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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Negativicutes Marchandin et al. 2010
Order: Selenomonadales Marchandin et al. 2010
Families & Genera

The Negativicutes is a class of firmicute bacteria, whose members have a peculiar cell wall composition which stains Gram negative, unlike most other members of the Firmicutes. The family Veillonellaceae, formerly known as Acidaminococcaceae,[1] were once considered members of the class Clostridia. The name Selenobacteria also refers to some members of this group. The description of this family was emended in 2010 and, together with the Acidaminococcaceae (familia nova, i.e. a newly coined taxon), it was placed in the order Selenomonadales (ordo novus) in the class Negativicutes (classis novus) of the phylum Firmicutes.

Members of this family are all obligate anaerobes, and occur in habitats such as rivers, lakes, and the intestines of vertebrates. They range from spherical forms, such as Megasphaera and Veillonella, to curved rods, as typified by the Selenomonads. Selenomonas has a characteristic crescent-shape, with flagella inserted on the concave side, while Sporomusa is similar, but non-motile. Their names refer to this distinctive morphology: selene means moon, and musa means banana.[2]

Further examination of members of this group suggests that the members of this clade are actually Clostridia.[3]


The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [4] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[5] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [6]


Succinispira mobilis Janssen and O'Farrell 1999

Acidaminococcus Rogosa 1969 emend. Jumas-Bilak et al. 2007

Phascolarctobacterium faecium Del Dot et al. 1994 (type sp.)

Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens Watanabe et al. 2012

Succiniclasticum ruminis van Gylswyk 1995


?Anaerospora hongkongensisWoo et al. 2005

?Desulfosporomusa polytropaSass et al. 2004

?Psychrosinus fermentansSattley et al. 2008

?Quinella ovalisKrumholz et al. 1993 (Quin’s Oval)

?Sporotalea colonicaEzaki et al. 2008

Sporomusa Möller et al. 1985

Sporolituus thermophilus Ogg and Patel 2009

Thermosinus carboxydivorans Sokolova et al. 2004

Veillonella Prévot 1933 emend. Mays et al. 1982

Megasphaera [incl. Anaeroglobus geminatus]

Negativicoccus succinicivorans Marchandin et al. 2010

Dialister [incl. Allisonella histaminiformans]

Anaeromusa acidaminophila Baena et al. 1999

Anaeroarcus burkinensis (Ouattara et al. 1992) Strömpl et al. 1999

Acetonema longum Kane and Breznak 1992

Pelosinus Shelobolina et al. 2007

Propionispora Biebl et al. 2001

Dendrosporobacter quercicolus (Stankewich et al. 1971) Strömpl et al. 2000

Anaerosinus glycerini (Schauder and Schink 1996) Strömpl et al. 1999

Propionispira arboris Schink et al. 1983

Zymophilus Schleifer et al. 1990

Megamonas Shah and Collins 1983

Pectinatus Lee et al. 1978 emend. Juvonen and Suihko 2006

Anaerovibrio lipolyticus Hungate 1966

Selenomonas [incl. Schwartzia succinivorans, Centipeda periodontii & Mitsuokella]

♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)
♪ Prokaryotes where no pure (axenic) cultures are isolated or available, i. e. not cultivated or can not be sustained in culture for more than a few serial passages


  1. Morotomi M, Nagai F, Sakon H (July 2007). "Genus Megamonas should be placed in the lineage of Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; 'Acidaminococcaceae'; Megamonas". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57 (Pt 7): 1673–4. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65150-0. PMID 17625216.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Marchandin, H.; Teyssier, C.; Campos, J.; Jean-Pierre, H.; Roger, F.; Gay, B.; Carlier, J. -P.; Jumas-Bilak, E. (2009). "Negativicoccus succinicivorans gen. Nov., sp. Nov., isolated from human clinical samples, emended description of the family Veillonellaceae and description of Negativicutes classis nov., Selenomonadales ord. Nov. And Acidaminococcaceae fam. Nov. In the bacterial phylum Firmicutes". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (6): 1271–1279. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.013102-0. PMID 19667386.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Yutin N, Galperin MY (2013) A genomic update on Clostridial phylogeny: Gram-negative spore formers and other misplaced Clostridia. Environ Microbiol doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12173
  4. J.P. Euzéby. "Negativicutes". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2013-03-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Sayers; et al. "Negativicutes". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2013-03-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2013-03-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>