Luoyang dialect

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Luoyang dialect
Native to China
Region Luoyang, Henan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
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The Luoyang dialect is a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in Luoyang and nearby parts of Henan province.[1] Although it served as the prestige dialect of Chinese from the Warring States period into the Ming Dynasty, it differs greatly from modern Standard Mandarin, which is based instead on the Beijing dialect.[2]



  Bilabial Labio-
Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-
Nasal m   n      
Plosive p  pʰ   t  tʰ     k  kʰ
Affricate     ts  tsʰ tʂ  tʂʰ tɕ  tɕʰ  
Fricative   f  v s ʂ  ʐ ɕ x  ɣ
Lateral     l      
w Labio-velar approximant
ɥ Labio-palatal approximant
j Palatal approximant



  • The Middle Chinese entering tone has a different distribution in the Luoyang dialect than in Standard Mandarin. (See entering tone for more.)
  • Tone contours are different from those in Standard Mandarin.
  • The retroflex and alveolar fricatives are found in different distributions: retroflex fricatives in Standard are often fronted to alveolar fricatives in Luoyang.
  • The distinction between /w/ and /v/, lost in Standard, is maintained in Luoyang.
  • The retroflex series is less retroflexed than in Standard Mandarin and slightly further forward.
  • The alveolo-palatal series is slightly further back than in Standard Mandarin.
  • Standard final /œ/ and /ɑu/ are often backed to [ɔ] in Luoyang. For example, 学 (Standard [ɕɥœ], to learn) is [ɕɥɔ], and 角 (Standard [tɕjɑu], horn) is [tɕɥɔ].
  • Standard final /əi/ is pronounced [ɯ] or [i] in certain environments in Luoyang.
  • Standard final /n/ nasalizes the preceding vowel in the Luoyang Dialect.
  • The -儿 suffix is pronounced /ɯ/.



  1. Kurparska 2010, p. 165.
  2. Pulleyblank 1983, pp. 2-3; Kaske 2008, p. 44; Dong 2014, p. 45.