Names of God in Judaism
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The name of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton YHWH (Hebrew: יהוה). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most editions of the Bible as "the Lord" owing to the Jewish tradition of reading it as Adonai ("My Lords") out of respect.
Rabbinic Judaism describes seven names which are so holy that, once written, should not be erased: YHWH, El ("God"), Elohim ("Gods"), Eloah ("God"), El Shaddai, and Tzevaot or Sabaoth ("Of Hosts"). Other names are considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of God, but chumrah sometimes dictates especial care such as the writing of "G-d" instead of "God" in English or saying Ṭēt-Vav (טו, lit. "9-6") instead of Yōd-Hē (יה, lit. "10-5" but also "Jah") for the number fifteen in Hebrew.
The documentary hypothesis proposes that the Torah was compiled from various original sources, two of which (the Jahwist and the Elohist) are named for their usual names for God (YHWH and Elohim respectively).
Seven Names of God
The seven names of God that, once written, cannot be erased because of their holiness are the Tetragrammaton, El, Elohim, Eloah, Elohai, El Shaddai, and Tzevaot. In addition, the name Jah—because it forms part of the Tetragrammaton—is similarly protected. Rabbi Jose considered "Tzevaot" a common name and Rabbi Ishmael that "Elohim" was. All other names, such as "Merciful", "Gracious" and "Faithful", merely represent attributes that are also common to human beings.
The name of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible is YHWH[n 1] (יהוה), also known as the Tetragrammaton (Greek for "Four-Letter Word"). Hebrew is a right-to-left abjad, so the word's letters Yōd, Hē, Vav, Hē are usually taken for consonants and expanded to Yahweh or Jehovah in English. Josephus, however, includes a passage in his c. AD 75 Jewish War that describes the name as consisting of four vowels.[n 2]
The exact pronunciation is uncertain because—although there is nothing in the Torah to prohibit the saying of the name and Ruth shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th century BC[n 3]—it had ceased to be spoken aloud by at least the 3rd century BC during Second Temple Judaism and vowel points were not written until the early medieval period. The Masoretic Text uses vowel points marking the pronunciation as Yəhōwāh (יְהֹוָה, [jăhowɔh] ( listen)): whether this represents the original pronunciation, the period pronunciation, or the pronunciation of Adonai remains an unresolved matter of scholarly debate. (For a discussion of subtle pronunciation changes between what is preserved in the Hebrew Scriptures and what is read, see Qere and Ketiv.)
The Tetragrammaton first appears in Genesis and occurs 6828 times in total in the Stuttgart edition of the Masoretic Text. It is thought to be an archaic third-person singular imperfect tense of the verb "to be" (i.e., "[He] was being"). This agrees with the passage in Exodus where God names Himself as "I Am that I Am" using the first-person singular imperfect tense.
Rabbinical Judaism teaches that the name is forbidden to all except the High Priest, who should only speak it in the Holy of Holies of the Temple in Jerusalem on Yom Kippur. He then pronounces the name "just as it is written". As each blessing was made, the people in the courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as they heard it spoken aloud. As the Temple has been destroyed since AD 70, most modern Jews never pronounce YHWH but instead read Adonai ("My Lord") during prayer and while reading the Torah and as HaShem ("The Name") at other times. Similarly, the Vulgate used Dominus ("The Lord") and most English translations of the Bible write "the Lord" for YHWH and "the Lord God" for Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. (The Septuagint apparently originally used the Hebrew letters themselves amid its Greek text but all surviving editions instead write either Kyrios [Κυριος, "Lord") or Theos [Θεος, "God"] for occurrences of the name.)
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El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millennium BC texts both as generic "god" and as the head of the divine pantheon. In the Hebrew Bible El (Hebrew: אל) appears very occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, "God the God of Israel", and Genesis 46:3, ha'el elohe abika, "God the God of thy father"), but usually with some epithet or attribute attached (e.g. El Elyon, "Most High El", El Shaddai, "El of Shaddai", El `Olam "Everlasting El", El Hai, "Living El", El Ro'i "El my Shepherd", and El Gibbor "El of Strength"), in which cases it can be understood as the generic "god". In theophoric names such as Gabriel ("Strength of God"), Michael ("Who is like God?"), Raphael ("God's medicine"), Ariel ("God's lion"), Daniel ("God's Judgment"), Israel ("one who has struggled with God"), Immanuel ("God is with us"), and Ishmael ("God Hears"/"God Listens") it usually interpreted and translated as "God", but it is not clear whether these "el"s refer to deity in general or to the god El in particular.
A common name of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (Hebrew: אלהים (help·info)). Despite the -im ending common to many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word Elohim when referring to God is grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the Hebrew Bible. The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the 'lhm found in Ugaritic, where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of El and conventionally vocalized as "Elohim" although the original Ugaritic vowels are unknown. When the Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:3). There are a few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth. In Modern Hebrew, the singular word ba'alim ("owner", "lord", or "husband") looks plural, but likewise takes a singular verb.
A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root *yl, "to be first, powerful", despite some difficulties with this view. Elohim is thus the plural construct "powers". Hebrew grammar allows for this form to mean "He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)", just as the word Ba'alim means "owner" (see above). "He is lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are lordly (plural)."
Other scholars interpret the -im ending as an expression of majesty (pluralis majestatis) or excellence (pluralis excellentiae), expressing high dignity or greatness: compare with the similar use of plurals of ba`al (master) and adon (lord). For these reasons many Christians cite the apparent plurality of elohim as evidence for the basic Trinitarian doctrine of the Trinity. This was a traditional position but there are some modern Christian theologians who consider this to be an exegetical fallacy.[who?]
Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of majesty came about in more modern times. Richard Toporoski, a classics scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in the reign of Diocletian (AD 284–305). Indeed, Gesenius states in his book Hebrew Grammar the following:
The Jewish grammarians call such plurals … plur. virium or virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (compare 1 Maccabees 10:19 and 11:31); and the plural used by God in Genesis 1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way). It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels: so at all events in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied. It is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.
Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of monotheism, wherein references to "the gods" (plural) in earlier accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple aspects of a single monotheistic God at the time of writing, or subsumed under a form of monolatry, wherein the god(s) of a certain city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the God of Israel and the plural deliberately dropped.
The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim ("life") or betulim ("virginity"). If understood this way, Elohim means "divinity" or "deity". The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise.
In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the Bible it refers to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6, Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural in those instances.
Elohai or Elohei ("My God") is a form of Elohim along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic. It appears in the names "God of Abraham" (Elohai Avraham); "God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob" (Elohai Avraham, Elohai Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaʿaqov); and "God of Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel" (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka, Elohai Leah ve Elohai Rakhel).
El Shaddai (Hebrew: אל שדי (help·info), pronounced [ʃaˈda.i]) is one of the names of God in Judaism, with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion on modern Judaism. El Shaddai is conventionally translated as "God Almighty". While the translation of El as "god" in Ugarit/Canaanite language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate.
Tzevaot or Sabaoth (Hebrew: צבאות, [tsvaot] ( listen), lit. "Armies") appears in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus but is not used as a divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. In the First Book of Samuel, David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as "the God of the armies of Israel". The same name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai YHWH Tzevaot. These are usually translated in the King James Version as the "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord God of Hosts". In its later uses, however, it often denotes God in His role as leader of the heavenly hosts.
The abbreviated form Jah (//) or Yah (i//; יהּ, Yahu) appears in the Psalms and Isaiah. It is a common element in Hebrew theophoric names such as Elijah and also appears in the forms yahu ("Jeremiah"), yeho ("Joshua"), and yo ("John", ultimately from the biblical "Yohanan"). It also appears 24 times in the Psalms as a part of Hallelujah ("Praise Jah").
Other names and titles
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Adonai (אֲדֹנָי, lit. "My Lords") is the plural form of adon ("lord") along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic.[n 4] As with Elohim, Adonai's grammatical form is usually explained as a plural of majesty. In the Hebrew Scriptures, it is only used to refer to God. As the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton came to be avoided in the Hellenistic period, Jews began to read "Adonai" at its appearances in scripture and to say "Adonai" in its place in prayer. Owing to the expansion of chumra (the idea of "building a fence around the Torah"), Adonai itself has come to seem too holy to say for some, leading to its replacement by HaShem ("The Name").
The singular forms adon and adoni ("my lord") are used in scripture as royal titles, as in the First Book of Samuel, and for distinguished persons. The Phoenicians used it as a title of Tammuz, the origin of the Greek Adonis, but it is never used in scripture to refer to God.
Up until the mid-twentieth century, the use of the word Adoshem, combining the first two syllables of "Adonai" with the last syllable of "Hashem"', was quite common. This was discouraged by Rabbi David HaLevi Segal in his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. His rationale was that it is disrespectful to combine a Name of God with another word. It took a few centuries for the word to fall into almost complete disuse. Despite being obsolete in most circles, it is used occasionally in conversation in place of Adonai by Jews who do not wish to say Adonai but need to specify the substitution of that particular word. It is also used when quoting from the liturgy in a non-liturgical context. For example, Shlomo Carlebach performed his prayer "Shema Yisrael" with the words Shema Yisrael Adoshem Elokeinu Adoshem Eḥad instead of Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Eḥad.
Baal (//),[n 5] properly Baʿal,[n 6] meant "owner" and, by extension, "lord", "master", and "husband" in Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages. In some early contexts and theophoric names, it and Baali (//; "My Lord") were treated as synonyms of Adon and Adonai. After the time of Solomon and particularly after Jezebel's attempt to promote the worship of the Lord of Tyre Melqart, however, the name became particularly associated with the Canaanite storm god Baʿal Haddu and was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh. Several names that included it were rewritten as bosheth ("shame"). The prophet Hosea in particular reproached the Israelites for continuing to use the term:
Ehyeh asher ehyeh
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Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה) is the first of three responses given to Moses when he asks for God's name in the Book of Exodus. The King James version of the Bible translates the Hebrew as "I Am that I Am" and uses it as a proper name for God. The Aramaic Targum Onkelos leaves the phrase untranslated and is so quoted in the Talmud (B. B. 73a.[clarification needed])
Ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, "to be". Ehyeh is usually translated "I will be", since the imperfect tense in Hebrew denotes actions that are not yet completed (e.g. Exodus 3:12, "Certainly I will be [ehyeh] with thee."). Asher is an ambiguous pronoun which can mean, depending on context, "that", "who", "which", or "where".
Although Ehyeh asher ehyeh is generally rendered in English "I am that I am", better renderings might be "I will be what I will be" or "I will be who I will be", or "I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall prove to be" or even "I will be because I will be". Other renderings include: Leeser, “I WILL BE THAT I WILL BE”; Rotherham, "I Will Become whatsoever I please", New World Translation (2013 Edition): "I Will Become What I Choose to Become."  Greek, Ego eimi ho on (ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν), "I am The Being" in the Septuagint, and Philo, and Revelation or, "I am The Existing One"; Lat., ego sum qui sum, "I am Who I am."
Elah (Aramaic: אֱלָה; pl. "elim") is the Aramaic word for God. The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root word, meaning "reverence". Elah is found in the Tanakh in the books of Ezra, Daniel, and Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written in Aramaic.) Elah is used to describe both pagan gods and the Jews' God. The name is etymologically related to Allah comes from 'Elah - إله', used by Muslims.
- Elah-avahati, God of my fathers, (Daniel 2:23)
- Elah Elahin, God of gods (Daniel 2:47)
- Elah Yerushelem, God of Jerusalem (Ezra 7:19)
- Elah Yisrael, God of Israel (Ezra 5:1)
- Elah Shemaya, God of Heaven (Ezra 7:23)
In the Book of Genesis, Hagar is said to call the name of Yahweh who spoke to her through his angel. In Hebrew, her phrase "El Roi" is taken as an epithet of God ("God of Seeing") although the King James Version translates it as a statement: "Thou God seest me."
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The name Elyon (Hebrew: עליון) occurs in combination with El, YHWH, Elohim and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective "`Elyon" means "supreme" (as in "Supreme Court") or "Most High". El Elyon has been traditionally translated into English as 'God Most High'. The Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God, Έλιον. It is cognate to the Arabic `Aliyy.
It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem (השם), which is Hebrew for "the Name" (cf. Leviticus 24:11 and Deuteronomy 28:58). Likewise, when quoting from the Tanakh or prayers, some pious Jews will replace Adonai with HaShem. For example, when making audio recordings of prayer services, HaShem will generally be substituted for Adonai.
Talmudic authors, ruling on the basis of Gideon's name for an altar ("YHVH-Shalom", according to Judges 6:24), write that "the name of God is 'Peace'" (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. 10b); consequently, a Talmudic opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another with the word shalom (help·info) in order for the word to not be forgotten in the exile. But one is not permitted to greet another with the word shalom (help·info) in unholy places such as a bathroom, because of holiness of the name. Furthermore in Arabic same thing "Shalam- Salam -سَلام" which means 'Peace".
Shekhinah (Hebrew: שכינה (help·info)) is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means "dwelling". Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: "the Shekhina descended and dwelt among them" or "He removed Himself and His Shekhina from their midst"). This kind of usage does not occur in Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names.
The Arabic form of the word "Sakīnah سكينة" is also mentioned in the Quran. This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the choice of Saul to be king and is mentioned as descending with the ark of the covenant, here the word is used to mean "security" and is derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell:
- And (further) their Prophet said to them: "A Sign of his authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the Covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a Symbol for you if ye indeed have faith."
Uncommon or esoteric names
- Adir – "Strong One"
- Adon Olam – "Master of the World"
- Aibishter – "The Most High" (Yiddish)
- Aleim – sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of Elohim
- Aravat – "Father of Creation"; mentioned once in 2 Enoch, "On the tenth heaven is God, in the Hebrew tongue he is called Aravat".
- Avinu Malkeinu (help·info) – "Our Father, Our King"
- Bore (help·info) – "The Creator"
- Ehiyeh sh'Ehiyeh – "I Am That I Am": a modern Hebrew version of "Ehyeh asher Ehyeh"
- El ha-Gibbor – "God the Hero" or "God the Strong" or "God the Warrior"
- Emet – "Truth"
- Ein Sof – "Endless, Infinite", Kabbalistic name of God
- HaKadosh, Barukh Hu (Hebrew); Kudsha, Brikh Hu (Aramaic); تبارک القدوس (Arabic) – "The Holy One, Blessed Be He"
- HaRachaman – "The Merciful One"; "Rahman - رحمن" In (Arabic)
- Kadosh Israel – "Holy One of Israel"
- Melech HaMelachim–"The King of Kings" or Melech Malchei HaMelachim "The King, King of Kings", to express superiority to the earthly rulers title.
- Melech HaOlam–"The King of the World"
- Makom or HaMakom – literally "The Place", perhaps meaning "The Omnipresent" (see Tzimtzum)
- Magen Avraham – "Shield of Abraham"
- Ribono shel `Olam – "Master of the World"
- Ro'eh Yisra'el – "Shepherd of Israel"
- Tzur Israel – "Rock of Israel"
- Uri Gol – "The New LORD for a New Era" (Judges 5:14)
- YHWH-Yireh (Adonai-jireh) – "The LORD Will Provide" (Genesis 22:13–14)
- YHWH-Rapha – "The LORD that Healeth" (Exodus 15:26)
- YHWH-Niss"i (Adonai-Nissi) – "The LORD Our Banner" (Exodus 17:8–15)
- YHWH-Shalom – "The LORD Our Peace" (Judges 6:24)
- YHWH-Ro'i – "The LORD My Shepherd"
- YHWH-Tsidkenu – "The LORD Our Righteousness" (Jeremiah 23:6)
- YHWH-Shammah (Adonai-shammah) – "The LORD Is Present" (Ezekiel 48:35)
- Rofeh Cholim – "Healer of the Sick"
- Matir Asurim – "Freer of the Captives"
- Malbish Arumim – "Clother of the Naked"
- Pokeach Ivrim – "Opener of Blind Eyes"
- Somech Noflim – "Supporter of the Fallen"
- Zokef kefufim – "Straightener of the Bent"
- Yotsehr `Or – "Fashioner of Light"
- Oseh Shalom – "Maker of Peace"
- Mechayeh Metim – "Life giver to the Dead"
- Mechayeh HaKol In Arabic "Mohye AlKol - محيي الكل" – "Life giver to All" (Reform version of Mechayeh Metim)
Writing divine names
In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Before transcribing any of the divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. If an error is made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun.
One of the most important names is that of the Ein Sof (אין סוף "Endless"), which first came into use after AD 1300. The forty-two-lettered name contains the combined names אהיה יהוה אדוני הויה, that when spelled out contains 42 letters. The equivalent in value of YHWH (spelled הא יוד הא וו = 45) is the forty-five-lettered name.[clarification needed]
The seventy-two-lettered name is derived from three verses in Exodus (14:19–21) beginning with "Vayyissa", "Vayyabo" and "Vayyet" respectively. Each of the verses contains 72 letters, and when combined they form 72 names, known collectively as the Shemhamphorasch. The kabbalistic book Sefer Yetzirah explains that the creation of the world was achieved by the manipulation of these sacred letters that form the names of God.
The words "God" and "Lord" are written by some Jews as "G-d" and "L-rd" as a way of avoiding writing any name of God in full. Deuteronomy 12:3–4 reads, "And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the names of them out of that place. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God." From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out the name of God. The general halachic opinion is that this only applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, but not to other euphemistic references; there is a dispute whether the word "God" in English or other languages may be erased.
- The Tetragrammaton is also sometimes transcribed as YHVH or JHVH.
- Greek: τὴν δὲ κεφαλὴν βυσσίνη μὲν ἔσκεπεν τιάρα, κατέστεπτο δ ̓ ὑακίνθῳ, περὶ ἣν χρυσοῦς ἄλλος ἦν στέφανος ἔκτυπα φέρων τὰ ἱερὰ γράμματα· ταῦτα δ ̓ ἐστὶ φωνήεντα τέσσαρα.
...tòn dè kephalḕn byssínē mèn éskepen tiára, katéstepto d'hyakínthōi, perì ḕn khrysoûs állos ē̂n stéphanos éktypa phérōn tà hierà grámmata taûta d'estì phōnḗenta téssara.
And a tiara of fine linen encompassed the head, and it was crowned with hyacinth, around which there was another golden crown, bearing the engraved holy letters. And these are four vowels.
- The World English Bible translation: "Behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said to the reapers, "Yahweh be with you." They answered him, "Yahweh bless you." The book is traditionally ascribed to the prophet Samuel who lived in the 11th & 10th centuries BC. A date of the 6th or 5th century BC for the passage is, however, more common among subscribers to the Documentary Hypothesis regarding the development of the biblical canon.
- Gesenius: "124i Further, אֲדֹנִים, as well as the singular אָדוֹן, (lordship) lord, e.g. אֲדֹנִים קָשֶׁה a cruel lord, Is 194; אֲדֹנֵי הָאָ֫רֶץ the lord of the land, Gn 4230, cf. Gn 3219; so especially with the suffixes of the 2nd and 3rd persons אֲדֹנֶ֫יךָ, אֲדֹנַ֫יִךְ ψ 4512, אֲדֹנָיו, &c., also אֲדֹנֵ֫ינוּ (except 1 S 1616); but in 1st sing. always אֲדֹנִי. So also בְּעָלִים (with suffixes) lord, master (of slaves, cattle, or inanimate things; but in the sense of maritus, always in the singular), e.g. בְּעָלָיו Ex 2129, Is 13, &c."
- The American pronunciation is usually the same but some speakers prefer variants closer to the original sound, such as // or //.
- The half ring ⟨ ʿ ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨ ' ⟩ in the name Baʿal marks the original words' glottal stop, a vocalization which appears in the middle of the English word "uh-oh".
- Literally, "my husband".
- EJ (2005), p. 179.
- Rich, Tracey R. (1996), "The Name of G-d", Judaism 101, retrieved 31 Aug 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Translated by Eliyahu Touger. "Maimonides, ''Mishneh Torah''. Sefer Madda, Yesodei ha-Torah 6:2". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2014-05-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Rabbi Jose, Soferim, 4:1, Yer. R.H., 1:1; Ab. R.N., 34.[clarification needed]
- Rabbi Ishmael, Sanh., 66a.
- Sheb. 35a.[clarification needed]
- Num. 6:23–27.
- Josephus, Jewish War, Bk. V, l. 235.
- Byrne, Máire (2011), The Names of God in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: A Basis for Interfaith Dialogue, A&C Black, p. 24<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Ruth 2:4.
- Ruth 2:4 (WEB).
- Harris, Stephen L. (1985), Understanding the Bible: A Reader's Introduction, 2nd ed., Palo Alto: Mayfield, p. 21<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Gordon, Nehemia, "The Pronunciation of the Name" (PDF), The Karaite Korner, retrieved 5 June 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Gen. 2:4.
- Exod. 3:14.
- "The Tetragrammaton—The Unpronounceable Four-Letter Name of God", My Jewish Learning, retrieved 17 September 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- "Hebrew Name for God—Adonai", Hebrew for Christians, retrieved 21 May 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- "Adonai", Theopedia<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Origen, Commentary on Psalms 2:2.
- Jerome, Prologus Galeatus.
- K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, "Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.274-277. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- KJV margin at Gen.33:20
- Genesis 46:3
- K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, "Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.277-279. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mark S. Smith (2008). God in Translation: Deities in Cross-Cultural Discourse in the Biblical World. Coronet Books Incorporated. p. 15. Retrieved 2011-12-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- R. Toporoski, "What was the origin of the royal "we" and why is it no longer used?", (The Times, May 29, 2002. Ed. F1, p. 32)
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- 1 Sam. 17:45.
- Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "Jah, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1900.
- Ps. 68:4.
- Is. 12:2, 26:4, & 38:11.
- E.g., Ps. 150:1.
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- Cleghorn & al. (2011), p. 87.
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- Gen. 16:13 KJV.
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- Names of God
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- The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1963, ISBN 978-0310235606<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Cleghorn, T.L.; et al. (2011), Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics: A Tool for Mastering the World's Languages, 2nd ed., ISBN 978-1-4507-8190-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Herrmann, Wolfgang (1999), "Baal", Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, pp. 132–139<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Pope, Marvin H. (2006), "Baal Worship", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. III, New York: Thomas Gale, ISBN 978-0028659282<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- A Christian Discussion of the pronunciation of YHWH, including a new theory that explains all theophoric elements
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- Bibliography on Divine Names in the Dead Sea Scrolls
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Names of God
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