List of rulers of Tuscany

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Grand Duke of Tuscany
Great coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.svg
Leopold II of Tuscany.jpg
Style His/her Imperial and Royal Highness
First monarch Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Last monarch Leopold II (de jure)
Ferdinand IV (de facto/titular)
Formation 27 August 1569
Abolition 16 August 1859
Pretender(s) Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197

House of Boniface

These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.

House of Boso

These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the dynasty of Boniface

House of Boniface (restored)


House of Canossa

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.


In 1197 Philip was elected King of Germany and the majority of the Tuscan nobility, cities and bishops formed the Tuscan League with Papal backing.

After this, Tuscany was splintered between the competing republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca. Since the 14th century, Florence gained dominance over Pistoia (1306, officially annexed 1530), Arezzo (1384), Pisa (1406), and Siena (1559). Lucca was an independent republic until the Napoleonic period in the 19th century.

Rulers of Florence, 1382–1569

De facto rulers of the Albizzi family, 1382–1434

De facto rulers of the House of Medici, 1434–1531

Medici Dukes of Florence, 1531–1569

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
1 Alessandro 1 May 1532 6 Jan 1537  
2 Cosimo I 20 Sep 1537 21 Aug 1569 fourth cousin of Alessandro

Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1569–1737

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
1 Cosimo I 21 Aug 1569 21 Apr 1574  
2 Francesco I 21 Apr 1574 19 Oct 1587 son of Cosimo I
3 Ferdinando I 19 Oct 1587 7 Feb 1609 brother of Francesco I
son of Cosimo I
4 Cosimo II 7 Feb 1609 28 Feb 1621 son of Ferdinando I
5 Ferdinando II 28 Feb 1621 23 May 1670 son of Cosimo II
6 Cosimo III 23 May 1670 31 Oct 1723 son of Ferdinando II
7 Gian Gastone 31 Oct 1723 9 Jul 1737 son of Cosimo III

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1737–1801

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
8 Francesco II Stefano 12 Jul 1737 18 Aug 1765 great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I
9 Pietro Leopoldo I 18 Aug 1765 22 Jul 1790 second son of Francesco II Stefano
10 Ferdinando III 22 Jul 1790 3 Aug 1801 second son of Pietro Leopoldo I

Bourbon Kings of Etruria, 1801–1807

Name Portrait Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
Lodovico I 3 Aug 1801 27 May 1803 Grandson of Francisco II Stefano
Carlo Lodovico II
Carlo II di Parma.jpg
27 May 1803 10 Dec 1807 son of Lodovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807–1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1814–1860

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
10 Ferdinando III 27 Apr 1814 18 Jun 1824 (restored)
11 Leopoldo II 18 Jun 1824 21 Jul 1859 son of Ferdinando III
12 Ferdinando IV 21 Jul 1859 22 Mar 1860 son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860–present

See also