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Marhaenism or Marhaenisme in Indonesian is a term described by the first Indonesian president, Sukarno, in July 3, 1957 in Bandung. It is a name for a socialism-like ideology of Indonesian.[1] Some scholars argue that Marhaenism is a variant of Marxism.[2]

Marhaenism ideology is described as a political view which emphasize the national unity, culture, and collectivist economics. It was established as an anti-capitalism and anti-imperialism ideology. It supports democratic rights as an opposition to authoritarianism but condemn liberalism and individualism. It combines both western and eastern principles.[3] Marhaenism is the main ideology of Indonesian National Party Marhaenism and now defunct Parti Marhaen Malaysia.


The word marhaen come from the name of a land-poor farmer whom Soekarno met in Priangan. In his meeting, Soekarno realized that the farmer is poor because the lack of access to production tools. Soekarno often address the farmer proletariat class as marhaens in most of his speech. A person that practices marhaenism is called marhaenis.[4]


  1. Leifer, Michael (2001). Dictionary of the modern politics of South-East Asia (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0415238757.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Lev, Daniel S. (2009). The transition to guided democracy : Indonesian politics, 1957-1959 ([New ed.]. ed.). Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. ISBN 6028397407.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Holt, [edited by] Claire (2007). Culture and politics in Indonesia (1st Equinox ed.). Jakarta: Equinox Pub. ISBN 9793780576. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Pokok-pokok ajaran marhaenisme menurut Bung Karno (Cet. 3. ed.). Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo. 2004. ISBN 9799222923. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>