Marine Isotope Stage 13

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5 million year history, representing the Lisiecki and Raymo (2005) LR04 Benthic Stack

Marine Isotope Stage 13 or MIS 13 is a Marine isotope stage in the geologic temperature record, in Britain covering the Cromerian interglacial period between ~524,000 and 474,000 years ago. It is split into three substages, MIS 13a MIS 13b, and MIS 13c. Some records indicate that MIS 13a was an unstable warm peak with a cold split in the middle at MIS 13.12 - separating warm MIS 13.11 and 13.13[1]



High Lodge, Suffolk

Waverley Wood, Warwickshire

Happisburgh 1, Norfolk

Boxgrove, West Sussex



Early domination of birch, pine, and spruce. Mixed-oak forests follow (predominantly Alder, Oak, Hornbeam, and Hazel).



Binomial Common name Direction
Erinaceus sp. Hedgehog  ?
Sorex minutus Pygmy shrew  ?
Sorex runtonensis †  ?
Sorex savini †  ?
Neomys sp. Water shrew  ?
Talpa europaea Common mole  ?
Talpa minor † Pygmy mole  ?
Homo sp. Hominid  ?
Lepus timidus Mountain hare  ?
Oryctolagus cuniculus Common European rabbit  ?
Plecotus auritus Long-eared bat  ?
Myotis mystacinus Whiskered bat  ?
Myotis bechsteini Bechstein's bat  ?
Scuirus sp. Squirrel  ?
Canis lupus Wolf  ?
Ursus deningeri † Bear  ?



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  2. Pettitt, Paul; White, Mark (2012). The British Palaeolithic. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-415-67455-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>