Messianic Judaism

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Messianic Judaism is a movement that combines Christianity—most importantly, the Christian belief that Jesus is the Messiah— with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition.[1][2][3][4][5] Its current form emerging in the 1960s and 1970s,[1][2][6][7][8][9][10][11] Messianic Judaism believes that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah and "God the Son" (one person of the Trinity), and that the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament both are authoritative scriptures.[12][13][14][15]

Salvation in Messianic Judaism is achieved only through acceptance of Jesus as one's savior,[8][13][14][15][16][17] and Jewish laws or customs which are followed do not contribute to salvation.[16][17] Indeed, belief in the messiahship, power to save, and divinity of Jesus, which Messianic Judaism professes, is the defining distinction between Christianity and Judaism.[18][19][20][21][22][23] Other Christian groups usually accept Messianic Judaism as a form of Christianity.[24]

Many adherents of Messianic Judaism are ethnically Jewish,[25] and argue that the movement is a sect of Judaism.[26] Many refer to themselves in Hebrew as maaminim (believers), not converts, and yehudim (Jews), not notzrim (Christians).[27] Jewish organizations, and the Supreme Court of Israel in cases related to the Law of Return, have rejected this claim, and instead consider Messianic Judaism to be a form of Christianity.[18][28]

From 2003 to 2007, the movement grew from 150 Messianic houses of worship in the United States to as many as 438, with over 100 in Israel and more worldwide; congregations are often affiliated with larger Messianic organizations or alliances.[29][30] As of 2012, population estimates for the United States were between 175,000 and 250,000 members, for Israel, between 10,000 and 20,000 members, and an estimated total worldwide membership of 350,000.[31]

History

Pre-19th century

Efforts by Jewish Christians to proselytize Jews began in the first century, when Paul the Apostle preached at the synagogues in each city he visited.[32] However, early accounts of missions to the Jews, such as Epiphanius of Salamis' record of the conversion of Count Joseph of Tiberias, and Sozomen's accounts of other Jewish conversions, do not mention converted Jews playing any leading role in proselytization.[33] Notable converts from Judaism who themselves attempted to convert other Jews are more visible in historical sources beginning around the 13th century, when Jewish convert Pablo Christiani attempted to convert other Jews. This activity, however, typically lacked any independent Jewish-Christian congregations, and was often imposed through force by organized Christian churches.[34]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Jewish Christians occupying professorships at the European universities began to provide translations of Hebrew texts. Scholars such as Paul Nuñez Coronel, Alfonso de Zamora, Alfonso de Alcalá, Domenico Gerosolimitano and Giovanni Battista Jona were actively engaged in spreading Jewish scholarship.[35]

19th and early 20th centuries

In the 19th century, some groups attempted to create congregations and societies of Jewish converts to Christianity, though most of these early organizations were short-lived.[36] Early formal organizations run by converted Jews include: the Anglican London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews of Joseph Frey (1809),[37] which published the first Yiddish New Testament in 1821;[38] the "Beni Abraham" association, established by Frey in 1813 with a group of 41 Jewish Christians who started meeting at Jews' Chapel, London for prayers Friday night and Sunday morning;[39] and the London Hebrew Christian Alliance of Great Britain founded by Dr. Carl Schwartz in 1866.[40]

The September 1813 meeting of Frey's "Beni Abraham" congregation at the rented "Jews' Chapel" in Spitalfields is sometimes pointed to as the birth of the semi-autonomous Hebrew Christian movement within Anglican and other established churches in Britain,[41] though the non-Anglican minister of the chapel at Spitalfields evicted Frey and his congregation only three years later, and Frey severed his connections with the Society.[42] A new location was found and the Episcopal Jew's Chapel Abrahamic Society registered in 1835.[43]

In Eastern Europe, Joseph Rabinowitz established a Hebrew Christian mission and congregation called "Israelites of the New Covenant" in Kishinev, Ukraine in 1884.[44][45][46][47][48][49] Rabinowitz was supported from overseas by the Christian Hebraist Franz Delitzsch, translator of the first modern Hebrew translation of the New Testament.[50] In 1865, Rabinowitz created a sample order of worship for Sabbath morning service based on a mixture of Jewish and Christian elements. Mark John Levy pressed the Church of England to allow members to embrace Jewish customs.[46]

In the United States, a congregation of Jewish converts to Christianity was established in New York City in 1885.[51] In the 1890s, immigrant Jewish converts to Christianity worshiped at the Methodist "Hope of Israel" mission on New York’s Lower East Side while retaining some Jewish rites and customs.[52] In 1895, the 9th edition of Hope of Israel's Our Hope magazine carried the subtitle "A Monthly Devoted to the Study of Prophecy and to Messianic Judaism", the first use of the term "Messianic Judaism".[53][54] Hope of Israel was controversial; other missionary groups accused its members of being Judaizers, and one of the two editors of Our Hope magazine, Arno C. Gaebelein, eventually repudiated his views and, as a result, was able to become a leader in the mainstream Christian evangelical movement.[53] In 1894, Christian missionary[55] and Baptist minister[56] Leopold Cohn, a convert from Judaism, founded the Brownsville Mission to the Jews in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, New York as a Christian mission to Jews. After several changes in name, structure and focus, the organization is now called Chosen People Ministries[55] and has operations and staff in the U.S. and 11 other nations.[57]

Missions to the Jews saw a period of growth between the 1920s and the 1960s.[1][58] In the 1940s and '50s, missionaries in Israel, including the Southern Baptists, adopted the term meshichyim (משיחיים "Messianics") to counter negative connotations of the word notsrim (נוצרים "Christians", from "Nazarenes"); the term was used to designate all Jews who had converted to Protestant evangelical Christianity.[8]

The Messianic Judaism movement, 1960s onwards

Messianic Judaism itself arose in the 1960s and '70s.[1][2][6][7][9][10][11] In the 1970s, a growing number of young Jews who had converted to Christianity were committed to maintaining a culturally Jewish lifestyle, in the mode advocated by Rabinowitz in the 19th century. Going against the thinking of the older members of the Hebrew Christian movement and evoking Paul the Apostle, they believed that different methods of evangelism of Jews were needed. They looked to and adopted some of the evangelizing techniques of Jews for Jesus.[59] According to author Peter Hocken, "The new thrust that turned Hebrew Christians into Messianic Jews was distinctly charismatic." This reflected the influence of the charismatic Jesus movement at the same period.[60] These younger members pressed the HCAA to change the "outdated" name of the Hebrew Christian Alliance of America (HCAA) to the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA).[61] In 1915, when the HCAA was founded, it had "consistently assuaged the fears of fundamentalist Christians by emphasizing that it is not a separate denomination but only an evangelistic arm of the evangelical church", and insisted that it would be free of these Judaizing practices "now and forever".[62] Martin Chernoff, who was president of the HCAA from 1971 to 1975, led the effort to shift the organization's focus.[63] In June 1973, a motion was made to change the name of the HCAA to the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA), and the name was officially changed in June 1975. According to David A. Rausch, "The name change, however, signified far more than a semantical expression—it represented an evolution in the thought processes and religious and philosophical outlook toward a more fervent expression of Jewish identity."[63] The Messianic Israel Alliance, an organization of over 130 Messianic congregations and ministries, was formed in 1999.[64]

Messianic Seal of Jerusalem

Messianic Seal

The Messianic Seal of Jerusalem is a symbol for Messianic Judaism and Christians. The symbol is seen as a depiction of the Menorah, an ancient Jewish symbol, together with the Ichthys, an ancient depictive representation of Christian faith and the community of Jesus followers, creating a Star of David at the intersection.[65] The Messianic Seal is not the only symbol of Messianic Judaism, which has other graphical representations such as the Menorah and Star of David, the cross in the Star of David, among others.[66]

There is an ongoing dispute as to whether or not the seal dates from the 1st century AD,[67][68] or if it is a 20th-century invention.[65][66]

Theology and core doctrines

As with many religious faiths, the exact tenets held vary from congregation to congregation. In general, essential doctrines of Messianic Judaism include views on God (that he is omnipotent, omnipresent, eternal, outside creation, infinitely significant and benevolent—viewpoints on the Trinity vary), Jesus (who is believed to be the Jewish Messiah, though views on his divinity vary), written Torah (with a few exceptions, Messianic Jews believe that Jesus taught and reaffirmed the Torah and that it remains fully in force), Israel (the Children of Israel are central to God's plan; replacement theology is opposed), the Bible (Tanakh and the New Testament are usually considered the divinely inspired Scripture, though Messianic Judaism is more open to criticism of the New Testament canon than is Christianity), eschatology (sometimes similar to many evangelical Christian views), and oral law (see also Christian Oral Tradition—observance varies, but most deem these traditions subservient to the written Torah). Certain additional doctrines, including those on sin and atonement and on faith and works, are more open to differences in interpretation.[69]

God and Jesus

The Trinity

Many Messianic Jews affirm the doctrine of the Trinity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit as three representations of the same divinity:[13][70][71]

  1. God the Father—Messianic Jews believe in God and that he is all-powerful, omnipresent, eternally existent outside of creation, and infinitely significant and benevolent. Some Messianic Jews affirm both the Shema and the Trinity, by understanding that the phrase "the Lord is One" to be referring to "a differentiated but singular deity",[72] and "eternally existent in plural oneness".[73] Some Messianic believers profess only a strict view of monotheism, rejecting Trinitarian doctrine, but this is not common.[74][75]
  2. God the Son—Most Messianic Jews, in line with mainstream Christianity, consider Jesus to be the Messiah and divine as God the Son.[13][73] This belief is supported through links between Hebrew Bible prophecies and what Messianic Jews, together with most mainstream Christians, perceive as the prophecies' fulfillment in the New Testament.[76] Many also consider Jesus to be their "chief teacher and rabbi" whose life should be copied.[77] Many English-speaking Messianic Jews prefer to refer to Jesus by the Hebrew name "Yeshua", or Yehoshua, rather than by the English name "Jesus". Certain congregations outside mainstream Messianic Jewish belief do not ascribe divinity to Jesus, with some considering him a man, fathered by the Holy Spirit, who became the Messiah.[74][78]
  3. God the Holy Spirit—According to some Messianic Jews, the Spirit is introduced in the Old Testament as co-creator (Genesis 1:2), is the inspirer of prophets (II Sam. 23:1–3), and is the spirit of Truth described in the New Testament (John 14:17, 26).[73] According to the teachings of Messianic Judaism, in the earthly life of Jesus, the Holy Spirit was the dove at baptism (Matt 3:16) and the giver of tongues in Acts 2.[citation needed]

Jesus

The place of Jesus in Messianic Judaism is usually clearly defined. His Jewishness and that of all the original disciples is affirmed. Messianic Judaism asserts that Jesus is the Word of God become manifest (John 1:1;14), a belief that is identical with normative Christian doctrine regarding the nature and identity of the son of God. Furthermore, Messianic Judaism generally asserts that the Messiah has a dual aspect as revealed in Scripture.[79] Messianic Jews believe Jesus' first role as Messiah was to rescue the world from spiritual bondage, and that he will return to rescue the world from physical oppression and establish his unending Kingdom—again, a belief that is identical to the normative Christian view of the Messiah. George Berkley writes that the Messianic Jews of the MJAA "worship not just God but Jesus" whom they call Yeshua.[80]

Scriptures and writings

The Bible

Both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament (sometimes called the "Brit Chadasha") are usually considered to be the established and divinely inspired Biblical scriptures by Messianic Jews.[81][82] With a few exceptions, Messianic believers generally consider the written Torah, the five books of Moses, to remain in force as a continuing covenant, revised by Jesus and the Apostles in the New Testament, that is to be observed both morally and ritually.[83] Jesus did not annul the Torah, but its interpretation is revised through the Apostolic scriptures.[84]

Jewish oral tradition

There is no unanimity among Messianic congregations on the issue of the Talmud and the Oral Torah. There are congregations which believe that adherence to the Oral Law, as encompassed by the Talmud, is against Messianic beliefs.[85] Similarly, there are congregations which deny the authority of the Pharisees, believing that they were superseded, and their teachings contradicted, by Messianism.[86] There are adherents which call rabbinic commentaries such as the Mishnah and the Talmud "dangerous",[86] and state that followers of rabbinic and halakhic explanations and commentaries are not believers in Jesus as the Messiah.[86][87] Other congregations are selective in their applications of Talmudic law, and may believe that the rabbinic commentaries such as the Mishnah and the Talmud, while historically informative and useful in understanding tradition, are not normative and may not be followed where they differ from the New Testament.[88][89][90][91] Still others encourage a serious observance of Jewish halakha.[92]

Messianic Bible translations

Messianic Jews generally consider the entire Christian Bible to be sacred scripture. Theologian David H. Stern in his "Jewish New Testament Commentary" argues that the writings and teachings of Paul the Apostle are fully congruent with Messianic Judaism, and that the New Testament is to be taken by Messianic Jews as the inspired Word of God.

Messianic publications

There are a number of Messianic commentaries on various books of the Bible, both Tanakh and New Testament texts, such as Matthew, Acts, Romans, Galatians, and Hebrews. David H. Stern has released a one-volume Jewish New Testament Commentary, providing explanatory notes from a Messianic Jewish point of view. Other noted New Testament commentary authors include: Joseph Shulam, who has written commentaries on Acts, Romans, and Galatians; Arnold Fruchtenbaum of Ariel Ministries, who has written commentaries on the Epistles, Judges & Ruth, and Genesis, and 7 systematic doctrinal studies; Tim Hegg of TorahResource, who has written commentaries on Romans, Galatians, Hebrews, and is presently examining Matthew; Daniel Thomas Lancaster, who has written extensively for the First Fruits of Zion Torah Club series; Stuart Sacks, author of Hebrews Through a Hebrews' Eyes; and J. K. McKee of TNN Online who has written several volumes under the byline "for the Practical Messianic" (James, Hebrews, Philippians, Galatians, and surveys of both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Scriptures).

Attitudes toward Paul

Messianic Jews understand (as suggested by some recent scholars[93]) that Paul the Apostle (who is often referred to as Sha'ul, his Hebrew name) remained a Jewish Pharisee even as a believer until his death (see Paul the Apostle and Judaism). This is based on Acts 23:6, detailing events after Paul's acceptance of Jesus as Messiah. "But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees, and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, Men [and] brethren, I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee: of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question."[94]

Messianic believers cite the cutting off of Paul's hair at Cenchrea because of a vow he had taken (Acts 18:18), references in passing to him observing the Jewish holidays, and his consistent good standing with his Rabbinic master Gamaliel, to show that he was wholly in continued observance of the laws and traditions of Judaism. They maintain that Paul never set out to polarize the gospel between faith and righteous works, but that one is necessary to maintain the other. The New Perspective on Paul is important in Messianic Judaism.[95]

Sin and atonement

Some Messianic believers define sin as transgression of the Torah (Law/Instruction) of God and include the concept of original sin. Some adherents atone for their sins through prayer and repentance—that is, acknowledgment of the wrongdoing and seeking forgiveness for their sins (especially on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement). Disagreeing with these rites and practices, other Messianics hold to a belief that all sin (whether committed yet or not) is already atoned for because of Jesus's death and resurrection.[96]

Evangelism and attitudes toward Jews and Israel

Messianic Jews believe God's people have a responsibility to spread his name and fame to all nations (Psalms 96:3, Ezekiel 3:18–19)[97] It is believed that the Children of Israel were, remain, and will continue to be the chosen people of the God, and are central to his plans for existence. Most Messianic believers, whether Jewish or non-Jewish, can be said to oppose supersessionism (popularly referred to as replacement theology), the view that the Church has replaced Israel in the mind and plans of God.[98]

There exist among Messianic believers a number of perspectives regarding who exactly makes up God's chosen people. Most commonly, Israel is seen as distinct from the church; Messianic Jews, being a part of both Israel and the church, are seen as the necessary link between the 'gentile' People of God and the commonwealth of God's people of Israel. The two-house view, and the one law/grafted-in view are held by many identifying as Messianic, although some Messianic groups do not espouse these theologies.[99]

According to the Messianic group Jerusalem Council, "the people of Israel are members of the covenant HaShem made with Avraham, Yitzhak, and Ya'akov. Covenant membership is extended to converts to Judaism from the nations, as well as to the descendants of covenant members. Israel is a nation of nations and their descendants, or more specifically a people group called out from other people groups to be a people separated unto HaShem for his purposes. HaShem's promise of covenantal blessings and curses as described in the Torah are unique to Am Yisrael (People of Israel), and to no other nation or people group. The bible describes an Israelite as one descended from Ya'akov ben Yitzhak ben Avraham, or one who has been converted or adopted into that group by either human or spiritual means."[100]

According to certain branches of Messianic Judaism, Jews are individuals who have one or more Jewish parents, or who have undergone halakhic conversion to Judaism. As in Reform Judaism, those who have Jewish fathers but gentile mothers are considered Jewish only if the individual claims Jewish identity. The statement of the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council on Jewish identity[101] is often disputed among Messianic believers who either don't find it necessary or discourage halakhic conversion, in accordance with their interpretation of Romans 2:29 (that a "Jew" is not one who is one "outwardly" but is one who is a Jew in his heart). They also believe that salvation is received by accepting Jesus into one's heart and confessing that he is Lord.[102]

Messianic believers from other nations are also considered to be part of the People of God. Depending on their status within various Messianic Jewish groups, such as the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations, an allowance for formal conversion is made based on their understanding that Messianic converts are not automatically considered Jewish. The reasoning for this variance is as follows: While Titus may have been the norm in the epistles, a Gentile not converted to Judaism, Paul nevertheless made an exception for Timothy, whom he circumcised and brought under the Covenant, probably because though Timothy's father was Greek, his mother was Jewish. According to the statement of the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council regarding Conversion,[103] converts to Judaism do not in any way have a higher status within Messianic Judaism than the Messianic believers who are considered by the UMJC to still be gentiles who are attached to their communities.

One Law theology

One Law theology teaches that anyone who is a part of Israel is obligated to observe the Covenant and its provisions as outlined in the Torah. Dan Juster of Tikkun, and Russ Resnik of the UMJC, have argued against the One Law movement's insistence on Gentiles being required to observe the entirety of Torah in the same way as Jews.[104] Tim Hegg responded to their article defending what he believes to be the biblical teaching of "One Law" theology and its implications concerning the obligations of Torah obedience by new Messianic believers from the nations.[105]

Two House theology

Proponents of Two House theology espouse their belief that the phrase "House of Judah" in scripture refers to Jews, while "the House of Israel" refers to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, or Ephraim. Where scripture states the House of Israel and Judah will again be "one stick" (Ezekiel 37:15–23), it is believed to be referring to the End Times, immediately prior to the Second Coming, when many of those descended from Israel will come back to Israel. Advocates of this theology postulate that the reason so many "gentiles" are converting to Messianic Judaism is that the vast majority of them are truly Israelites. Like One Law groups, the Two House movement has many superficial similarities to Messianic Judaism, such as their belief in the ongoing validity of the Mosaic Covenant. While much of the Two House teaching is based on interpretations of Biblical prophecy, the biggest disagreements are due to inability to identify the genealogy of the Lost Tribes. Organizations such as the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America and Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations have explicitly opposed the Two House teaching[106]

Supersessionism

Historically, Christianity has taught supersessionism (replacement theology), which implies or outright states that Christianity has superseded Judaism, and that the Mosaic Covenant of the Hebrew Bible has been superseded by the New Covenant of Jesus, wherein salvation is brought about by the grace of God, and not by obedience to the Torah.[107] This is generally complemented with the concept of God having transferred the status of "God's people" from the Jews to the Christian Church. Messianic Jews, in varying degrees, challenge both thoughts,[108] and instead believing that although Israel has rejected Jesus, it has not forfeited its status as God's chosen people (Matthew 5:17). Often cited is Romans 11:29: "for God's gifts and his call are irrevocable". The core of supersessionism, in which the Mosaic Covenant is canceled, is less agreed upon. Though the mitzvot may or may not be seen as necessary, most are still followed, especially the keeping of Shabbat and other holy days.

Eschatology

All Messianic Jews hold to certain eschatological beliefs such as the End of Days, the Second Coming of Jesus as the conquering Messiah, the re-gathering of Israel, a rebuilt Third Temple, a resurrection of the dead, and many believe in the Millennial Sabbath, although some are Amillinialist.[citation needed]

Some Messianic Jews believe that all of the Jewish holidays, and indeed the entire Torah, intrinsically hint at the Messiah, and thus no study of the End Times is complete without understanding the major Jewish Festivals in their larger prophetic context. To certain believers, the feasts of Pesach and Shavuot were fulfilled in Jesus's first coming, and Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Sukkot will be at his second. Some also believe in a literal 7000-year period for the human history of the world, with a Millennial Messianic kingdom prior to a final judgment.[109]

Torah observance

There is a variety of practice within Messianic Judaism regarding the strictness of Torah observance. Generally, "Torah observant" congregations observe Jewish prayers, biblical feasts, and Sabbath.[110] While most traditional Christians deny that the ritual laws and specific civil laws of the Pentateuch apply to gentiles, certain passages[111] regarding Torah observance in the New Testament are cited by some Messianic believers as proof that Torah was not abolished for Jews. They point out that in Acts 21, Jewish believers in Jerusalem are described as "zealous for the Law".

Religious practices

Sabbath and holiday observances

Some Messianic Jews observe Shabbat on Saturdays.[27] Worship services are generally held on Friday evenings (Erev Shabbat) or Saturday mornings.[88] According to the Southern Baptist Messianic Fellowship (SBMF), services are held on Saturday to "open the doors to Jewish people who also wish to keep the Sabbath".[112] The liturgy used is similar to that of a Jewish siddur with some important differences including the omission of "salvation by works" as the Messianic belief is salvation through Jesus.[112] According to the SBMF, the main purpose in using a liturgy similar to a Jewish siddur is to bring others to Jesus.[113] Other branches of the movement have attempted to "eliminate the elements of Christian worship [such as frequent communion] that cannot be directly linked to their Jewish roots".[114] Almost all such congregations in Israel observe Jewish holidays, which they understand to have their fulfillment in Jesus."[27]

The Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council recommends the observance of Jewish holidays.[115] Most larger Messianic Jewish congregations follow Jewish custom in celebrating the three biblical feasts (Pesach, Shavuot, and Sukkot), as well as Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah.[88]

Dietary laws

The observance of the kashrut dietary laws is a subject of continued debate among Messianic Jews.[116][117] Some Messianic believers keep kosher purely for the purposes of evangelism to Jewish people.[116] Most avoid pork and shellfish, but there is disagreement on more strict adherence to kosher dietary laws.

Conversion to Messianic Judaism

Messianic perspectives on "Who is a Jew" vary. The Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council, (West Haven, Connecticut, 2006) a global Messianic body, acknowledges a Jew as one born to a Jewish mother, or who has converted to Judaism. Copying from the Reform stream of Judaism, the Council also recognizes as a Jew one who was born to a Jewish father (but not a Jewish mother) on the condition that the family of the child (or the individual as an adult) has undertaken public and formal acts of identification of the individual with the Jewish faith and people.[118]

Large numbers of those calling themselves Messianic Jews are not of Jewish descent,[119] but join the movement anyway as they "enjoy the Messianic Jewish style of worship".[120] The MJAA views conversion for Gentiles an unbiblical practice, but accepts gentiles into their congregations,[121] and other Messianic organizations hold to similar views.

Baptism

Messianic Jews practice baptism, calling it a mikveh ("cistern", from Leviticus 11) rather than the term hattvila ("baptism" הטבילה in the Hebrew New Testament).[122][123]

Circumcision

Some within the Ephraimite movement seek to convert themselves for identification with Israel, but most Messianic governing bodies acknowledge the presence of gentiles in the congregations, and do not see a need for them to convert to worship in the Messianic style and understanding. When conversion is sincerely desired by a gentile Messianic believer, Messianic Jewish halachic standards (including circumcision) are imposed to maintain integrity among the world Messianic Jewish community.[17][123][124]

Use of Hebrew names and vocabulary in English

The movement generally avoids common Christian terms, such as Christ and cross (tsalav—צלב), and prefers to maximise the use of Hebrew terms.[125][126] Messianic Jews take a similar approach as the Sacred Name Movement for the name "Yeshua".

Culture

Music

Messianic Jewish hymnologies are not merely Christian evangelical ones. Many of the hymns relate to Israel's role in history, convey a messianic hope, and refer to Jesus as the Savior of Israel. In addition, small changes differentiate them from the usual contemporary evangelical hymns, such as the use of the name Yeshua instead of Jesus. Messianic hymnals also include a large number of Israeli songs.[127]

The movement also has several recording artists who consider their music to be Messianic in message, such as Joel Chernoff of the duo Lamb,[128] Ted Pearce[129] and Chuck King.[130] Many of these artists have been influenced by Jewish music and often incorporate Hebrew phrases into their lyrics.[131][132]

Reception of the movement

Reception among mainstream Christianity

In the United States, the emergence of the Messianic Jewish movement created some stresses with other Jewish-Christian and missionary organization. In 1975, the Fellowship of Christian Testimonies to the Jews condemned several aspects of the Messianic Jewish movement.[133]

In Israel, the linguistic distinction between Messianic Jews and mainstream Christians is less clear, and the name "Messianic" (Meshiyhiy משיחי) is commonly used by churches anyway, in lieu of Notsri (Hebrew: נוצרי), the secular government administrative term for "Christian". The Israel Trust of the Anglican Church, based at Christ Church, Jerusalem, an organization that is ecumenical in outlook and operates an interfaith school in Jerusalem, gives some social support to Messianic Jews in Israel.[134]

Reception among Jews

As in traditional Jewish objections to Christian theology, opponents of Messianic Judaism hold that Christian proof texts, such as prophecies in the Hebrew Bible purported to refer the Messiah's suffering and death, have been taken out of context and misinterpreted.[135] Jewish theology rejects the idea that the Messiah, or any human being, is a divinity. Belief in the Trinity is considered idolatrous by most rabbinic authorities,[136] though there is a minority view that it constitutes shituf (literally, "partnership"), an association of other individuals with the God of Israel. While shituf is, according to some opinions, permitted for gentiles, it is considered idolatrous for Jews.[19][137] Further, Judaism does not view the role of the Messiah to be the salvation of the world from its sins, an integral teaching of Christianity.[102][138]

Jewish opponents of Messianic Judaism often focus their criticism on the movement's radical ideological separation from traditional Jewish beliefs, stating that the acceptance of Jesus as Messiah creates an insuperable divide between the traditional messianic expectations of Judaism, and Christianity's theological claims.[139] They state that while Judaism is a messianic religion, its messiah is not Jesus,[140] and thus the term is misleading.[22] All denominations of Judaism, as well as national Jewish organizations, reject Messianic Judaism as a form of Judaism.[18][20][141] Regarding this divide, Reconstructionist Rabbi Carol Harris-Shapiro observed:

"To embrace the radioactive core of goyishness—Jesus—violates the final taboo of Jewishness[.] ... Belief in Jesus as Messiah is not simply a heretical belief, as it may have been in the first century; it has become the equivalent to an act of ethno-cultural suicide."[142][143]

B'nai Brith Canada considers messianic activities as antisemitic incidents.[144] Rabbi Tovia Singer, founder of the anti-missionary organization Outreach Judaism,[145] noted of a Messianic rabbi in Toledo: "He's not running a Jewish synagogue ... It's a church designed to appear as if it were a synagogue and I'm there to expose him. What these irresponsible extremist Christians do is a form of consumer fraud. They blur the distinctions between Judaism and Christianity in order to lure Jewish people who would otherwise resist a straightforward message."[146]

Response of Israeli government

Messianic Jews are considered eligible for the State of Israel's Law of Return only if they can also claim Jewish descent.[28] An assistant to one of the two lawyers involved with an April 2008 Supreme Court of Israel case explained to the Jerusalem Post that Messianic Jews who are not Jewish according to Jewish rabbinic law, but who had sufficient Jewish descent to qualify under the Law of Return, could claim automatic new immigrant status and citizenship despite being Messianic.[147] The state of Israel grants Aliyah (right of return) and citizenship to Jews, and to those with Jewish parents or grandparents who are not considered Jews according to halakha, e.g. people who have a Jewish father but a non-Jewish mother. The old law had excluded any "person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion", and an Israeli Supreme Court decision in 1989 had ruled that Messianic Judaism constituted another religion.[148] However, on April 16, 2008, the Supreme Court of Israel ruled in a case brought by a number of Messianic Jews with Jewish fathers and grandfathers. Their applications for Aliyah had been rejected on the grounds that they were Messianic Jews. The argument was made by the applicants that they had never been Jews according to halakha, and were not therefore excluded by the conversion clause. This argument was upheld in the ruling.[147][149][150]

The International Religious Freedom Report 2008, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor in the U.S. states that discrimination against Messianic Jews in Israel is increasing.[151] Some acts of violence have also occurred such as incident on March 20, 2008, a bomb concealed as a Purim gift basket was delivered to the house of a prominent Messianic Jewish family in Ariel, in the West Bank, which severely wounded the son.[152] The bombing was eventually traced to Yaakov "Jack" Teitel, a serial killer who immigrated to Israel from the United States, and who was found to be responsible for several bombings, murders and attempted murders in Israel.[153]

This antagonism has led to harassment and some violence, especially in Israel, where there is a large and militant Orthodox community. Several Orthodox organizations, including Yad L'Achim, are dedicated to rooting out missionary activity in Israel, including the Messianic Jewish congregations. One tactic is to plaster posters asking Israelis to boycott shops where Messianic Jews are owners or employees; another is to report Messianic Jews to the Interior ministry, which is charged with enforcing an Israeli law forbidding proselytizing.[154] In another incident, the mayor of Or Yehuda, a suburb of Tel Aviv, held a public book-burning of literature passed out to Ethiopian immigrants. He later apologized for the action.[155]

Response of U.S. governments

The U.S. Navy made a decision that Messianic Jewish chaplains must wear as their insignia the Christian cross, and not the tablets of the law, the insignia of Jewish chaplains. According to Yeshiva World News, a website covering stories of Jewish interest, the Navy Uniform Board commanded that Michael Hiles, a candidate for chaplaincy, wear the Christian insignia. Hiles resigned from the program, rather than wear the cross.[156] Rabbi Eric Tokajer, a spokesman for the Messianic Jewish movement, responded that "This decision essentially bars Messianic Jews from serving as chaplains within the U.S. Navy because it would require them to wear an insignia inconsistent with their faith and belief system."[157]

A Birmingham, Alabama's police employee's religious discrimination case was settled in her favor after she filed suit over having to work on the Jewish Sabbath.[158]

Messianic organizations

Affiliated organizations

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8160-5456-5, p. 373. "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews."
  3. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  4. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
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  6. 6.0 6.1 Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7619-8953-0, p. 140. "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism arose."
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Lewis, James R. (2001). Odd Gods: New Religions & the Cult Controversy. Prometheus Books. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-57392-842-7. The origins of Messianic Judaism date to the 1960s when it began among American Jews who converted to Christianity.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  11. 11.0 11.1 Şenay, Bülent. "Messianic Judaism/Jewish Christianity". Overview of World Religions. Division of Religion and Philosophy at the University of Cumbria. Retrieved May 14, 2012. Hebrew Christians are quite happy to be integrated into local Christian churches, but Messianic Jews seek an 'indigenous' expression of theology, worship and lifestyle within the whole church. The latter group emerged in the 1960s when some Christian Jews adopted the name Messianic Jews ...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 "Statement of Faith". Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. July 19, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2015. There is one God, who has revealed Himself as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Every divine action in the world is accomplished by the Father working through the Son and in the power of the Spirit. This God has revealed Himself in creation and in the history of Israel as transmitted in Scripture.…In the fullness of time, the Divine Son became a human being—Yeshua the Messiah, born of a Jewish virgin, a true and perfect Israelite, a fitting representative and one-man embodiment of the entire nation. He lived as a holy tzaddik, fulfilling without blemish the mitzvot of the Torah. He brings to perfection the human expression of the divine image.…Yeshua died as an atonement for the sins of Israel and of the entire world. He was raised bodily from the dead, as the firstfruits of the resurrection promised to Israel as its glorification. He ascended to heaven and was there enthroned at God’s right hand as Israel’s Messiah, with authority extending to the ends of creation.…Forgiveness of sins, spiritual renewal, union with Messiah, the empowering and sanctifying presence of the indwelling Ruach Ha Kodesh, and the confident hope of eternal life and a glorious resurrection are now available to all, Jews and Gentiles, who put their faith in Yeshua, the Risen Lord, and in obedience to His word are joined to Him and His Body through immersion and sustained in that union through Messiah’s remembrance meal. Yeshua is the Mediator between God and all creation, and no one can come to the Father except through Him.…Messiah Yeshua will return to Jerusalem in glory at the end of this age, to rule forever on David’s throne. He will effect the restoration of Israel in fullness, raise the dead, save all who belong to Him, judge the wicked not written in the Book of Life who are separated from His presence, and accomplish the final Tikkun Olam in which Israel and the nations will be united under Messiah’s rule forever.…The writings of Tanakh and Brit Hadasha are divinely inspired and fully trustworthy (true), a gift given by God to His people, provided to impart life and to form, nurture, and guide them in the ways of truth. They are of supreme and final authority in all matters of faith and practice.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Mission and Beliefs". Memphis, Tennessee: B'rit Hadasha Messianic Jewish Synagogue. 2005. Retrieved September 10, 2015. We believe…The Bible, consisting of the T’nakh (Hebrew Scriptures) and the B’rit Hadasha (Apostolic Writings) to be inspired and the only infallible and authoritative Word of God [2 Timothy 3:16-17].…There is one God as declared in the Shema [Deuteronomy 6:4], who is “Echad,” a compound unity, revealed in three persons: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit [Isaiah 48:16-17; Ephesians 4:4-6].…In the Deity of our Lord, Messiah Yeshua, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious atoning death, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, in His personal future return to this earth in power and glory to rule.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Statement of Faith". Coalition of Torah Observant Messianic Congregations. 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 "Do I need to be Circumcised?". JerusalemCouncil.org. Feb 10, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2010. To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one's heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah – as one can not obey a commandment of God if they first do not love God, and we love God by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come.... Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come – at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!... As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God's commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted.... If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2
    Orthodox
    Simmons, Shraga. "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus". Aish HaTorah. Retrieved July 28, 2010. Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because:
    1. Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies.
    2. Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah.
    3. Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus are mistranslations.
    4. Jewish belief is based on national revelation. line feed character in |quote= at position 49 (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Conservative
    Waxman, Jonathan (2006). "Messianic Jews Are Not Jews". United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2007. Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Christianity and Judaism, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side ... we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Reform
    "Missionary Impossible". Hebrew Union College. August 2, 1999. Retrieved September 9, 2015. Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus", "Messianic Jews", and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Reconstructionist/Renewal
    "FAQ's About Jewish Renewal". Aleph.org. 2007. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2007. What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that. External link in |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus". Ask the Rabbi. Jerusalem: Ohr Somayach. 2000. Retrieved July 28, 2010. The Christian idea of a trinity contradicts the most basic tenet of Judaism – that G-d is One. Jews have declared their belief in a single unified G-d twice daily ever since the giving of the Torah at Sinai – almost two thousand years before Christianity. The trinity suggests a three part deity: The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (Matthew 28:19). In Jewish law, worship of a three-part god is considered idolatry; one of the three cardinal sins for which a person should rather give up his life than transgress. The idea of the trinity is absolutely incompatible with Judaism.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. 20.0 20.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  21. "What is HaDerech (Messianic Judaism)?". FAQ. The Jerusalem Council. February 10, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. 22.0 22.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  23. Kaplan, Aryeh (1985) [1976]. "Why Aren't We Christians?". The Real Messiah? A Jewish Response to Missionaries (PDF). Orthodox Union and NCSY in cooperation with Jews for Judaism (published 2004). pp. 3–6. ISBN 1-879016-11-7. Retrieved September 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    • Stetzer, Ed (October 13, 2005). "A Missional Church", The Christian Index. "Missional churches are indigenous. Churches that are indigenous have taken root in the soil and reflect, to some degree, the culture of their community... The messianic congregation (is)... in this case indigenous to Jewish culture."
  24. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

  25. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Spector, Stephen (5 November 2008). Evangelicals and Israel. Oxford University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-19-970979-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. 28.0 28.1 Berman, Daphna (June 10, 2006). "Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus". Haaretz. Retrieved August 9, 2010. In rejecting their petition, Supreme Court Justice Menachem Elon cited their belief in Jesus. ‘In the last two thousand years of history ... the Jewish people have decided that messianic Jews do not belong to the Jewish nation ... and have no right to force themselves on it,’ he wrote, concluding that ‘those who believe in Jesus, are, in fact Christians.’<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  28. Yeoman, Barry (November 15, 2007). "Evangelical movement on the rise". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Posner, Sarah (November 29, 2012). "Kosher Jesus: Messianic Jews in the Holy Land". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  31. Stemberger, Günter (2000). Jews and Christians in the Holy Land: Palestine in the Fourth Century. Continuum. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-567-08699-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  33. Cohn-Sherbok 2001, p. 12.
  34. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  35. John James Moscrop. Measuring Jerusalem: the Palestine Exploration Fund and British ... p. 15 2000 "the perspective of the Holy Land the most important of these societies was the London Jews' Society. Founded in 1809 during the high point of evangelical endeavour, the London Jews' Society was the work of Joseph Samuel Frederick Frey,..."
  36. Yiddish language & culture then & now "The first Yiddish New Testament distributed by the BFBS was published by the London Jews Society in 1821; the translator was Benjamin Nehemiah Solomon, "a convert from Judaism, who [had come] over to England from Poland".
  37. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  38. Carl Schwartz The Scattered nation 5 p. 16 1870 "What does the Hebrew-Christian Alliance signify? is asked by well-wishers and opponents. True, its objects have been clearly stated from the ... Let me try briefly to state the nature and objects of the Hebrew-Christian Alliance."
  39. Jewish Journal of Sociology Volumes 9–10 World Jewish Congress 1967 "It was on 9 September 1813 that a group of forty-one Jewish converts to Christianity met in London setting forth.... Thus, in 1813, Hebrew Christianity was born in England through the efforts of a group of converts calling themselves the Beni Abraham, or Sons of Abraham. This group was followed by a number of others variously known as the Episcopal Jew's Chapel Abrahamic Society (1835), the Hebrew Christian Union (1865), and the Hebrew Christian Prayer Union (1882)."
  40. William Thomas Gidney The history of the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews 1908 "As regards missionary work in London during this period we find that the lectures to the Jews and also to ... The Jews' Chapel, Spitalfields, had to be given up in 1816, as the minister refused his consent to its being licensed as a place of worship of the Church of England. Frey's connexion with the Society ceased in the same year.
  41. Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2003). "Modern Hebrew Christianity and Messianic Judaism". In Tomson, Peter J.; Lambers-Petry, Doris. The Image of the Judaeo-Christians in Ancient Jewish and Christian Literature. Colloquium of the Institutum Iudaicum, Brussels 18–19 November 2001. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament. 158. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. p. 287. ISBN 978-3-16-148094-2. Retrieved May 22, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn (2005). A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations. Cambridge University Press. p. 180.
  43. Arnulf Baumann, "Jewish Christians", in Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, p. 35.
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  45. Yaakov Shalom Ariel. Evangelizing the Chosen People: Missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000. University of North Carolina Press. p. 19.
  46. Peter Hocken (2009). The challenges of the Pentecostal, Charismatic, and Messianic Jewish movements: the tensions of the spirit. Ashgate Publishing, p. 98.
  47. Burgess & Van der Maas 2003, p. 871.
  48. The Missionary review of the world No.35 Royal Gould Wilder, Delavan Leonard Pierson, James Manning Sherwood - 1912 "The letter to Joseph Rabinowitz brought an encouraging answer and also a few copies of the New Testament translated into Hebrew by Franz Delitzsch. They gave Scheinmann the thought to organize a class of young men for their study"
  49. "The Only One in America: A Hebrew-Christian Church Dedicated Yesterday", The New York Times, October 12, 1885. p. 2. Archived at The Online Jewish Missions History Project.
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  53. 55.0 55.1 Randall Herbert Balmer (2002). Encyclopedia of evangelicalism. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-664-22409-7. Retrieved 21 August 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "MINUTES OF THE FIRST Hebrew-Christian Conference OF THE United States". 1903. Retrieved 21 August 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "International Ministries". Chosen People Ministries. Retrieved May 14, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  58. Peter Hocken The challenges of the Pentecostal, Charismatic, and Messianic ... 2009 Page 100 "The new thrust that turned Hebrew Christians into Messianic Jews was distinctly charismatic. This reflected the influence of the Jesus movement. However the Evangelical missions to the Jews were and remained non-charismatic."
  59. Cohen-Sherbok, Dan Continuum (2000) p. 65
  60. Rausch, David A. (September 1982). "The Messianic Jewish Congregational Movement". The Christian Century. 99 (28): 926. It is fascinating that the movement would arise in the American branch of the Hebrew Christian Alliance (HCAA), an organization that has consistently assuaged the fears of fundamentalist Christians by emphasizing that it is not a separate denomination but only an evangelistic arm of the evangelical church. The organization's Quarterly, however, reveals that the tension between the Messianic Jewish movement and the Hebrew Christian movement had always been present. After the inception of the HCAA in 1915, the first major controversy was over an "old" heresy—and the "heretical" dogma that was being proposed was Messianic Judaism. The controversy could have split the organization asunder during that period but for a strong united effort against Messianic Judaism.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. 63.0 63.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  62. Who We Are, Messianic Israel Alliance website. Accessed September 5, 2010.
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  64. 66.0 66.1 Nerel, Gershon (2001). "Symbols used by Messianic Judaism in Israel Today". International Messianic Jewish Alliance. Archived from the original on June 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  67. "Typical Messianic Statement of Faith". Messianic Jewish Alliance of America. 2007. Archived from the original on April 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  69. http://www.rmmen.org/jt/godhead-01.pdf
  70. Kinzer, Mark (Summer 2010). "Finding Our Way Through Nicaea: The Deity of Yeshua, Bilateral Ecclesiology, and Redemptive Encounter with the Living God". Kesher: A Journal of Messianic Judaism (24). Retrieved May 29, 2012. Paul likely uses the term Kyrios here as a Greek substitute for both the tetragram- maton and the Hebrew word Adonai ("My lord"), which in Jewish practice acts as its surrogate. In this way he builds upon the most fundamental biblical confession of faith, the Shema, highlighting the two primary divine names (Theos/Elohim and Kyrios/Adonai) and the word "one". Paul thus expands the Shema to include Yeshua within a differentiated but singular deity. The nicene Creed adopts Paul's language ("one God, the Father ... one Lord, Yeshua the Messiah...."), and thereby affirms its own continuity with the Shema. Paul's short confession is a Yeshua-faith interpretation of the Shema, and the nicene Creed is an expanded interpretation of Paul's confession.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. 73.0 73.1 73.2 "What We Believe". Havertown, Pennsylvania: International Alliance of Messianic Congregations & Synagogues. 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. 74.0 74.1 Israel b. Betzalel (2009). "Trinitarianism". JerusalemCouncil.org. Retrieved 2009-07-03. This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from God. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn't become righteous, he is righteous. He is called God's Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is "HaShem" who we interact with and not die.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Kerstetter, Adam Yisroel (2007). "Who Do You Say That I Am? An introduction to the true Messiah from a non-Trinitarian view". Archived from the original on April 1, 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2010. The material presented below has been researched to great lengths and is based totally on the Scriptures. I have examined both sides of the subject and can assure you that I have no ax to grind, but have found that the information on the Trinity is without any foundation, nor is it supported by the language of the Scripture. Let me state that I believe in our Heavenly Father and in his Son Y'shua (Jesus) and that the Father sent Y'shua to be a way back to Him and a means for our salvation, but I do not believe the Scripture supports the idea of the Moshiach (Messiah) being G-d of very G-d. When wrong ideas of the Mashiach are espoused they put us on the course of misinterpretations and a misconception of who our Mashiach and his Heavenly Father are. These misconceptions and misinterpretations lead us further away from the truth and ultimately further away from the Father who is the only true G-d.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Nadler, Sam (October 19, 2011). "How Can a Man Become God?". Charlotte, North Carolina: Word of Messiah Ministries. Retrieved May 29, 2012. Micah the prophet not only gives further detail about His Divine Nature, but also specifically where He would be born. “But you, Bethlehem Ephratah, little among the thousands of Judah, out of you will go forth for Me, one who will be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been from days of eternity" (Micah 5:2-v.1 in the Hebrew text). Micah clearly states that Israel's Ruler would not only be "born", in Bethlehem, but his "goings forth" would be from eternity (olam). That is, He who would be born in Bethlehem is God, the Eternal One!<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. "Our Mission and Message". First Fruits of Zion. 2010. p. 14. Retrieved September 9, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Doctrinal Statement". Lev HaShem Messianic Synagogue. 2004. Retrieved August 17, 2010. We believe that Yeshua HaMashiach is the Jewish Messiah. "Therefore, the L-rd Himself will give you a sign: the virgin shall be with child and will give birth to a Son, and will call Him Immanuel (G-d with us)." Yeshayahu 7:14. We believe in His virgin birth conceived by the Ruach HaKodesh. We do not believe that a man can become G-d. "For a child is born to us, a Son is given to us, dominion will rest on his shoulders, and he will be given the name PELE-YOETZ, EL GIBBOR, AVI-AD SAR SHALOM (Wonderful Counselor, Mighty G-d, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace)" Yeshayahu 9:6–7. "That in honor of HaShem (the Name), Yeshua took the form of humanity and that G-d has given Him the name above every name". Philippians 2:6–11<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. See Messiah#Christian view for further elaboration
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  79. "Messianic Beliefs". Beit Simcha. 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2012. To study the whole and authoritative Word of God, including the Tenach (Hebrew Bible) and the B'rit Chadasha (New Testament) under the leading of the Holy Spirit<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "Halakah and Messianic Judaism". Standards of Observance. New Haven, Connecticut: Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2012. Within Tanakh, Jewish tradition has always regarded the Torah (the Pentateuch) as possessing unique authority in the development of Halakhah. While the Prophets and the Writings amplify and clarify the intent of the Torah, the Torah is always foundational in matters of Halakhah. In addition to Tanakh, we as Messianic Jews have another authoritative source for the making of halakhic decisions: the Apostolic Writings.... In addition, the Book of Acts and the Apostolic Letters provide crucial halakhic guidance for us in our lives as Messianic Jews.... They also provide guidelines relevant to other areas of Messianic Jewish Halakhah, including (but not restricted to) areas such as distinctive Messianic rites, household relationships, and dealing with secular authorities.... As Messianic Jews we affirm the special precedence given to Scriptural law in Rabbinic Halakhah. However, we also affirm the Scriptural character of the Apostolic Writings. While the Torah is foundational in relation to the teaching of Yeshua and the Shelichim (Apostles), the writings that record that teaching (the New Covenant Scripture) are also inspired, and they offer us an entirely reliable guide to the meaning and intent of the Mosaic Torah.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "Defining the Old and New Covenant". The Jerusalem Council. February 10, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2012. The Torah is the full description of the Messiah, Yeshua ben Yosef mi'Netzaret. Thus by implication, and often by reference, the Torah of G-d (which he gave to Moses) is the Messiah, who is the Word of HaShem. Since the Torah is the Messiah in this sense that he is the Word of HaShem, then it is rightly said that he is also the Covenant G-d makes with all men.... When G-d makes his Covenant with us as sinners, which was made on that day with all who where "there" and "not there" in Deuteronomy 29:14–15, our inclination to sin caused us to break it the moment we sinned (and all have sinned in Adam). So then when G-d renews his Covenant with us (as a new regenerated man alive to the Messiah, the Torah) it is therefore to us, renewed, and to the new man (that is, we who are the righteous in Messiah) it is "new". Thus that is why it is called a "new" or "renewed" Covenant.... Brit Chadashah = Covenant Renewed<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "Essential Statement of Faith". The Harvest: A Messianic Charismatic Congregation. 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2015. We believe that the Torah (five books of Moses) is a comprehensive summary of God's foundational laws and ways, as found in both the Tanakh and Apostolic Scriptures. Additionally, the Bible teaches that without holiness no man can see God. We believe in the Doctrine of Sanctification as a definite, yet progressive work of grace, commencing at the time of regeneration and continuing until the consummation of salvation. Therefore we encourage all believers, both Jews and Gentiles, to affirm, embrace, and practice these foundational laws and ways as clarified through the teachings of Messiah Yeshua.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Brown, Michael. "Jewish Roots". Chosen People Ministries. Retrieved September 9, 2015. …I will present some foundational truths from the Scriptures, and as you continue to research the matter for yourself, these truths will lead to one inescapable conclusion: It is the Tanakh rather than the Talmud and the rabbinic traditions that must be followed if we are to be totally faithful to the Lord.…Which, then, will you follow? The written Word or the traditions of men? When you stand before God, what will you say?<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. 86.0 86.1 86.2 "So, What Exactly is a Messianic Congregation?". RabbiYeshua.com. Kehilat Sar Shalom. 2001. Retrieved 2007-02-20. When we begin to study and observe Torah to become like Messiah, there are pitfalls we must avoid. One such pitfall is the study of Mishnah and Talmud (Rabbinic traditional Law). There are many people and congregations that place a great emphasis on rabbinic legal works, such as the Mishnah and the Talmud in search of their Hebrew roots. People are looking to the rabbis for answers on how to keep God's commands, but if one looks into the Mishnah and does what it says, he or she is not a follower of the Messiah. Or, if one looks into the Talmud and does what it says, he or she is not a follower of the Messiah – he or she is a follower of the rabbis because Rabbi Yeshua, the Messiah, is not quoted there.... Rabbinic Judaism is not Messianic Judaism. Rabbinic Judaism is not founded in Messiah. Rabbinic Judaism, for the most part, is founded in the yeast – the teachings of the Pharisees. Yeshua's teachings and the discipleship that He brought His students through was not Rabbinic Judaism. There is a real danger in Rabbinics. There is a real danger in Mishnah and Talmud. No one involved in Rabbinics has ever come out on the other side more righteous than when he or she entered. He or she may look "holier than thou" – but they do not have the life changing experience clearly represented in the lives of the believers of the Messianic communities of the first century.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Bernay, Adam J. (December 3, 2007). "Who we are". Beit-tefillah.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "Orthodox Messianic" groups (they go by many names) teach that you must keep the commandments in order to be saved, and not just the commandments in the Scripture, but the traditional rules as coined by Judaism since the Temple was destroyed... essentially, they teach that we must keep Orthodox Judaism, but with the addition of Yeshua. We do NOT teach this in any way, shape, or form. Some of the traditions are right and good, and in keeping with the commandments. Others are not. Only by studying to show ourselves approved of God can we rightly divide the word of truth and discover how God calls us to live. External link in |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. 88.0 88.1 88.2 Burgess 2006, p. 308.
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  88. 90.0 90.1 "Mission, Vision, & Purpose of the Jerusalem Council". JerusalemCouncil.org. JerusalemCouncil.org. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "JC2" defined multiple times with different content
  89. "Authoritative Sources in Halakhic Decision Making". Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. ourrabbis.org. 2007. Archived from the original on June 26, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-07. In Jewish tradition as a whole, Scripture is of paramount importance and authority in the development of Halakhah. In principle, issues become "Halakhic" because they are connected to some area of life in which Scripture reveals certain authoritative norms. In addressing those issues, Scripture is not the only resource consulted. However, it is always the source of greatest sanctity. Thus, when Rabbinic literature distinguishes between laws that are d'oraita (biblically mandated) and those that are d'rabbanan (rabbinically mandated), precedence is always given to those that are d'oraita.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. "In Search of Messianic Jewish Thought". GoogleCache. GoogleCache. 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-07. John Fischer affirms that Yeshua himself supported the traditions of the Pharisees which were very close to what later became rabbinic halacha. Messianic Jews today should not only take note of rabbinic tradition but incorporate it into Messianic Jewish halachah. The biblical pattern for Fischer is that "Yeshua, the Apostles, and the early Messianic Jews all deeply respected the traditions and devoutly observed them, and in so doing, set a useful pattern for us to follow." Citing Fischer, John, "Would Yeshua Support Halacha?" in Kesher: A Journal of Messianic Judaism, Albuquerque, New Mexico: UMJC, 1997, pp. 51–81.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Brad H. Young (1997). Paul the Jewish Theologian: A Pharisee among Christians, Jews, and Gentiles. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-56563-248-6. Paul calls himself a Pharisee. We should listen to what Paul tells us about himself. In fact, there is no evidence anywhere in the New Testament, that he departed from his firm convictions as a Pharisee. [Note that others cite I Cor. 9:20–21 as evidence that he no longer strictly followed the Torah and as explaining why he sometimes did so in front of his fellow Jews.]<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  96. "Statement of Faith". Kehilat T'Nuvah. graftedin.com. 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Just as the prophet Isaiah foretold (Isa. 56), Yahweh is gathering many from the nations to those whom He already gathered (Israel). Together these individuals comprise the universal church (covenant community of Yahweh). These Jews and Gentiles in Messiah collectively are called Israel throughout the Scriptures. There is no other "church" or covenant community; just one new man, one torah, one Messiah, one Spirit, one God.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. "Who Is A Jew? Messianic Style". Chaia Kravitz. MessianicJewishOnline.com. 2007. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-23. In Messianic Judaism, children are generally regarded as being Jewish with one Jewish parent. Since we are one in Messiah, both Jew and Gentile, there is not sharp division between the two groups. Therefore, if a Gentile has a heart for Israel and God's Torah, as well as being a Believer in Yeshua, and this person marries a Jewish Believer, it is not considered an "intermarriage" in the same way Rabbinic Judaism sees it, since both partners are on the same spiritual plane. Children born from this union are part of God's Chosen, just like the Gentile parent who has been grafted into the vine of Israel through His grace.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  102. One Law Movements; a Challenge to the Messianic Jewish Community January 28, 2005
  103. One Law Movements A Response to Russ Resnik & Daniel Juster
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  110. 112.0 112.1 Worshill, Ric (2008). "Why Messianic Jews Use Liturgy During Their Worship Services". Southern Baptist Messianic Fellowship. Retrieved May 14, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  112. Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7619-8953-0, p. 20 The Messianic movement has eliminated the elements of Christian worship that cannot be directly linked to their Jewish roots. Communion is therefore associated with Passover, since the Eucharist originated during Ushua's Last Supper, held at Passover. In this way, Passover is given a new, Yshua-centered meaning.
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  118. Brown Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus p. 12 2000
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  120. Dan Cohn-Sherbok Messianic Judaism 2000 p. 161 "For Gentile Christians, baptism is perceived as a means of entering into the body of Christ. Within Messianic Judaism, however, immersion is understood as a religious act symbolizing the believer's commitment to Yeshua: the faithful are "
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  123. https://books.google.com/books?id=oZiScvbS6-cC&lpg=RA1-PA194&dq=When%20the%20term%20resurfaced%20in%20Israel&pg=RA1-PA200#v=snippet&q=origins%20messianic&f=false%7C author=Ariel, Yaakov |title=The unique Culture of Messianic in "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America" |publisher= Harcourt Education,Greenwood Publishing Group| date=Oct 1, 2006)| ISBN=978-0-313-05078-7 |page=200
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  131. Peter J. Tomson, Doris Lambers-Petry The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian ... 2003 p. 292 "From outside the movement hostile criticism of Messianic Judaism was voiced by such bodies as the Fellowship of Christian Testimonies to the Jews. At their annual conference from 16 to 19 October 1975 a resolution was passed condemning "
  132. A dictionary of Jewish-Christian relations - Page 97 Dr. Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn - 2005 "Messianic Jews in Israel who accept Yeshua (Hebrew for Jesus) as the Messiah are supported, when they meet with hostility, by CMJ/ITAC. In the 1980s CMJ gave some support to evangelistic campaigns by Jews for Jesus,"
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  144. 147.0 147.1 Myers, Calev (April 16, 2008). "Justice in Israel". Jerusalem Institute of Justice, and organization supporting the rights of "Israeli Evangelical believers, Messianic Jews and families of mixed (Jewish-Christian) marriages". Retrieved 2008-04-24. In a landmark decision today, the Supreme Court of Israel ratified a settlement between twelve Messianic Jewish believers and the State of Israel, which states that being a Messianic Jew does not prevent one from receiving citizenship in Israel under the Law of Return or the Law of Citizenship, if one is a descendent of Jews on one's father's side (and thus not Jewish according to halacha). This Supreme Court decision brought an end to a legal battle that has carried on for two and a half years. The applicants were represented by Yuval Grayevsky and Calev Myers from the offices of Yehuda Raveh & Co., and their legal costs were subsidized by the Jerusalem Institute of Justice. There is a growing trend, today, to use the term Messianic Believers, which solves the objections of Jews and makes the movement more 'accessible' to Gentiles as well, who make up a significant proportion of those who attend Messianic fellowships. This is important because some fellowships under the heading Messianic Judaism, do not actually have any Jews as members and the title does not, therefore, reflect the reality on the ground.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  145. "Israeli Court Rules Jews for Jesus Cannot Automatically Be Citizens". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 27, 1989. Retrieved August 13, 2010. Messianic Jews are not entitled to automatic Israeli citizenship, Israel's Supreme Court has ruled, concluding that their belief that Jesus was the Messiah makes them Christians instead of Jews. The ruling, published in Israeli newspapers today, supported Orthodox religious interpretations of the state's 1950 Law of Return. The law forms the basis of Jewish immigration to Israel. The law and its subsequent amendments define a Jew as a person born to a Jewish mother or who converts to Judaism and professes no other faith. Orthodox politicians have long sought a more precise definition, and the court's Christmas Day ruling has resolved one issue. The 100-page decision said that belief in Jesus made one a member of another faith and ineligible for automatic Israeli citizenship, The Jerusalem Post, Hadashot and Yediot Ahronot reported.... "Messianic Jews attempt to reverse the wheels of history by 2,000 years," Justice Elon wrote in a passage quoted by the Israeli newspapers. "But the Jewish people has decided during the 2,000 years of its history" that Messianic Jews "do not belong to the Jewish nation and have no right to force themselves on it. Those who believe in Jesus are, in fact, Christians."<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  157. "UMJC homepage". Retrieved 15 January 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  158. "Chosen People Ministries". Retrieved 15 January 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  159. "Coalition of Torah Observant Messianic Congregations (CTOMC) homepage".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  160. "Union of Conservative Messianic Synagogues (UCMJS)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  161. "The International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS) homepage".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  162. "HaYesod homepage".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  163. "Mission, Vision, & Purpose of the Jerusalem Council". JerusalemCouncil.org. JerusalemCouncil.org. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-23. Our vision also includes the hope of re-appointing a beit din for Messianic believers worldwide, to be called the Jerusalem Council, or Beit HaDin HaYerushalmi, modeled after the original, and submitted to the new Jewish Sanhedrin in issues that do not contradict obedient faith to Messiah Yeshua or his teachings; to provide guidance in issues that may conflict with the Sanhedrin, or in issues that contradict the primacy of the written Word of God, or in issues which may divide the Body of Messiah; to promote the unity of the Body of Messiah worldwide by Spirit-led direction through means of accountability, open dialogue, reasoned doctrine, and sound leadership; and to provide corporate and individual edification by providing apologetic, midrashic, and halakhic guidance for the Body of Messiah.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  164. "Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council Standards of Observance". ourrabbis.org. Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-30. At that time a set of Messianic Jewish leaders from New England invited some of their colleagues from outside the region to join them in working on a common set of halakhic standards for themselves and their congregations. While other areas of Messianic Jewish life are of profound importance, such as worship, ethics, education, and social concern, we believed that halakhic standards had received far less attention than their place in Messianic Jewish life warranted.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  165. "Who We Are". Jews for Jesus. 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  166. "Messianic Judaism". Jews for Jesus. 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  167. Jews for Jesus self describes and has been described as Messianic Judaism in a number of sources, although there are others who disagree.

Sources

  • Burgess, Stanley M.; Van der Maas, Eduard, eds. (2003). The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, revised and expanded edition. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-22481-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Burgess, Stanley M., ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96966-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2001). Voices of Messianic Judaism: Confronting Critical Issues Facing a Maturing Movement. Baltimore: Lederer Books. ISBN 978-1-880226-93-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). Messianic Judaism: A Critical Anthology. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Harris-Shapiro, Carol (1998). Messianic Judaism: A Rabbi's Journey through Religious Change in America. Boston: Beacon. ISBN 978-0-8070-1040-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

External links

Criticism