Mashriq

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Map depicting the area known as the Mashriq.[1][2][3][4]

The Mashriq (مشرق, also Mashreq, Mashrek) is the region of the Arab world to the east of Egypt. This comprises Lebanon, Palestinian Territories, Jordan, Syria and Iraq.[5][6][7] Poetically the "place of sunrise", the name is derived from the verb sharaqa (شرق "to shine, illuminate, radiate" and "to rise"), referring to the east, where the sun rises.[8][9]

As it refers to countries bounded between the Mediterranean Sea and Iran, it is the companion term to Maghreb, the western part of North Africa. Egypt occupies an ambiguous position: while it has cultural, ethnic and linguistic ties to both the Mashriq and the Maghreb, it is different from both and is usually seen as being part of neither; however, when it is grouped with one or the other, it is generally considered part of the Mashriq due to its closer ties to the Levant. Egypt and the Levant were often ruled as a single unit, as under the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates, the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluk Sultanate, and, for a time, under Muhammad Ali of Egypt.

Similarly, Libya is itself bifurcated between Mashriq and Maghrib influences, with its eastern part linked more to Egypt and the Mashriq.[10]

These geographical terms date from the early Islamic expansion. This region is similar to the Bilad al-Sham and Mesopotamia regions combined.[11]

As the Mashriq is home to several pilgrimage sites, some Muslims view it as a source of religious legitimacy. Mashriqi learning is also esteemed by scholars from the Maghrib.

As of 2014, the Mashriq is home to 1.7% of the global population.[12][13][14][15][16][17]

See also

References

  1. "About ANPGR". Arab Network of Plant Genetic Resources.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Mashreq". Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East & North Africa.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "لماذا يستثنى الأردن من التقسيم؟ الوضع الداخلي هو العنصر الحاسم*فهد الخيطان" (in العربية). Rasseen. 2014-07-13. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "European Neighbourhood Policy in the Mashreq Countries: Enhancing Prospects for Reform". Centre for European Policy Studies. 2005-09-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Introduction to Migration and the Mashreq Archived February 3, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Migrants from the Maghreb and Mashreq Countries" (PDF). IOM International Organization for Migration. July 2002.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Alvarez, Lourdes María (2009). Abu Al-Ḥasan Al-Shushtarī. Paulist Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8091-0582-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Peek, Philip M.; Yankah, Kwesi (2003-12-12). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 442. ISBN 978-1-135-94873-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Gall, Michel Le; Perkins, Kenneth (2010). The Maghrib in Question: Essays in History and Historiography. University of Texas Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-292-78838-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Clancy-Smith, Julia (2013-11-05). North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-135-31213-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Official estimate of the Population of Egypt Archived May 25, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  13. UN estimate for Lebanon
  14. Official Jordanian population clock Archived January 17, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  15. "National Main Statistical Indicators". State of Palestine – Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. UN estimate for Syria
  17. "Iraq". The World Bank.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>