北京): imperial palace of the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty from 1421 until 1924. Area: 720,000 m² (178 acres).

Apart from the main imperial palace, Chinese dynasties also had several other imperial palaces in the capital city where the empress, crown prince, or other members of the imperial family dwelled. There also existed palaces outside of the capital city called "away palaces" (離宮) where the emperors resided when traveling. The habit also developed of building garden estates in the countryside surrounding the capital city, where the emperors retired at times to get away from the rigid etiquette of the imperial palace, or simply to escape from the summer heat inside their capital. This practice reached a zenith with the Qing Dynasty, whose emperors built the fabulous Imperial Gardens (御園), now known in China as the Gardens of Perfect Brightness (圓明園), and better known in English as the Old Summer Palace. The emperors of the Qing Dynasty resided and worked in the Imperial Gardens, 8 km/5 miles outside of the walls of Beijing, the Forbidden City inside Beijing being used only for formal ceremonies.

These gardens were made up of three gardens: the Garden of Perfect Brightness proper, the Garden of Eternal Spring (長春園), and the Elegant Spring Garden (綺春園); they covered a huge area of 3.5 km² (865 acres), almost 5 times the size of the Forbidden City, and 8 times the size of the Vatican City. comprising hundreds of halls, pavilions, temples, galleries, gardens, lakes, etc. Several famous landscapes of southern China had been reproduced in the Imperial Gardens, hundreds of invaluable Chinese art masterpieces and antiquities were stored in the halls, making the Imperial Gardens one of the largest museum in the world. Some unique copies of literary work and compilations were also stored inside the Imperial Gardens. In 1860, during the Second Opium War, the British and French expeditionary forces looted the Old Summer Palace. Then on October 18, 1860, in order to "punish" the imperial court, which had refused to allow Western embassies inside Beijing, the British general Lord Elgin- with protestations from the French - purposely ordered to set fire to the huge complex which burned to the ground. It took 3500 British troops to set the entire place ablaze and took three whole days to burn. The burning of the Gardens of Perfect Brightness is still a very sensitive issue in China today.

Following this cultural catastrophe, the imperial court was forced to relocate to the old and austere Forbidden City where it stayed until 1924, when the Last Emperor was expelled by a republican army. Empress dowager Cixi (慈禧太后) built the Summer Palace (頤和園 - "The Garden of Nurtured Harmony") near the Old Summer Palace, but on a much smaller scale than the Old Summer Palace. There are currently some projects in China to rebuild the Imperial Gardens, but this appears as a colossal undertaking, and no rebuilding has started yet.

More Palaces

Some other palaces include:

Colombia

Croatia

Czech Republic

Denmark

Egypt

Pharaonic

Ptolemaic

Roman

Arabic

Modern Egypt

Estonia

Ethiopia

  • Jubilee Palace (National Palace) - Seat of the President, former imperial palace

Finland

France

Paris

Versailles

Île-de-France

Elsewhere

Georgia

Dadiani Palace Zugdidi,Georgia

Germany

German has two contrasting words, parallel to French usage: Schloss which connotes a seat that is enclosed by walls, a fastness or keep, and Palast, a more conscious borrowing, with the usual connotations of splendour. In practice, the Schloss is more likely to be a royal or ducal palace or a noble manor house. Where the Schloss was built on the site of a former castle (Burg) it may still be translated as "castle". The former Holy Roman Empire, a congeries of independent territories, is filled with residences that were seats of government and had every right to be called "palaces". Even the Socialist government of the former East Germany met in the Palast der Republik (built in 1976).

Baden-Württemberg

Bavaria

Berlin

Brandenburg

Hesse

Wiesbaden City Palace

Lower Saxony

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

North Rhine-Westphalia

Rhineland-Palatinate

Kurfürstliches Palais, Trier

Saxony

Thuringia

Ghana

  • The Manhyia Palace (Asantehene's Palace) - Seat of the Asantehene of Ashanti, Kumasi
  • The Flagstaff House (Presidential Palace)- Seat of Government until the late 1970s, Accra
  • The Christianborg (Osu Castle) - former Seat of the Government till December 2008, Accra
  • The Golden Jubilee Palace (Presidential Palace) formerly known as the "Flagstaff House" - Seat of Government since December 2008, Accra

Greece

Haiti

Hungary

India

Khas Mahal, Agra Fort, Agra
Hazarduari Palace was the residence of the Nawabs of Bengal and is now a museum.

Indonesia

Istana Merdeka, the President Official Residence in Jakarta.
Istana Bogor, the Presidential Palace in Bogor.
Istana Maimun or Maimun Palace, seat of Sultanate of Deli in Medan.
Istano Basa Pagaruyung or Pagaruyung Palace, seat of Kingdom of Pagaruyung, Tanah Datar Regency.
Puri Agung Klungkung or Klungkung Palace, seat of Kingdom of Klungkung in Klungkung Regency, Bali.
Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat or Yogyakarta Royal Palace, seat of Sultanate of Yogyakarta in Yogyakarta.
Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat or Surakarta Royal Palace, seat of Sunanate of Surakarta in Surakarta.

Presidential palaces

Royal palaces

Iran

Palaces and pavilions

The ruins of Apadana palace in Persepolis (built 2500 years ago during the reign of the Achaemenid Empire)
The ruins of Tachara palace in Persepolis (exclusive palace of Darius the Great, one of the interior palaces in Persepolis)

Castles and citadels

Iraq

Italy

View of the gardens of Caserta
Ca' Rezzonico, Venice

Rome

Florence

Venice

Elsewhere

Japan

View on Seimon Ishibashi and moat of Imperial Palace, Tokyo

Jordan

Raghadan Palace, Amman. Royal Residence of the Hussein Family

Korea

Gyeongbok Palace, Seoul
Gyeongbok Palace and the Blue House, Seoul
Deoksu Palace, Seoul

Kuwait

Laos

Latvia

Lebanon

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malaysia

Istana Besar (Grand Palace) in Johor Bahru
Istana Kenangan (Remembrance Palace) in Kuala Kangsar, Perak

Malta

Demolished palaces:

Mexico

National Palace of Mexico
Mexico City's Palace of Fine Arts

Monaco

The Princely Palace of Monaco

Mongolia

Myanmar

Nepal

The Netherlands

Soestdijk Palace

New Zealand

Mahinarangi meeting house

Apart from the large complex at Turangawaewae Marae located in the town of Ngaruawahia, the previous Māori Monarch Te Atairangikaahu had a home at Waahi Marae in Huntly where she lived for most of her 40-year reign with her consort Whatumoana Paki. The Māori King or Queen are required to attend 33 Poukai annually conducted at Marae loyal to the Kingitangi movement. Many of these Marae maintain residences for the Māori King or Queen for them to use during such visits.

Nigeria

Norway

Oman

Pakistan

Paraguay

Lopez Presidential Palace in Asunción, Paraguay

Peru

Philippines

  • Torogan - Classical period residences for Hari , Raja's Datu's and Sultan's.
  • Coconut Palace
  • Malacañan Palace - the official residence of the President of the Philippines, Manila
  • Malacañan sa Sugbo - the Presidential residence in Cebu City
  • The Mansion, Baguio - the Presidential residence in Baguio
  • Palacio del Gobernador - historical official residence, now used as a government building
  • Archbishop's Palace - historical residence of the Arzobispo de Manila in Intramuros
  • Archbishop's Palace - current residence of the Arzobispo de Manila in Villa San Miguel, Mandaluyong City.
  • Archbishop's Palace - temporary residence of the Archbishop of Manila in the past, located in San Fernando, Pampanga
  • The Astana Putih or The Sultan's Palace - Original residence of the Sultan of Sulu located in Maimbung, Sulu.

Poland

Royal Palace, Warsaw
Krasinski Palace, Warsaw

Warsaw

Portugal

Alentejo

Beira

Douro Litoral

Minho

Estremadura

Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro

Azores and Madeira Archipelagos

Puerto Rico

Qatar

  • Al Rayyan Palace
  • Al Wukair Palace
  • Markhiya Palace
  • Barzaan Palace
  • Doha Palace
  • Diwan Emiri Palace
  • al Bidda Palace
  • Umm Salal Palace
  • Al Wajba Palace
  • Al Gharafa Palace
  • Al Jassasiya Palace
  • Al Mirgab Palace
  • Al Waab Palace

Romania

Patriarchal Palace, Bucharest

Bucharest

Russia

Peterhof Palace
Catherine Palace
Gatchina Palace
Massandra Palace

Gatchina

Moscow

Oranienbaum

Pavlovsk

Pella

Peterhof

Pushkin

Saint Petersburg

Taganrog

Tver

Yalta

Rwanda

Royal Palace of the Obrenović dynasty of Serbia, presently housing the City Assembly of Belgrade

Serbia

Singapore

Sri Lanka

South Africa

see also: Castles of South Africa

Sweden

Scania

The province of Scania in southernmost Sweden is well known for its many castles.

Spain

Palacio Real, Madrid
Palacio Real de Aranjuez
Olite palace
Palacio de San Telmo
La Granja Palace

Slovakia

Syria

Facade of the Azm Palace of Damascus

Taiwan

Presidential Office Building, Taipei
Taipei Guest House, Taipei
File:Shilin Official Residence1.jpg
Shilin Official Residence
Sanamchan Palace, Nakhon Pathom
Bang Pa-In Royal Palace, Ayutthaya Province

Thailand

Tonga

  • Royal Palace, Tonga-Royal Palace of the Kingdom of Tonga is located in the northwest of the capital, Nukuʻalofa, close to the Pacific Ocean.

Turkey

Beylerbeyi Palace, İstanbul

In Turkish, a palace is a Saray.

Turkmenistan

Ukraine

United Kingdom

England

Scotland

United States of America

Colorado

Florida

Government House, 2011

Hawai'i

ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu

New Jersey

New Mexico

North Carolina

Pennsylvania

  • Pennsbury Manor- Home of William Penn as Proprietor of Pennsylvania from 1683-1701.

Puerto Rico

Texas

Bishop's Palace circa 1970
Inside of Spanish Governor's Palace in San Antonio, Texas

Virginia

Washington, D.C.

Vatican City

Venezuela

Vietnam

List of non-residential palaces

Some large impressive buildings which were not meant to be residences, but are nonetheless called palaces, include:

Note, too, the French use of the word palais in such constructions as palais des congrès (convention centre) and palais de justice (courthouse).

See also

References

  1. reuters.com
  2. Galbraith, William; Canadian Parliamentary Review: Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit; Vol. 12, No. 3, 1989
  3. Naqada palace
  4. Photo of preserved parts of the palace
  5. 5.0 5.1 Photo of the palace remains
  6. touregypt.net - Ramesses Nebweben
  7. Palace of Apries, background information
  8. Pharaoh Apries Wahibre
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Cleopatra palace
  10. The Bahariya Oasis history
  11. Old Cairo history
  12. Palaces of Pasha
  13. Fatimid palaces
  14. Plan of the two Fatimid palaces
  15. Part of the palace art
  16. History of Cairo
  17. The Mamluk Sultans
  18. Plan of the Sultan al-Salih palace
  19. 19.0 19.1 Palaces of Pashas
  20. Amir Alin Aq Palace
  21. Reviving Cairo
  22. Ruins of Palace
  23. Photo of passage
  24. The Madrasa-Mosque of Amir Khayerbak (1520-21)
  25. Palace of Mangak as-Silahdar
  26. Amir Qawsun Palace
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Bestak Palace museum
  28. The Mameluke Amir Taz Palace history
  29. Amir Taz Palace
  30. Prince Tashtamur palace
  31. Al Ghouri palace
  32. Insert Al-Ghouri Palace
  33. Bait al-Qady
  34. Palace of al-Ashraf Qaytbay
  35. Jamal al Din al Dhahabi House archnet.org - Gamal al-Din al-Dhahabi
  36. El-Aini Palace
  37. Harawi residence
  38. Historic houses in Cairo
  39. Musafirkhana Palace
  40. Musafirkhana Palace or Qasr el-Shook
  41. Description of the Palace
  42. Destruction of Musafirkhana Palace
  43. Historic houses & palaces
  44. Al-Sinnari House
  45. Historic houses in Cairo
  46. Egypttoday.com - Cultural Cairo
  47. hsje.org
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 48.4 48.5 48.6 48.7 48.8 Palaces on the nile
  49. arabicnews.com - The History of Zaafarama palace
  50. GARDEN CITY : A Retrospective PART II, August 20, 1998
  51. Egyptology news
  52. touregypt.net
  53. Harem palace at Citadel
  54. [1] & [2]
  55. archnet.org - Gezirah palace
  56. egy.com - Sakakaini palace
  57. Habib Sakakini Palace
  58. Al-Ahram Weekly | A constructive streak
  59. Egypt State Information Service
  60. et - Full Story
  61. egy.com - Koubbeh palace
  62. egy.com - Tahra palace
  63. Cultural Cairo
  64. egy.com - The Belgians of Egypt
  65. egy.com - Heliopolis Palace Hotel
  66. Egypt State Information Service - Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil Museum
  67. egyptsites.co.uk
  68. Desert research center
  69. patrimonionacional.es
  70. Spanish Governor's Palace at the City of San Antonio Parks and Recreation