List of pirates

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This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, river pirates, and others involved in piracy and piracy-related activities. This list includes both captains and prominent crew members. For a list of female pirates, see women in piracy.

Ancient World

Sextus Pompeius denarius, minted for his victory over Augustus' fleet. On the obverse the Pharus of Messina, on the reverse monster Scylla, who defeated Augustus.
Name Life Years active Country of origin Comments
Anicetus d. 69 Pontus (Hellenic) Was the leader of an unsuccessful anti-Roman uprising in Pontus in AD 69.
Demetrius of Pharos d. 214 BC Pharos (Hellenic) His actions precipitated the Second Illyrian War.
Dionysius the Phocaean 494 BC Greece Phocaean admiral active against Carthaginian and Tyrsenian merchants in the years following the Greco–Persian Wars.
Gan Ning 175–218 190–197 China His party carried bells as their trademark causing the commoners to be afraid when they heard the bells.
Genthus of Illyria First century BC Illyria Was accused by the Romans of organizing and aiding pirate raids in Italy.
Glauketas 315–300 BC Greek inscriptions of the Athenian navy raiding his base on Kynthnos Island and capturing he and his men "making the sea safe for those that sailed thereon."
Sextus Pompeius d. 35 BC Rome He was the last focus of opposition to the Second Triumvirate.

Middle Ages

Aruj, or Oruç, Reis was a Barbary privateer and later Admiral in Ottoman service who became known as Barbarossa – or Redbeard – amongst Christians.
Awilda was a 5th-century pirate who, along with friends, dressed up as sailors and commandeered a ship.
Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Giorgio Adorno d. 1558 Malta Knight of Malta active in the Mediterranean. Originally from Naples, he was elected "Captain-General of the Galleys" in 1547, 1549, 1557 and 1558.[1]
James Alday 1516–1576 1540s England An English privateer. Raided Spanish ports with James Logan and William Cooke.
William Aleyn fl. 1448 1432-1448 England English pirate active in the Thames and English Channel. Associate of William Kyd.
Jean Ango 1480–1551 France A French ship-owner who provided ships to Francis I for exploration of the globe.
Aruj 1474–1518 1503–1518 Ottoman Empire An Ottoman privateer and Bey (Governor) of Algiers and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of the West Mediterranean.
Awilda 5th century Scandinavia She and some of her female friends dressed like sailors and commandeered a ship.
Hayreddin Barbarossa 1478–1546 1504–1545 Ottoman Empire An Ottoman privateer and later Admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades.
Baldassare Cossa (Antipope John XXIII) 1370–1415 Procida Antipope during the Western Schism, John XXIII was accused of—among other crimes—piracy, incest and sodomy.
Pier Gerlofs Donia 1480–1520 Germany (Frisia) a Frisian warrior, pirate, freedom fighter, folk hero and rebel.
Eric of Pomerania 1382–1459 Germany (Pomerania) The first king of the Nordic Kalmar Union, he spent his last years living on the island of Gothland and "sent forth piratical expeditions against friend and foe alike".[2]
Eustace the Monk c. 1170–1217 France He was a mercenary for both England and France.
Alv Erlingsson d. 1290 Norway He was a favorite of the Queen, yet committed countless acts of piracy throughout his life
Jean Fleury (Florin) fl. 1523 1520s France French privateer and naval officer under Jean Ango. Seized three Spanish ships carrying Aztec treasure from Mexico to Spain in 1523.
Magnus Heinason 1545–1589 Faroe Islands Faroese naval hero and privateer. Was executed for piracy, though charges were later dropped.
Klein Henszlein d. 1573 to 1573 Germany A 16th-century pirate who raided shipping in the North Sea until his defeat and capture by a fleet from Hamburg
Wijerd Jelckama 1490–1523 Germany (Frisia) The nephew of Pier Gerlofs Donia (also known as Grutte Pier), fought along his side against the Saxon and Hollandic invaders.
William Kyd fl. 1430–1453 1430s–1450s England English pirate active in Southwest England during the early-to-mid-15th century.
Gödeke Michels d. 1402 to 1402 Germany A German pirate and one of the leaders of the Likedeeler, a combination of former Vitalienbrüder
Didrik Pining c. 1430–1491 Denmark-Norway A pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Hans Pothorst.
Hans Pothorst c.1440–1490 Denmark-Norway A pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Didrik Pining.
Salih Reis 1488–1568 Ottoman Empire A Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral.
Turgut Reis 1485–1565 Ottoman Empire A Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli.
Klaus Störtebeker 1360–1401 Germany He was a leader of the Victual Brothers.
Yermak Timofeyevich c. between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585 c.before 1582 Russia A leader of a gang of river pirates, along the Don River region, of Russia and later, led an expedition, in the Russian conquest of Siberia, in the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible.
Kristoffer Trondson (Rustung) c.1500–1565 c.1535–1542 Norway A Norwegian nobleman-turned pirate and privateer. Operated in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Gave up piracy in 1542 and eventually, became admiral of the Danish Fleet.
Hennig Wichmann 1370–1402 149?–1402 Germany (Frisia) One of the leaders of the Likedeeler, an association of former Victual Brothers.
Cord Widderich d. 1447 1404–1447 Germany A pirate active during political conflicts between Dithmarschen and North Frisia in the early 15th century.
Magister Wigbold 1365–1402 1392–1402 Germany Often described as the brains behind the Victual Brothers.
Wimund b. 1147 England He was a bishop who became a seafaring warlord adventurer.
John Crabbe 1305-1332 Flanders Flemish pirate best known for his successful use of a ship-mounted catapult. Once won the favor of Robert the Bruce and acted as a Naval Officer for England during the Hundred Years' War (after being captured by King Edward III.)

Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Corsairs: 1560–1650

The first man to intentionally circumnavigate the globe, Thomas Cavendish also raided numerous Spanish towns and ships in the New World.
Uluj Ali (Giovanni Dionigi) was an Italian-born Muslim corsair, who later became an Ottoman admiral and Chief Admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century.
Known as "el Draque" (the Dragon), Sir Francis Drake was considered a hero in England, but little more than a pirate in Spain.
After serving as a Spanish galley slave for four years, Piet Hein later captured 11,509,524 guilders of cargo from the Spanish treasure fleet.
Gráinne O'Malley (left of frame) was an important figure in Irish legend who is still recognised in popular culture today.
Sir John Hawkins. An Elizabethan corsair and some-time slaves trader in West Africa and Venezuelan coasts.
File:Sir Francis Verney.jpg
Sir Francis Verney was one of the most feared Barbary corsairs during the early 17th century.
Sir Walter Raleigh who commanded two expedition to search the golden city of El Dorado in Spanish colony of Guayana (actual Venezuela)
Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Nicholas Alvel early 17th century 1603 England Active in the Ionian Sea.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 1519–1574 1565 Spanish A Spanish Admiral and pirate hunter, de Aviles is remembered for his destruction of the French settlement of Fort Caroline in 1565.
Samuel Axe early 17th century 1629–1645 England An English privateer in Dutch service, Axe served with English forces in the Dutch Revolt against Habsburg rule.
Sir Andrew Barton 1466–1511 to 1511 Scotland Served under a Scottish letter of marque, but was described a pirate by English and Portuguese.
Abraham Blauvelt d. 1663 1640–1663 Netherlands One of the last Dutch corsairs of the mid-17th century, Blauvelt mapped much of South America.
Jean Bontemps early 16th century 1559-1572 France Active in the Caribbean Sea. He attacked Santa Marta, Cartagena de Indias, Rio de Hacha an Margarita island.
Nathaniel Butler b. 1578 1639 England Despite a comparatively unsuccessful career as a privateer, Butler was later colonial governor of Bermuda.
Jan de Bouff early 17th century 1602 Netherlands de Bouff served as a Dunkirker in Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt.
John Callis (Calles) c. 1558–1587? c. 1574–1587 England Welsh pirate active along the southern coast of Wales.
Hendrik (Enrique) Brower 1581–1643 1600,
Netherlands Brouwer was a privateer who fought the Habsburgs during the Dutch revolt, holding the city of Castro, Chile hostage for a period of two months.[3]
Thomas Cavendish 1560–1592 1587–1592 England The first man to intentionally circumnavigate the globe, Cavendish also raided numerous Spanish towns and ships in the New World.[4][5][6][7][8]
Shirahama Kenki 16th-early 17th centuries Japan Japanese pirate and one of the first Japanese with whom the southern Vietnamese kingdom of the Nguyễn Lords made contact.
Arnaut Mami mid 16th century 1572-1576 Albania Active in the Narrow Sea. He was the squadron admiral and the supreme commander of all Islamic vessels in North Africa and Pasha Algiers, known as the most formidable corsair of that period.
Matsura Takanobu 1529–1599 Japan One of the most powerful feudal lords of Kyūshū and one of the first lords to allow trading with Europeans
Peter Love d.1610 England An English pirate who set up base in the Outer Hebrides and was active around Ireland and Scotland. He was betrayed by the outlaw Neil MacLeod and executed in 1610.
Zheng Zhilong (Cheng Chih Lung) 1604–1662 1623–1645 China A convert to Christianity, Zhilon collaborated with Dutch forces, helping to create a monopoly on trade with Japan.
Zheng Jing (Cheng Chin) 1643–1682 1662–1682 China Chinese pirate and warlord. The eldest son of Koxinga and grandson of Zheng Zhilong, he succeeded his father as ruler of Tainan and briefly occupied Fukien.
Wang Zhi 16th century 1551–1555 China One of the chief figures amongst the wokou of the 16th century.
Francois le Clerc (Jambe de Bois) 16th century 1550s–1560s France Known for his sacking of Santiago de Cuba in 1554
Jacob Collaart 17th century 1625–1635 Netherlands A Flemish admiral who served as privateer and one of the Dunkirkers in Spanish Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt, responsible for the destruction of at least 150 fishing boats.
Claes Compaan 1587–1660 1621–1627 Netherlands Former Dutch corsair and privateer, he later became a pirate and was successful in capturing hundreds of ships in Europe, the Barbary coast and West Africa.
Baltazar de Cordes d.1601? 1598–1601 Netherlands A Dutch corsair who fought against the Spanish during the early 17th Century.
Simon Danziker d. 1611 1600s–1610s Netherlands Dutch corsair and privateer who later became a Barbary corsairbased in Algiers and Tunis during the early 17th century. He and John Ward dominated the Western Mediterranean during the early 17th century.
De Veenboer d. 1620 1600s–1610s Netherlands Former Dutch corsair and privateer. Later became a Barbary corsair under Simon the Dancer and eventually commanded the Algiers corsair fleet.
Uluj Ali (Giovanni Dionigi) 1519–1587 1536–1550 Turkey An Italian-born Muslim corsair, who later became an Ottoman admiral and Chief Admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century.
Sir Francis Drake 1540–1596 1563–1596 England Known as "el Draque" (the Dragon), he was an Elisabethan corsair considered a hero in England, but little more than a pirate in Spain.[9][10]
Peter Easton 1570–1619 1602 England A privateer, then pirate, who was able to retire in Villefranche, Savoy with an estimated worth of two million pounds.
Jan Janszoon 1570–after 1641 Holland Turkish service of the 'fleet from Salé'
Daniel Elfrith 1607–1640 England English privateer and slave trader in the West Indies.
Jan Evertsen 1630s Netherlands Dutch admiral and corsair.[citation needed]
Juan Garcia fl. 1622 1620s Spain One of the Spanish privateers who accompanied Jan Jacobsen on his last voyage in 1622.
Sir Michael Geare c. 1565–? c. 1584–1603 England Elizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies up until the turn of the 17th century.
Sir John Hawkins 1532–1595 1554, 1564, 1567 England An Elizabethan corsair and some-time slaves trader in West Africa and Venezuelan coasts. His work in ship design was important during the threat of invasion from the Spanish Armada.[11][12]
Piet Hein 1577–1629 1628 Netherlands After serving as a Spanish galley slave for four years, Hein later captured 11,509,524 guilders of cargo from the Spanish treasure fleet.
Pieter Adriaanszoon Ita fl. 1628–1630 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair and privateer. Commanded one of the earliest and largest expeditions against the Portugal and Spain in the Caribbean during 1628.
Jan Jacobsen d. 1622 1610s–1620s Netherlands Flemish-born privateer in English service during the Eighty Years' War.
Willem Jacobszoon fl. 1624–1625 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten on one of the first major expeditions to the West Indies.[citation needed]
Willem Jansen fl. 1600 1600s Netherlands Dutch corsair based in Duinkerken and one time officer under Jacques Colaert.[citation needed]
Cornelius Jol 1597–1641 1630s–1640s Netherlands Dutch corsair successful against the Spanish in the West Indies. One of the first to use a wooden peg leg.
Lawrence Keymis fl. –1618 1595-1596- 1617 England Lawrence Keymis was a seaman and companion of Sir Walter Raleigh in his expeditions to Spanish colony of Guayana in 1595 and 1617 to search for England El Dorado (actual Venezuela).[13] In another expedition in 1596 led a force inland Guayana along the banks of the Essequibo River, reaching what he wrongly believed to be Lake Parime.[14]
Sir James Lancaster 1554–1618 1591–1603 England Elizabethan Sea Dog active in India during the late 16th century. Later a chief director for the East India Company.
Guillaume Le Testu 1509–1573 1560s–1570s France French privateer, explorer and cartographer. First navigator to chart Australia in 1531.
Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer 1583–1627 1627 Netherlands Hendrick captured 1.2 million guilders from a Honduran treasure fleet, but was mortally wounded in the process.
Sir Henry Mainwaring 1587–1653 1610–1616 England English privateer and pirate hunter. His pirate fleet nearly broke the truce between England and Spain following the Anglo-Spanish War.
Olivier van Noort 1558–1627 1598–1601 Netherlands Despite his venture being of limited success, it was the inspiration that led to the formation of the Dutch East India Company.
John Nutt 1620–1623 England An English pirate active in Newfoundland.
Roger North 1585 –1652 1617 England Roger North was a seaman and companion of Sir Walter Raleigh in his expeditions to Spanish colony of Guayana in 1617 to search for England El Dorado (actual Venezuela).[13] North in 1619 petitioned for letters patent authorising him to establish the king's right to the coast and country adjoining the River Amazon; to found a plantation or settlement there, and to open a direct trade with the natives.
Gráinne O'Malley (Gráinne Ní Mháille) 1530–1603 1560s–1600s Ireland An important figure in Irish legend who is still present in popular culture today.[15][16]
John Oxenham 1536–1580 1570s–1600s England Elizabethan Sea Dog and associate of Sir Frances Drake during the early years of the Anglo-Spanish War. First English privateer to enter the Pacific though Panama.[citation needed]
William Parker d. 1617 1590s–1600s England Elizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies. Successfully attacked Porto Bello in 1602 without firing a shot.[citation needed]
Pedro de la Plesa fl. 1622 1620s Spain He and Juan Garcia who joined Jan Jacobsen on his final voyage in 1622.
Sir Walter Raleigh fl. 1554–1618 1595-1617 England Elizabethan corsair who commanded two expeditions to search for England El Dorado in Spanish colony of Guayana (actual Venezuela).
Murat Reis the Elder 1506–1608 1534–1608 Rhodes A Ottoman Albanian privateer and Ottoman admiral who took part in all of the early naval campaigns of Turgut Reis.
Assan Reis (Jan Marinus van Sommelsdijk) fl. 1626 1620s Netherlands Former Dutch privateer turned Barbary corsair. He attacked the Dutch ship St. Jan Babtista under Jacob Jacobsen of Ilpendam on March 7, 1626.[citation needed]
James Riskinner (Reiskimmer) 17th century 1630s England A lieutenant on the ship Warwick, then part of a fleet under the command of Nathaniel Butler, he later took part in a privateering expedition between May–September 1639.
Isaac Rochussen 1631–1710 1660s–1670s Netherlands A Dutch corsair active against the English during the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch War. His capture of The Falcon, an East India merchantman, was one of the most valuable prizes captured during the late-17th century.
Mahieu Romboutsen fl. 1636 1630s Netherlands Dutch corsair in the service of Spain. Was part of a three ship squadron under Jacques Colaert and was captured with him after a five-hour battle with Jan Evertsen.[citation needed]
William Rous fl. 1636–1645 1630s–1640s Netherlands Dutch corsair and privateer based on Providence Island. He was involved in privateering expeditions for the Providence Island Company and later commander of Fort Henry.
Jan van Ryen d. 1627 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair active in the West Indies. Reportedly killed with a number of colonists attempting to establish one of the first colonies on the Wiapoco in Dutch Guiana.
Pieter Schouten fl. 1624–1625 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair who led one of the Dutch expeditions to the West Indies.
Jacques de Sores 16th century 1555 France A French pirate whose sole documented act was his attack and burning of Havana in 1555.
Dirck Simonszoon van Uitgeest fl. 1628–1629 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair who commanded a WIC expedition to Brazil bringing back over 12 Portuguese and Spanish prizes.[citation needed]
Sir Francis Verney 1584–1615 1608–1610 England English nobleman who left behind his inheritance to become a Barbary corsair.
Johannes van Walbeeck fl. 1634 1620s–1630s Netherlands Dutch admiral and corsair. Captured Curaçao in 1634 and later served as governor.
John Ward 1552–1622 1603–1610s England A notorious English pirate around the turn of the 17th century who later became a Barbary Corsair operating out of Tunis during the early 1600s.
Cornelis Wittebol fl. 1622 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair in Spanish service. In February 1622, attacked a fishing fleet from the Veere and Maasmond sinking several ships and bringing back the survivors to ransom in Duinkerken.[citation needed]
Jacob Willekens 1571–1633 1590s–1630s Netherlands Dutch admiral who led Dutch corsairs on the first major privateering expedition to the West Indies.
Hendrik Worst fl. 1624 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten in his expedition to the West Indies.[citation needed]
Filips van Zuylen fl. 1624 1620s Netherlands Dutch corsair active against the Portuguese in West Africa.
Moses Cohen Henriques early 17th century 1620s and 1630s Netherlands Dutch pirate of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin active in the Caribbean against Spain and Brazil against Portugal

Age of the Buccaneers: 1650–1690

Although Jean Bart was born the son of a fisherman, he was able to retire as an Admiral in French service on the strength of his captures during his time as a privateer.
William Dampier was the first Englishman to explore or map parts of New Holland (Australia) and New Guinea, and was also the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
File:Pierre LeGrand.jpg
Known only for a single attack against a Spanish galleon (pictured), Pierre le Grand's existence is disputed.
Henry Morgan was a privateer (and pirate) who later retired to become Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.
François l'Ollonais was nicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards" and had a reputation for brutality – offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners.
Roche Braziliano had a reputation for violence, and once roasted two Spanish farmers when they refused to hand over their pigs.
Name Life Years active Country of origin Comments
Vincenzo Alessandri d. 1657 Italy Originally a Knight of Malta, Alessandri was captured and enslaved.[citation needed]
Michiel Andrieszoon 17th century 1680s Netherlands Dutch merchant-pirate. Associated with Thomas Paine and Laurens de Graff.[citation needed]
John Ansell d. 1689 England Sailed with Henry Morgan and participated in his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.
Jean Bart 1651–1702 1672–1697 France Born the son of a fisherman, Bart retired an Admiral in French service.
Michel Etchegorria "le basque" 17th century 1660–1668 France Sailed with Jean-David Nau l´Ollonais and participated in his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.
Philippe Bequel 17th century 1650–1669 France Was one of the first foreign privateers awarded a letter of marque by the governor of Jamaica
Jacob Janssen van den Bergh fl. 1660 1650s–1660s Netherlands Dutch corsair and slave trader for the Dutch West India Company.[citation needed]
Lancelot Blackburne 1653–1743 1680–1684 England Blackburne was an English clergyman, who became Archbishop of York, and – in popular belief – a pirate.
Eduardo Blomar d. 1679 1670s Spain Spanish renegade active in the Spanish Main during the 1670s. Tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Bartolomé Charpes and Juan Guartem in Panama in 1679.[citation needed]
Pierre Bot 17th century 1680s France French buccaneer active in the Caribbean.[citation needed]
Manuel Butiens fl. 1645 1640s Netherlands Dutch renegade and Dunkirker in the service of Spain.[citation needed]
Bartolomé Charpes d. 1679 1680s Spain Spanish renegade who was tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Eduardo Blomar and Juan Guartem in Panama by Governor Don Dionicio Alceda in 1679.[citation needed]
Edward Collier 17th century 1668–1671 England Served as Sir Henry Morgan's second-in-command throughout much of his expeditions against Spain during the mid-17th century.
John Cooke (Cook) d. 1683 1680s England English buccaneer who led an expedition against the Spanish in the early 1680s.[citation needed]
John Coxon d. 1689 1677–1682 England One of the most famous of the Brethren of the Coast, a loose consortium of pirates and privateers who were active on the Spanish Main.
William Dampier 1651–1715 1670–1688 England Was the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.[17][18]
Edward Davis 17th century 1680–1688 England Led the last major buccaneer raid against Panama.
John Davis (Robert Searle) 18th century England Davis was one of the earliest and most active buccaneers on Jamaica.
Jacquotte Delahaye 17th century 1660s France Delahaye was a French Buccaneer, and together with Anne Dieu-Le-Veut was one of very few female buccaneers.
Anne Dieu-Le-Veut b. 1650 1650–1704 France Was originally one of the women – "Filles de Roi" – sent by the French government to Tortuga to become wives to the local male colonists.
Charlotte de Berry 17th century 1660s England A female pirate, she later commanded her own ship.
Cornelius Essex d. 1680 1670s England An English buccaneer who took part in Captain Bartholomew Sharp's privateering expedition, the "Pacific Adventure", during the late 1670s.
Laurens de Graaf 1653–1704 1672–1697 Netherlands Characterised as "a great and mischievous pirate" by Henry Morgan, de Graaf was a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer in the service of the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
Michel de Grammont 1645–1686 1670–1686 France A French buccaneer, de Grammont primarily attacked Spanish holdings in Maracaibo, Gibraltar, Trujillo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Cumana and Veracruz
Jean du Casse 1646–1715 168?–1697 France Born to Huguenot parents, du Casse was allowed to join the French navy on the value of his prizes taken while a buccaneer.
Alexandre Exquemelin 1645–1707 1669–1674
France A French writer, most known as the author of one of the most important sourcebooks of 17th century piracy, De Americaensche Zee-Roovers.
Jean Foccard 17th century 1680s France Associate of Laurens de Graaf and Michel de Grammont. He later joined them in their attack on Tampico in 1682.[citation needed]
"Red Legs" Greaves 17th Century Scotland Greaves's nickname was based on a commonly used term for reddened legs often seen among the Scottish and Irish who took to wearing kilts in almost any weather. Notably his raid of Margarita island.
Juan Guartem 17th century 1670s Spain A Spanish renegade pirate who raided Spanish settlements in New Spain during the late 17th century with his most notable raid being against Chepo in 1679.
Peter Harris d. 1680 1670s England English buccaneer and member of Captain Bartholomew Sharp's "Pacific Expedition". Killed at Panama in 1680.[citation needed]
Jean Hamlin (Hamilton) 17th century 1680s Anglo-French French buccaneer active in the Caribbean. Later hunted down by Captain John Coxon.[citation needed]
Richard Hawkins 1562–1622 1593–1594 England A buccaneer and explorer who was later knighted.
George Hout (d'Hout) fl. 1687 1680s England English buccaneer who joined Francois Grogniet and Pierre le Picard in their raid on Guayaquil in 1687.[citation needed]
Edward Low 17th century c. 1635–c. 1668 England British pirate active in the Caribbean during the 1660s.
William Jackson 17th century 1639–1645 England It was the fleet under his command that captured Jamaica for England.
Bartholomeus de Jager fl. 1655 1650s Netherlands Dutch corsair active against the Portuguese. He attacked a small merchant fleet at Fernando Noronha capturing one merchant ship and driving off the other.[citation needed]
Daniel Johnson 1629–1675 1657–1675 England Became known as "Johnson the Terror" amongst the Spanish.
William Knight 17th century 1684–1686 England Along with Edward Davis, he took part in the final large buccaneer attack on Spanish holdings.
Pierre Le Grand 17th century France Known only for a single attack against a Spanish galleon, his existence is disputed.
Raveneau de Lussan b. 1663 1684–1688 France An impoverished nobleman. Attacked targets in Central America. Known for a “long march” in 1688.
Thomas Magott (Mackett) 17th century 1680s England English buccaneer who sailed with Bartholomew Sharp and others on the "Pacific Adventure".[citation needed]
Edward Mansvelt (Mansfield) d. 1666 1650s–1660s Curaçao Dutch buccaneer in English service. Known as the Admiral of the "Brethren of the Coast", Mansvelt was a mentor to Sir Henry Morgan who succeeded him following his death.
Marquis de Maintenon 1648–1691 1672–1676 France A French nobleman who became a buccaneer in the Caribbean, selling his castle and title to Madame de Maintenon. Remarkable his raid of Margarita island.
David Marteen 17th century 1663–1665 Netherlands Known primarily as the sole non-English Captain who participated in the raids against Spanish strongholds in present-day Mexico and Nicaragua.
Daniel Montbars (Exterminator) 1645–1701? 1660s–1670s France A former French naval officer and gentleman adventurer, he engaged in a violent and destructive war against Spain in the Caribbean and the Spanish Main. His hatred of the Spanish earned him the name "Montbars the Exterminator".
Sir Henry Morgan 1635–1688 1663–1674 Wales A privateer (and pirate) who later retired to become Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.[19][20] he participated in his raids againstPanama, Maracaibo, Gibraltar, Porto Bello.
John Morris 17th century 1663–1672 England A skilled pilot, he served with both Christopher Myngs and Henry Morgan before becoming a pirate hunter.
Sir Christopher Myngs 1625–1666 1650s–1660s England Described as "unhinged and out of tune" by the governor of Jamaica, Myngs nevertheless became a Vice-Admiral of the Blue in the Royal Navy. In 1658 raided the coast of South-America; failing to capture a Spanish treasure fleet, he destroyed Tolú and Santa Marta in present-day Colombia instead. In 1659 he plundered Cumaná, Puerto Cabello and Coro in present-day Venezuela.
François l'Ollonais (Jean-David Nau) 1635–1668 1660–1668 France Nicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards", l'Ollonais had a reputation for brutality, offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners. Famous by his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.
Pierre Le Picard fl. 1666–1690 1660s–1690s France An officer under l'Ollonais, he and Moise Vauquelin left to pursue a career on their own. He later served in King William's War.
Chevalier du Plessis d. 1668 1660s France French privateer active in the West Indies. He was succeeded by Moise Vauquelin following his death.[citation needed]
Baron Jean de Pointis 1635–1707 1690s France His greatest venture was the 1697 Raid of Cartagena.
Thomas Pound d. 1703 1689 England Briefly commanded a small ship near Massachusetts before being captured.
Bartolomeu Português b. 1630 1666–1669 Portugal One of the earliest pirates to use a pirate code.
Lawrence Prince fl. 1659–1672 1650s–1670s Netherlands Dutch buccaneer in English service. An officer under Sir Henry Morgan, he and John Morris led the vanguard at Panama in 1671.
Roche Braziliano 17th century 1654–1671 Netherlands Roasted two Spanish farmers alive when they refused to hand over their pigs.
Philip Ras fl. 1652–1655 1650s Netherlands Captured several English ships as both a corsair and privateer during the First Anglo-Dutch War.[citation needed]
Thomas Paine 17th century 1680s England A colonial American privateer who raided several settlements in the West Indies with Jan Willems, most notably against Rio de la Hacha in 1680. He also drove the French from Block Island.
Manuel Ribeiro Pardal d. 1671 1668–1671 Portugal Portuguese privateer in the service of Spain. One of the few successful privateers active against the buccaneers of the Caribbean during the late 17th century.
Stenka Razin 1630–1671 Russia A Cossack pirate who operated on the Volga and later expanded into the Caspian Sea.
Richard Sawkins d. 1680 1679–1680 England Participated, along with John Coxon and Bartholomew Sharp, in the surprise attack on Santa Marta
Lewis Scot fl. 1663 1660s England Known for his attack on the city of Campeche, on the Yucatan Peninsula.
Bartholomew Sharp 1650–1690 1679–1682 England Plundered 25 Spanish ships and numerous small towns.
Gustav Skytte 1637–1663 1657–1663 Sweden Attacked ships in the Baltic Sea, along with other accomplices of noble descent.
Bernard Claesen Speirdyke fl. 1663–1670 1660s–1670s Netherlands Dutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean, he was captured by Captain Manuel Ribeiro Pardal near Cuba and later executed.
Charles Swan 17th century England A reluctant pirate, he begged for a pirate even as he looted his way around South America.
Jacques Tavernier (Le Lyonnais) 1625–1673 1664–1673 France French buccaneer who took part in expeditions with Laurens de Graaf, Michel de Grammont, Pierre Le Grand, François l'Ollonais and Sir Henry Morgan before his execution in 1673. His existence is disputed as the only pre-20th century reference to him appears in Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography.[21][22]
Nicholas (Nikolaas) van Hoorn 1635–1683 1663–1683 Netherlands Merchant, privateer and later pirate, van Hoorn was hugely successful before dying of wound infection.
Cornelis Janszoon van de Velde fl. 1655 1650s Netherlands Dutch corsair active near the Antillen, he was briefly associated with Bartholomeus de Jager.[citation needed]
Moise Vauquelin (Moses Vanclein) fl. 1650–1672 1650s–1670s France An officer under l'Ollonais, he also had a partnership with Pierre le Picard. In his later years, he wrote a book detailing the coastline of Honduras and the Yucatan along with fellow buccaneer Philippe Bequel.
Lionel Wafer 1640–1705 1679–1688 Wales An explorer whose work helped inspire the Darien Scheme.
Yankey (Janke) Willems fl. 1681–1687 1680s Netherlands Dutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean.
William Wright 17th century 1675–1682 England Despite being English, Wright was active as a privateer under a French commission. He later became a buccaneer.

Golden Age of Piracy: 1690–1730

The most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, Black Bart was estimated to have captured more than 470 vessels.
With his fearsome appearance, Blackbeard is often credited with the creation of the stereotypical image of a pirate.
Despite never commanding a ship herself, Anne Bonny is remembered as one of few female historical pirates.
Henry Every (or Avery) is famous as one of the few pirates of the era who was able to retire with his takings without being either arrested or killed in battle.
Although modern historians dispute the legitimacy of his trial and execution, the rumour of Captain Kidd's buried treasure has served only to build a legend around the man as a great pirate.
Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Thomas Anstis d. 1723 1718–1723 England Was mainly active in the Caribbean, and served under first Howell Davis and later Bartholomew Roberts.[21][23]
Adam Baldridge  ? fl. c. 1685–1697 England English pirate and one of the early founders of the pirate settlements in Madagascar.
Bartholomew Roberts (Black Bart) 1682–1722 1719–1722 Wales The most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, estimated to have captured more than 470 vessels.[21][23][24]
George Booth d. 1700 1696–1700 England One of the earliest pirates active in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea.
John Bowen d. 1704 1700–1704 Bermuda Was active in the Indian Ocean, his contemporaries included George Booth and Nathaniel North.
Samuel Bellamy (Black Sam) 1689–1717 1716–1717 Hittisleigh, Devonshire, England Despite having a career of only 16 months, Bellamy was extraordinarily successful, capturing more than 50 ships before his death at age 28.[23] His acquired wealth of five tons of treasure from his short career is speculated at US $120 million in 2008 dollars, making him the top-earning pirate in the Golden Age of piracy.[25] Bellamy began his pirate career under the command of Henry Jennings, a Buccaneer that turned pirate; but double-crossing Jennings, Bellamy fled to the Bahamas and joined Jennings' nemesis, Benjamin Hornigold of the Mary Anne. But quickly growing wearisome of Hornigold's refusal to attack English ships, Bellamy called for a vote of no confidence, and the crew ousted Hornigold and Blackbeard by a majority vote, electing Bellamy as captain. Bellamy's prize flagship, Whydah Galley, discovered by underwater explorer Barry Clifford in 1984, is currently the world's only fully authenticated Golden Age pirate shipwreck ever found.
Blackbeard (Edward Teach) 1680–1718 1716–1718 England With his fearsome appearance, Blackbeard is often credited with the creation of the stereotypical image of a pirate. Though his real name remains unknown, he began his pirate career as the first officer of Buccaneer-turned-pirate Captain Benjamin Hornigold of the Mary Anne. When a young crewman, Samuel Bellamy, called for a vote of no confidence in Hornigold for his refusal to attack English ships, the crew by a vote ousted Hornigold and Blackbeard, leaving the Mary Anne to Bellamy whom the crew elected their new captain.[21][23]
Black Caesar d. 1718 1700s–1718 Africa A captured slave turned pirate, Black Caesar was a well-known pirate active off the Florida Keys during the early 18th century. He later acted as a lieutenant to Blackbeard and was one of five Africans serving on his flagship.[23]
Stede Bonnet 1688–1718 1717–1718 Barbados Nicknamed "The Gentleman Pirate", Bonnet was born into a wealthy family before turning to piracy.[21][23]
Anne Bonny 1698–1782 to 1725 Ireland Despite never commanding a ship herself, Anne Bonny is remembered as one of few female historical pirates.[21][23][26]
Nicholas Brown d. 1726 to 1726 England Active off the coast of Jamaica, Brown was eventually killed – and his head pickled – by childhood friend John Drudge.
Dirk Chivers early 18th century 1694–1699 Netherlands Active in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, Chivers later retired from piracy and returned to the Netherlands.[21]
Thomas Cocklyn early 18th century 1717 to death England Primarily known for his association with Howell Davis and Oliver La Buze, Cocklyn's activities after 1719 are unknown.[21][23]
Christopher Condent d. 1770 1718–1720 England After entering into piracy in 1718, Condent later took a prize of £150,000 and retired to France, becoming a wealthy merchant.[21]
William Condon d. 1721 to 1721 England Captaining the Fiery Dragon, Condon was killed when she caught fire and sank.
Robert Culliford early 18th century 1690–1698 England The former first mate of William Kidd, Culliford led a first mutiny against Kidd, stealing his ship Blessed William.[21][23]
Alexander Dalzeel 1662–1715 1685–1715 Scotland Served under Henry Every. Was captured four times before finally being hanged.
Howell Davis 1690–1719 1718–1719 Wales Having a career that lasted only 11 months, Davis was ambushed during an attempt to kidnap the governor of Príncipe.[21][23]
Edward England 1690–1720 1717–1720 Ireland Differing from many other pirates of his day, England did not kill captives unless necessary.[21][23]
John Evans d. 1723 1722–1723 Wales After an unsuccessful career as a legitimate sailor, Evans turned to piracy – initially raiding houses from a small canoe.
Henry Every (Avery) b. 1653 1695–1696 England Famous as one of the few pirates of the era who was able to retire with his takings without being either arrested or killed in battle.[21]
John Fenn d. 1723 to 1723 England Sailed with Bartholomew Roberts and, later, Thomas Anstis.
William Fly d. 1726 to 1726 England Raided off the New England coast before being captured and hanged at Boston, Massachusetts.
Ingela Gathenhielm 1692–1729 1718–1721 Sweden Widow of Lars Gathenhielm, active on the Baltic Sea.
Lars Gathenhielm 1689–1718 1710–1718 Sweden Active on the Baltic Sea
Charles Harris d. 1723 to 1723 England Joining the Barbary corsairs, Harris converted to Islam, before being captured and later hanged.
John Halsey d. 1708 1705–1708 Colonial America Active in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, Halsey is remembered by Defoe as "brave in his Person, courteous to all his Prisoners, lived beloved, and died regretted by his own People."[21]
Miguel Henríquez b. 1680 early 18th century Spain / Puerto Rico Although born a shoemaker, Henríquez was later awarded a letter of marque by Spain for his actions against the British.
Benjamin Hornigold d. 1719 1717–1719 England Known for being less aggressive than other pirates, Hornigold once captured a ship for the sole purpose of seizing the crew's hats.[21][23]
Thomas Howard early 18th century 1698–1703 England Howard served under both George Booth and John Bowen and later commanded the Prosperous.
"Calico Jack" John Rackham 1682–1720 to 1720 England Earned his nickname for the colourful calico clothes that he wore.[21][23]
Henry Jennings d. 1745 1715 England Although later governor of the pirate haven of New Providence, Jennings only carried out two pirate acts – gaining an estimated 410,000 pesos.[21]
John Julian d. 1733 1716–1717 Miskito origins Recorded as the first black pirate to operate in the New World.[23]
James Kelly (James Gilliam) d. 1701 to 1699 England Active in the Indian Ocean, Kelly was a long-time associate of William Kidd.
William "Captain" Kidd 1645–1701 1695–1699 Scotland Although modern historians dispute the legitimacy of his trial and execution, the rumor of Captain Kidd's buried treasure has served only to build a legend around the man as a great pirate. His property was claimed by the crown and given to the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, by Queen Anne.[21][23][27][28][29][30]
John King (pirate) c. 1706/9-1717 1716-1717 England Although not ever a captain, King joined the crew of Sam Bellamy when they boarded the ship he was on, and is the youngest known pirate on record. His age is disputed at anywhere from 8–11 years.
Olivier Levasseur (Oliver La Buse) 1680–1730 1716–1730 France Nicknamed "la Buse" (the Buzzard) for the speed with which he attacked his targets, Levasseur left behind a cryptic message that has yet to be deciphered fully today.[21][23]
Edward "Ned" Low 1690–1724 1721–1724 England A pirate known for his vicious tortures, his methods were described as having "done credit to the ingenuity of the Spanish Inquisition in its darkest days".[21][23]
George Lowther d. 1723 to 1723 England Active in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, one of Lowther's lieutenants included Edward Low.[21][23]
Christopher Moody d. 1718 1713–1718 England Active off North and South Carolina, Moody offered no quarter to captured crews, signified by his flying of a red standard.[23]
Nathaniel North b. 1672 1689–1704
Bermuda Active in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, North served with other famous contemporaries, including John Bowen and George Booth.
James Plantain early 18th century Jamaica Plantain ruled the island of Madagascar between 1725 and 1728, primarily through fear, and was known as the "King of Ranter Bay".[21]
John Quelch 1666–1704 1703–1704 England Quelch was the first person tried for piracy outside England under Admiralty Law and therefore without a jury.
Mary Read 1690–1721 to 1720 England Along with Anne Bonny, one of few female historical pirates. When captured, Read escaped hanging by claiming she was pregnant, but died soon after of a fever while still in prison.[21][23]
Woodes Rogers 1679–1732 1709–1710 England Played a major role in the suppression of pirates in the Caribbean.[21][23][31]
Francis Spriggs d. 1725 to 1725 England Along with George Lowther and Edward Low, Spriggs was primarily active in the Bay of Honduras during the early 1720s.
John Taylor early 18th century England At Reunion Island, Taylor is reputed to have captured the most valuable prize in pirate history.[21]
Thomas Tew d. 1695 1692–1695 England Despite only going on two pirate voyages, Tew pioneered a route later known as the Pirate Round.[21][23]
Charles Vane 1680–1720 1716–1720 England Disliked due to his cruelty, Vane showed little respect for the pirate code, cheating his crew out of their shares in the takings.[21][23]
Richard Worley d. 1719 to 1719 England Credited as one of the first pirates to fly the skull and crossbones pirate flag.[21]
Emanuel Wynn early 18th century France Was the first pirate to fly the Jolly Roger. His design, however, also incorporate an hourglass below the skull.[21]

After the Golden Age: Pirates, Privateers, Smugglers, and River Pirates: 1730-1860

Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Peter Alston 1765–1804 1797–1804 United States River pirate, highwayman, and counterfeiter, alias James May, who was believed to be an associate of the Samuel Mason and Micajah "Big" Harpe and Wiley "Little" Harpe.
Louis-Michel Aury 1788–1821 1810–1821 France French privateer, served to the Republics of Venezuela and Mexico.
Joseph Baker d. 1800 1800 Canada The single piratical action of his career consisted of an unsuccessful attempt to commandeer the sloop Eliza.[32]
Renato Beluche 1780–1860 1803–1823 Louisiana, New Spain A known associate of the Lafitte Brothers active in the Caribbean before joining Simon Bolivar army in his fight for South American independence.
Hippolyte Bouchard 1780–1843 1817–1819 France A French and Argentine sailor who fought for Argentina, Chile and Peru.[33]
Luis Brion de Trox 1782–1821 1806–1821 Curazao Dutch privateer, served to the Republics of Venezuela and Great Colombia.
Flora Burn fl. 1741 1740s–1750s England Female pirate active mainly off the East coast of North America from 1741.
Henri Caesar early 19th century 1805–1830 Haiti Haitian pirate active in the Caribbean during the early 19th century.
Eric Cobham and Maria Lindsey 1700–1760 1720s–1740s England Cobham and his wife, Maria, were primarily active in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Roberto Cofresí 1791-1825 1818-1823 Puerto Rico Puerto Rican pirate active mainly in the Caribbean sea. He was executed by the Spanish in 1825.
James Copeland 1823-1857 1830s-1857 United States A leader of a gang of pirates, smugglers, and outlaws in southern Mississippi and southern Alabama, around Mobile, known as the Wages and Copeland Clan.
James Ford 1770?–1833 1799?-1833 United States A civic leader and business owner in western Kentucky and southern Illinois, secretly, was the leader of a gang of river pirates and highwaymen, along the Ohio River, known as the "Ford's Ferry Gang."
Hezekiah Frith Early 19th century 1790s–1800s Bermuda British ship owner and smuggler known as Bermuda's "gentleman privateer". Alleged to have used his business as a cover to withhold cargo sized in privateering expeditions and amass a small fortune.
Vincent Gambi d. 1820 Italy A pirate based out of New Orleans, he was an associate of Jean Lafitte.
José Gaspar (Gasparilla) 1756–1821 1783–1821 Spain Though a popular figure in Florida folklore, there is no pre-20th century evidence of his existence.[34]
Catherine Hagerty and Charlotte Badger early 19th century 1806 England Australian convicts. Among a group of convicts taken on board a shorthanded ship as crew. The convicts commandeered the ship and sailed for New Zealand. Hagerty was put ashore and died, Badger was never seen again.[35]
Micajah and Wiley Harpe 1768–1799 (Micajah)
1770–1804 (Wiley)
1797–1799 (Micajah)
1797–1804 (Wiley)
United States America's first known serial killers, were Loyalists in the American Revolution, as well as, river pirates and highwaymen, who preyed on travelers along the Ohio River and the waterways of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. The Harpe Brothers were associates of Samuel Mason and Peter Alston.
Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah 1760–1826 1780–1826 Kuwait The most famous pirate in the Persian Gulf, he ruled over Qatar and Dammam for short periods and fought alongside the Wahhabis against the Al-Khalifa tribe of Bahrain.[36]
Bill Johnston 1782–1870 1810–1860 United States Nicknamed "Pirate of the Thousand Islands".
Edward Jordan 1771–1809 1794–1809 Canada Irish rebel, fisherman and pirate of Nova Scotia.
Jorgen Jorgensen 1780–1841 1807–1808 Denmark Danish adventurer and writer, he was captured by the British as a privateer during the Napoleonic Wars.[37]
Jean Lafitte c. 1776–1826? 1803–1815
France French pirate (or privateer) active in the Gulf of Mexico during the early 1800s. A wanted fugitive by the United States, he later participated, during the War of 1812, in the Battle of New Orleans on the side of Andrew Jackson and the Americans. In 1822, Lafitte approached the navy of Gran Colombia and Simon Bolivar granted a commission and given a new ship, a 40-ton schooner named General Santander.
Pierre Lafitte 1770–1821 1803–1821 France French pirate, and lesser-known brother of Jean Lafitte, active mainly in the Gulf of Mexico.
Narciso Lopez 1797–1851 1850–1851 Venezuela Venezuelan adventurer, enlisted in United States about six hundred filibusters and successfully reached Cuba in May 1850. His troops arrived took the town of Cárdenas, carrying a flag that López had designed, which later became the flag of modern Cuba. He was executed in Havana by the royalist in 1851.
Sam Hall Lord 1778–1844 1800s–1840s Barbados Sam Lord was one of the most famous buccaneers on the island of Barbados.
Kazimierz Lux 1780–1846 1803–1819 Poland The Polish Pirates of the Caribbean. After pacifying the slave rebellion in Haiti, Lux started a career of piracy - shooting and boarding an American brig was one of his more spectacular successes; the vessel was later sold for 20 000 francs in Havana.[clarification needed]
Gregor MacGregor 1786–1845 1810–1830 Scotland Adventurer, land speculator, and colonizer who fought in Venezuela and New Granada struggle for independence. In 1817 led an army of only 150 men in an assault on Amelia Island, Florida. After his return to Britain in 1820, he claimed to be cacique of Poyais a fictional Central American country that MacGregor had invented which, with his promotional efforts, drew investors and eventually colonists.
Francisco de Miranda 1750–1816 1806 Venezuela Venezuelan militar and adventurer, who organized in 1806 two private filibustering expeditions from New York and Trinidad with the intention of liberate Venezuela under Spanish rule since XVI siecle. On April 28 of 1806 the small fleet was overtaken by Spanish war ships off the coast of Venezuela. Only the Leander escaped. The Backus and Bee were captured with all the revolutionaries. Sixty men were put on trial for piracy and Ten were sentenced to death in Puerto Cabello. The Leander and the expeditionary force regrouped on the British islands of Barbados and Trinidad, assisted by HMS Lilly. The new expedition landed at La Vela de Coro on August 3, captured the fort and raised the flag for the first time on Venezuelan soil. Before dawn the next morning the expeditionaries occupied Coro, but found no support from the city residents and Miranda returned to England.
Samuel Mason 1739–1803 to 1803 United States Initially, an Revolutionary War Patriot captain in the Ohio County, Virginia militia and an associate judge and squire in Kentucky, Mason later, ran a gang of highway robbers and waterways river pirates.
John A. Murrell 1806?–1844 to 1834 United States Near-legendary bandit, known as the "Great Western Land Pirate," ran a gang of river pirates and highwaymen along the Mississippi River.
Leoncio Prado Gutiérrez 1853–1883 1876-1877 Peru Prado a Peruvian mariner with Cuban revolutionaries seized the Spanish ship Moctezuma in the Caribbean sea at North of La Hispaniola. Renamed as Cespedes failed to liberate Cuba under Spanish rule. Realizing how the ship remained in the hands of the royalist navy, Prado ordered his men to leave and lit a barrel of gunpowder inside of the ammunition storage facilities.
Robert Surcouf 1779-1823 1789–1908 France French privateer and slave trader who operated in the Indian Ocean between 1789 and 1801, and again from 1807 to 1808, capturing over 40 prizes, while amassing a large fortune as a ship-owner, both from privateering and from commerce.
Rachel Wall 1760-1789 1781–1782 Province of Pennsylvania Rachel and her husband George Wall were active off the New Hampshire coast until George and the crew were washed out to sea. She was hanged in Boston on 8 October 1789.
William Walker 1824–1860 1852–1860 United States American lawyer, journalist and adventurer, who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking colonies under his personal control. Walker became president of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies. He was executed in Trujillo by the government of Honduras in 1860.
Alexander White d. 1784 fl. 1784 East Coast of America Hanged for piracy in Cambridge, Massachusetts in November 1784.
Dominique You 1775–1830 1802–1814 Haiti Acquired a reputation for daring as a pirate. Retired to become a politician in New Orleans.

Renegades of the West Indies: 1820-1830

Roberto Cofresi was Puerto Rico's most famous pirate and was regarded by many as the Puerto Rican equivalent of Robin Hood.
Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Mansel Alcantra (Alcantara) fl. 1829 1820s Spain In 1829, he captured the Topaz off St. Helena and had the entire crew murdered.
Roberto Cofresí 1791–1825 1818-1825 Puerto Rico Puerto Rico's most famous pirate, regarded by many as the Puerto Rican equivalent of Robin Hood.
Diabolito (Little Devil) d. 1823 Cuba Cuban-born pirate active in the Caribbean during the early 19th century. He was one of the first pirates to be hunted down by Commodore David Porter and the Mosquito Fleet during the early 1820s.
Charles Gibbs 1798–1831 1816–1831 United States One of the last pirates active in the Caribbean, and one of the last people executed for piracy by the United States.[38]
"Don" Pedro Gilbert 1800–1834 1832–1834 Colombia Took part in the last recorded incident of piracy in Atlantic waters.[39][40]
Benito de Soto 1805–1830 1827–1830 Spain The most notorious of the last generation to attack shipping on the Atlantic Ocean.
Jacque Alexander Tardy 1767-1827 1817-1827 France

Piracy in East and South-East Asia: 1830-1860

Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Tuanku Abbas early 19th century to 1844 Malay Archipelago The brother of a rajah of Achin, known for his sponsoring and leading of pirate raids.
Eli Boggs 1810–1857 1830–1857 United States Pirate who sailed in Chinese junk for smuggling.
Cheng I d. 1807 to 1807 China A pirate on the Chinese coast in the 18h and 19th centuries.
Cheung Po Tsai early 19th century to 1810 China Active along the Guangdong coast and is said to have commanded a fleet of 600 junks.
Ching Shih d. 1844 1807–1810 China A prominent female pirate in late Qing China.
Chui A-poo d. 1851? 1840s–1850 China Based in Bias Bay east of Hong Kong, Chui preyed on opium ships in the South China Sea until his fleet was destroyed by the British in 1849.[41]
Shap Ng-tsai fl. 1840s 1845–1849 China Commanded around 70 junks in the South China Sea before retiring and accepting a pardon from the Chinese government.

Blackbirders, Shanghaiers, Crimps and African Slave Traders: 1860-1900

Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Nathaniel Gordon 1834–1862 1860 United States The first and only American slave trader to be tried, convicted, and executed "for being engaged in the Slave Trade" in accordance with the Piracy Law of 1820.[42]
Bully Hayes 1829–1877 1850–1877 United States The Pirate of the South Sea, was a notorious blackbirder in the South Pacific, and was described as "the last of the Buccaneers".
Albert W. Hicks 1820–1860 1860 United States New York waterfront thug who killed the 3-man crew of an oyster sloop after being shanghaied. He was the last man hung for piracy in the United States.
James "Shanghai" Kelly 1830-1890 1850-1870 United States A legendary figure in San Francisco history who owned several boarding houses and saloons, Kelly was renowned for his ability to supply men to understaffed ships. He was reported to have shanghaied 100 men for three ships in a single evening, by hosting a free booze cruise to celebrate his "birthday", then serving opium-laced whiskey to knock out his guests.[43]
Joseph "Bunko" Kelly d. aft. 1908 1879–1894 England The "King of the Crimps" in Portland, Oregon, he shanghaiied over 2,000 men in all. In 1893, he delivered 20+ men who had mistakenly consumed embalming fluid from the open cellar of a mortuary. The ship sailed off before the captain realized most of the men were dead.[44]
Ben Pease 1837-1870 1860-1870 United States A New England sea captain who kidnapped Pacific Islanders aboard the Pioneer, providing labor for the plantations of Fiji. When Bully Hayes was arrested for piracy in Samoa, Pease helped him to escape. When next the Pioneer returned to port, Hayes was at the helm, and was rumored to have killed Pease during a fight.

Piracy in the 20th and 21st centuries: 1901-

Name Life Years Active Country of origin Comments
Rafael de Nogales Mendez 1879–1936 1902 Venezuela With the support of president Zelaya of Nicaragua, Nogales participated in a failed attempt to overthrow Venezuelan dictator Cipriano Castro involving an expedition aboard of schooner La Libertad. The forces landed in La Guajira peninsula but were defeated by general Antonio Davila in Carazua.
Felix von Luckner 1881–1966 1916–1917 Germany German navy officer nobleman privateer who the epithet Der Seeteufel (the Sea-Devil) -- and his crew that of Die Piraten des Kaisers (the Emperor's Pirates) -- for his exploits in command of the sailing commerce raider SMS Seeadler (Windjammer) (Sea Eagle) in 1916–1917, during World War I.
Gustavo Machado Morales 1898–1987 1929 Venezuela Participated in Rafael Simón Urbina 's June 1929 taking of Fort Amsterdam in Curaçao, in another failed attempt to overthrow dictator Juan Vicente Gómez involving 250 men.[45] This attempt involved the kidnapping of the governor of Curaçao, Leonardus Albert Fruytier[45] who was hauled off to invade Venezuela on the stolen American ship Maracaibo.[45] After this raid was defeated by Gómez forces he went into exile in Colombia with Urbina and others revolutionaries.
Rafael Simon Urbina 1897–1952 1929 Venezuela Participated in Gustavo Machado Morales 's June 1929 taking of Fort Amsterdam in Curaçao, involving 250 men.[45] This attempt involved the kidnapping of the governor of Curaçao, Leonardus Albert Fruytier who was hauled off to invade Venezuela on the stolen American ship Maracaibo.[45] After this raid was defeated he went into exile in Colombia with Machado and others revolutionaries.[45]
Roman Delgado Chalbaud 1882–1929 1929 Venezuela On 11 August 1929 Delgado Chalbaud led the steamship Falke, (renamed General Anzoátegui for the occasion) into Cumaná in a failed attempt to overthrow Venezuelan dictator Juan Vicente Gomez. Met by government troops, the expeditionary force of 250-300 men soon ran into problems. Delgado was killed on the first day, and on 24 August, the leaders of the expedition surrendered.[45][46] Venezuela's roving diplomat in Europe, José Ignacio Cárdenas, had reported on the planned expedition, which helped defeat it.[47]
Boysie Singh 1908–1957 1947–1956 Trinidad Active in the waters between Venezuela and Trinidad. Singh commonly attacked fishing boats, killing the crew and stealing the boat engine, before sinking the boat and selling the engine.[48]
"Roaring" Dan Seavey 1867–1949 1900–1930 United States Active in the American Great Lakes.
Peter de Neumann 1917–1972 21 June 1941 United Kingdom Second Officer aboard the RN prize vessel Criton (captured from the Vichy French). Widely known as "The Man From Timbuctoo".[49][50]
Henrique Galvão 1895–1970 1961 Portugal On January 22, 1961, Henrique Galvão led the Santa Maria hijacking, also known as Operation Dulcinea. The Portuguese revolutionaries isolated the vessel by cutting off all communication, and killed one officer and wounded several others. Galvão used the hijacking to send radio broadcasts from the ship calling attention to his concerns and views on what he characterized as the president Salazar regime of fascism. The liner evaded both the U.S. Navy and British Royal Navy for eleven days before docking safely at Recife, Brazil.
Paul del Rio 1943–2015 1963 Venezuela On 13 February 1963 Paul del Rio at the age of 19 was the leader of a Venezuelan revolutionary group of the Armed Forces of National Liberation that seized the Venezuelan cargo ship Anzoategui in Caribbean Sea, in a failed attempt to overthrow Romulo Betancourt. Involving 25 men the ship was hauled off to Brazilian coast evading both the Venezuelan Navy and the U.S. Navy.
Asad 'Booyah' Abdulahi 1966- 1998- Somalia Somali pirate boss, active in capturing ships in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean for ransoms.[51]
Abdul Hassan 1969- 2005- Somalia Somali pirate nicknamed "the one who never sleeps". Leader of the 350-men strong group "Central Regional Coast Guard", active in capturing ships for ransoms.[52][53][54]
Abduwali Muse 1990- 2008-2009 Somalia In 16 February 2011, Muse was a defendant in the first piracy trial in the United States in almost two centuries.


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  14. Burns, Alan. History of the British West Indies. Allen & Unwin. pp. 167–68. OCLC 557499386.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Chambers, Anne. "Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley." New York: MJF Books, 2003. ISBN 1-56731-858-4
  16. Cook, Judith. 2004. Pirate Queen, the life of Grace O'Malley 1530–1603. Cork: Mercier Press. ISBN 1-85635-443-1
  17. Scott, Ernest (1916). "A Short History of Australia: Chap.XV, Melbourne
  18. Wilkinson, Clennell William Dampier, John Lane at the Bodley Head, 1929.
  19. Pope, Dudley. The Buccaneer King: the Biography of Sir Henry Morgan, 1635–1688. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1978.
  20. Cruikshank, E. A., The Life of Sir Henry Morgan: with an account of the English settlement of the island of Jamaica. The Macmillan Company of Canada, 1935.
  21. 21.00 21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 21.11 21.12 21.13 21.14 21.15 21.16 21.17 21.18 21.19 21.20 21.21 21.22 21.23 21.24 21.25 21.26 21.27 21.28 Botting, Douglas. The Pirates (The Seafarers; v.1). Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1978. ISBN 0-8094-2652-8
  22. Wilson, John Grant and John Fiske. Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. Vol. VI. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1889. (pg. 39)
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  24. Burl, Aubrey (2006) Black Barty: Bartholomew Roberts and his pirate crew 1718–1723. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-4312-2
  25. Woolsey, Matt (19 September 2008). "Top-Earning Pirates". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 8 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Cordingly, David "Bonny, Anne (1698–1782)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 18 Nov 2006
  27. Campbell, An Historical Sketch of Robin Hood and Captain Kid (New York, 1853)
  28. Clifford, Barry (2005). Return to Treasure Island and the Search for Captain Kidd. Perennial. ISBN 0-06-095982-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Dalton, The Real Captain Kidd: A Vindication (New York, 1911)
  30. Zacks, Richard (2002). The Pirate Hunter: The True Story of Captain Kidd. Hyperion Books ISBN 0-7868-8451-7
  31. Woodes Rogers, Cruising Voyage Round the World, 1712.
  32. Baker, Joseph. The Confession of Joseph Baker. Philadelphia: Richard Folwell, 1800.
  33. Departamento de Estudios Históricos Navales de la Armada Argentina (1987), Historia marítima Argentina: Tomo V, Buenos Aires, Argentina. ISBN 950-9257-05-2
  34. Ans, Andre-Marcel d' (1980). "The Legend of Gasparilla: Myth and History on Florida's West Coast". Tampa Bay History.
  35. Convicts on the “Venus”. 1806
  36. Orr, Tamra (2008). Qatar (Cultures of the World). Cavendish Square Publishing. ISBN 978-0761425663.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Serle, Percival (1949). "Jorgensen, Jorgen". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Gibbs, Joseph (2007), "Dead Men Tell No Tales: The Lives and Legends of the Pirate Charles Gibbs." University of South Carolina Press.
  39. Gilbert, Pedro. A Report of the Trial of Pedro Gilbert. Boston: Russell, Oridorne and Metcalf, 1834.
  40. Gilbert, Pedro. Trial of the Twelve Spanish Pirates of the Schooner Panda, A Guinea Slaver... For Robbery and Piracy, Committed on Boards the Brig Mexican, 20th Sept. 1832. Boston: Lemuel Gulliver, 1834.
  41. Martin Booth. Opium: A History. New York: Thomas Dunne, 1996. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-312-20667-3
  42. Soodalter, Ron Hanging Captain Gordon: The Life and Trial of an American Slave Trader, Atria Books, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-6728-1
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  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 45.5 45.6 (Spanish), Rafael Simón Urbina
  46. (Spanish) Martinez Dorsi, Gustavo Adolfo (2004), "La Invasion del 'Falke' a Cumana,un Intento por Derrocar la Dictadura Gomecista", Procesos Históricos, July, Number 6, University of the Andes (Venezuela)
  47. (Spanish), José Ignacio Cárdenas, accessed 4 June 2012
  48. Bickerton, Derek. The Murders of Boysie Singh: Robber, Arsonist, Pirate, Mass-Murderer, Vice and Gambling King of Trinidad. Arthur Barker Limited, London. 1962.
  49. Edwards, Bernard Death in the Doldrums: U Cruisers Off West Africa, 2005. ISBN 978-1-84415-261-2
  50. Daily Express, London, 10 February 1943, London - The Man From Timbuctoo
  51. The Guardian - 'We consider ourselves heroes' - a Somali pirate speaks
  52. The Daily Mail - As brigands hold the Sirius Star supertanker to ransom, we go inside the Somali pirates' lair
  53. John D. Brown - Dawn of the Pirate
  54. The Guardian - US wants to take fight against Somali pirates on to land

Further reading

Ancient World

  • Bulwer, Edward Lytton. Athens, Its Rise and Fall: With Views of the Literature, Philosophy, and Social Life of the Athenian People. New York: Harper & brothers Publishers, 1852.
  • Livy, History of Rome, Rev. Canon Roberts (translator), Ernest Rhys (Ed.); (1905) London: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd.
  • Plutarch, "Aratus" in Plutarch's Lives, Arthur Hugh Clough (editor), John Dryden (translator). Two volumes. Modern Library; Modern Library Paperback Ed edition (April 10, 2001). Downloadable version at Project Gutenberg. Vol. 2: ISBN 0-375-75677-9.
  • Polybius, Histories, Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (translator); London, New York. Macmillan (1889); Reprint Bloomington (1962).
  • Pritchett, William Kendrick. The Greek State at War. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974. ISBN 0-520-02565-2
  • Rawlinson, George; Benjamin Jowett, Henry Graham Dakyns and Edward James Chinnock. Greek Historians: The Complete and Unabridged Historical Works of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon and Arrian. New York: Random House Incorporated, 1942.
  • Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 0-306-80722-X
  • Shaw, Philip. The Sublime. New York: Routledge, 2006. ISBN 0-415-26847-8
  • Strabo, Geography, translated by Horace Leonard Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. (1924). Books 8-9: ISBN 0-674-99216-4, Books 13-14: ISBN 0-674-99246-6.
  • Thirlwall, Connop. A History of Greece. London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1846.
  • Walbank, F. W., Philip V of Macedon, The University Press (1940).
  • Waltari, Mika; The Etruscan (Turms kuolematon, 1955).
  • Wilkes, John, The Illyrians (Peoples of Europe), Blackwell Publishers, (December 1, 1995) ISBN 0-631-19807-5.

Middle Ages

  • Bono, Salvatore, Corsari nel Mediterraneo (Corsairs in the Mediterranean), Oscar Storia Mondadori. Perugia, 1993.
  • Bottling, Douglas. The Pirates. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books Inc., 1978.
  • Bracker, Jörgen : Klaus Störtebeker – only one of them. The history of the Vitalienbrüder. In: Wilfried honour-break (Hrsg.): Störtebeker. 600 years after its death (Hansi studies; Bd. 15). Porta Alba publishing house, Luebeck 2001, ISBN 3-933701-14-7
  • Bradford, Ernle, The Sultan's Admiral: the Life of Barbarossa, London, 1968.
  • Currey, E. Hamilton, Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean,, London, 1910
  • John of Fordun, Chronicle of the Scottish Nation. Edited by William Forbes Skene, translated by Felix J.H. Skene. Reprinted, Llanerch Press, Lampeter, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X
  • Knecht, R.J. Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-57885-X
  • McDonald, R. Andrew Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore Kings, 1058–1266. Tuckwell Press, East Linton, 2003. ISBN 1-86232-236-8
  • Oram, Richard, David I: The King who made Scotland. Tempus, Stroud, 2004. ISBN 0-7524-2825-X
  • Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 0-306-80722-X
  • William of Newburgh, Historia rerum anglicarum, Book 1 Ch.24, "Of bishop Wimund, his life unbecoming a bishop, and how he was deprived of his sight", Full-text online.
  • Wolf, John B., The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks, New York, 1979; ISBN 0-393-01205-0

Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Privateers: 1560–1650

  • Andrade, Tonio. The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War Against China, 1621–1662].
  • Bicheno, Hugh Crescent and Cross: The Battle of Lepanto 1571, Phoenix Paperback, 2004, ISBN 1-84212-753-5
  • Rachel Carley (2000). Cuba: 400 Years of Architectural Heritage. Watson-Guptill. p. 224. ISBN 0-8230-1128-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • David Cordingly (1997). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-15-600549-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Currey, E. Hamilton Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean, London, 1910.
  • Earle, Peter. The Pirate Wars, 2003
  • Gerhard, Peter. Pirates of New Spain, 1575–1742. Mineola, NY: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. ISBN 0-486-42611-4
  • van der Hoven, Marco, ed. Exercise of Arms: Warfare in the Netherlands, 1568–1648. Brill Academic Publishers, 1997. ISBN 90-04-10727-4
  • Hughes-Hallett, Lucy. Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, 2004. ISBN 1-4000-4399-9.
  • Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Providence Island, 1630–1641: The Other Puritan Colony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-521-55835-8
  • Lane, Kris E. Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas, 1500–1750. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1998. ISBN 0-7656-0257-1
  • Manthorpe, Jonathan. Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan. New York, 2005.
  • Mattingly, Garett, The Defeat of the Spanish Armada, ISBN 0-395-08366-4 – a detailed account of the defeat of the Spanish Armada, it received a special citation from the Pulitzer Prize committee in 1960.
  • Maxwell, Kenneth. Naked Tropics: Essays on Empire and Other Rogues. London: Routledge (UK), 2003. ISBN 0-415-94576-3
  • Mcgrath, John Terrence. The French in Early Florida: In the Eye of the Hurricane. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. ISBN 0-8130-1784-X
  • Michael, Franz. The Origin of Manchu Rule in China. Baltimore, 1942. Journal of World History, 2004 Dec.; 15(4):415-444.
  • Miguel de Cervantes, in chapter XXXIX of his classic El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, mentions Uluç Ali under the name of "Uchali", describing briefly his rise to the regency of Algiers.
  • Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea; A Naval History of Britain 660–1649. (London, 1997).
  • Roding, Juliette and Lex Heerma van Voss, ed. The North Sea and Culture (1550–1800). Larenseweg, Netherlands: Uitgeverij VerLoren, 1996. ISBN 90-6550-527-X
  • Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 0-306-80722-X
  • Schmidt, Benjamin. Innocence Abroad: The Dutch Imagination and the New World, 1570–1670. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-80408-6
  • Stradling, R.A. The Armada of Flanders: Spanish Maritime Policy and European War, 1568–1668 (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern History). Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-521-40534-8 (issued in paperback 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-52512-1)
  • Wolf, John B. The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks, W.W. Norton, New York/London, 1979, ISBN 0-393-01205-0.

Age of the Buccaneers: 1650–1690

  • Haring, Clarence. The Buccaneers in the West Indies in the XVII Century. Methuen, 1910.
  • Walpole, Horace, Letters, Volume 4 (at Project Gutenberg)
  • Marley, David F. Pirates and Privateers of the Americas. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1994.
  • Morris, Mowbray. Tales of the Spanish Main. Kessinger Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-4179-5373-X
  • Riccardo Capoferro, Frontiere del racconto. Letteratura di viaggio e romanzo in Inghilterra, 1690–1750, Meltemi, 2007.
  • Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 0-306-80722-X
  • Rogozinski, Jan. Pirates: an A-Z Encyclopedia. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996.
  • The Voyages and Adventures of Capt. Barth. Sharp and Others in the South Sea, Being a Journal of the Same; Also Capt. Van Horn with His Buccanieres Surprising of La Veracruz; to Which is Added the True Relation of Sir Henry Morgan His Expedition Against the Spaniards in the West-Indies and His Taking Panama; Together with the President of Panama’s [i.e., Juan Perez de Guzman] Account of the Same Expedition, Translated Out of the Spanish; and Col. Beeston’s Adjustment of the Peace Between the Spaniards and English in the West Indies. London: Printed by B.W. for R.H. and S.T. and are to be sold by Walter Davis…, 1684.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

Golden Age of Piracy: 1690–1730

  • Andrews, Thomas F. (editor) (1979) English Privateers at Cabo San Lucas: the Descriptive Accounts of Puerto Seguro by Edward Cooke (1712) and Woodes Rogers (1712), with Added Comments by George Shelvocke (1726) and William Betagh (1728). Dawson's Book Shop, Los Angeles.
  • Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail.
  • Breverton, Terry (2003) The Book of Welsh Pirates and Buccaneers. Glyndwr Publishing. ISBN 1-903529-09-3
  • Cooke, Edward (1712) A Voyage to the South Sea and Round the World. 3 vols. Lintot, London
  • Ellms, Charles (1837) The Pirate's Own Book: Authentic Narratives of the Most Celebrated Sea Robbers. Portland ME: Sanborn & Carter (reissued: New York: Dover Publications 1993 ISBN 0-486-27607-4)
  • Gilbert, H. (1986) The Book of Pirates. London: Bracken Books.
  • Johnson, Charles (1724) A General History of the Pyrates. 2 vols. London: Charles Rivington
    • Johnson, Charles (1724) A General History of the Pyrates, from their First Rise and Settlement in the Island of Providence, to the Present Time.... 2nd ed. London: Printed for, and sold by, T. Warner
    • Johnson, Charles (1724) A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates (1998 ed.). Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-732-0.
    • Johnson, Charles (1728) The History of the Pirates: containing the lives of Captain Mission…. London: Printed for, and sold by, T. Woodward, 1728.
  • Little, Bryan (1960) Crusoe's Captain: Being the Life of Woodes Rogers, seaman, trader, colonial governor. London: Odhams Press
  • Menefee, S. P. "Vane, Charles," in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 56 (2004): pp. 94–95.
  • Pennell, C. R. (2001) Bandits at Sea: a Pirates Reader. New York: NYU Press ISBN 0-8147-6678-1
  • Pickering, David (2006) Pirates". CollinsGem. New York: HarperCollins Publishers; pp 80–82
  • Rediker, Marcus (2004) Villains of All Nations: Atlantic pirates in the Golden Age. Boston: Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-5024-5
  • Rogers, Woodes (1712) A Cruising Voyage Round the World. London: Andrew Bell
  • Rogozinski, Jan (1996) Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend. New York: Da Capo Press ISBN 0-306-80722-X
  • Rogozinski, Jan (2000) Honor Among Thieves: Captain Kidd, Henry Every, and the Pirate Democracy in the Indian Ocean. Stackpole Books ISBN 0-8117-1529-9
  • Seitz, Don Carlos, Gospel, Howard F. & Wood, Stephen (2002) Under the Black Flag: Exploits of the Most Notorious Pirates. Mineola, New York: Courier Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-42131-7
  • Smith, Captain Alexander (1926) History of the Highwaymen. London: George Routledge & Sons ISBN 0-415-28678-6
  • Steele, Philip (2004) The World of Pirates. Boston: Kingfisher Publications ISBN 0-7534-5786-5
  • The Tryals of Major Stede Bonnet, and Other Pirates. London: Printed for Benj. Cowse at the Rose and Crown in St Paul's Church-Yard, 1719.

Decline of Piracy: 1730–1900

  • Cordingly, David (1997). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books.
  • Gregory, Kristiana. The Stowaway: A Tale of California Pirates. Scholastic Trade, 1995. ISBN 0-590-48822-8
  • Pickering, David. "Pirates". CollinsGem. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY. pp-96-97. 2006
  • Rothert, Otto A. The Outlaws of Cave-In-Rock, Otto A. Rothert, Cleveland 1924; rpt. 1996 ISBN 0-8093-2034-7

External links

Ancient World
Middle Ages
Rise of the English Sea Dogs and Dutch Privateers (1560–1650)
Age of the Buccaneers (1650–1690)
Golden Age of Piracy (1690–1730)
Decline of Piracy (1730–1900)
Piracy in the 20th and 21st centuries