Nikolaos Michaloliakos

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Nikolaos Michaloliakos
General Secretary of the Golden Dawn
Assumed office
Preceded by Office established
Member of the Hellenic Parliament
Assumed office
28 June 2012
Member of the Athens Council
In office
1 January 2011 – 17 May 2012
Succeeded by Ioannis Vouldis
Personal details
Born Nikolaos G. Michaloliakos
(1957-12-16) 16 December 1957 (age 61)
Athens, Greece
Nationality Greek
Political party Golden Dawn
Other political
4th of August Party
National Political Union
Patriotic Alliance
Spouse(s) Eleni Zaroulia
Children Ourania Michaloliakou
Alma mater National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Occupation Politician
Religion Greek Orthodox
Military service
Allegiance  Greece
Service/branch Hellenic Navy

Nikolaos G. Michaloliakos (Greek: Νικόλαος Γ. Μιχαλολιάκος, pronounced [niˈkolaos mixaloˈʎakos]; born 16 December 1957) is the founder and leader of the far-right Golden Dawn party. In September 2013 he was arrested on charges of forming a criminal organization and released in July 2015. The trial is ongoing.

Early life and education

Michaloliakos was born in Athens in 1957. According to his party, he completed his studies at the Faculty of Mathematics of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.[2]

Political involvements

At the age of 16, he joined the nationalist 4th of August Party of Konstantinos Plevris. He also participated in the Athens local organisation of EOKA-B. He was arrested for the first time in July 1974, during a protest outside the British embassy in Athens, against the stance of the United Kingdom toward the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.[2] He was arrested again for assaulting journalists covering the December 1976 funeral of Evangelos Mallios, a policeman who allegedly tortured people during the Regime of the Colonels,[3] assassinated by the Revolutionary Organization 17 November, but was released due to technical issues related to his arrest.[4][5][6][7] While he was in prison, Michaloliakos met the leaders of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974.[4] After that he joined the Hellenic Navy and became a commander of the Fast Attack Craft Command.[4] He was arrested again in July 1978 after he had become a member of a far-right extremist group, and sentenced to one year imprisonment in January 1979 for illegally carrying guns and explosives.[4][5] He was also dismissed from his position in the navy.[2]

After he was released, he launched the Chrysi Avgi (Greek for "Golden Dawn") magazine. The politics of the magazine were, at least initially, closely aligned with National Socialist beliefs.[4][5] The publication of the magazine ceased in April 1984, when Michaloliakos joined the National Political Union, and took over the leadership of its youth section, after a personal order of Georgios Papadopoulos.[4] In January 1985 he broke away from the National Political Union and founded the "Popular National Movement - Chrysi Avgi".

Michaloliakos remained the leader of Chrysi Avgi until he announced its disbandment in November 2005.[8] He took this step due to clashes with anti-fascists.[8] In 2005–2007 he (like most members of Chrysi Avgi) continued his political activity through the Patriotic Alliance.[4] The party was reformed under his leadership in 2007.[9]

Chrysi Avgi as a political party drew public attention in the 1990s and early 2000.[4][5] In May 2012, under Michaloliakos' leadership, it garnered 21 seats in Parliament during an election conducted amid Greece's severe fiscal crisis, and was embroiled in various controversies, attracting international attention and often, condemnation. [10] A particularly controversial point was Michaloliakos's denial of the existence of the gas chambers which the Nazis used to murder Jews, homosexuals, and other persons during World War II.[11]


Following the fatal stabbing of anti-fascist, anti-racist rapper Pavlos Fyssas on 17 September 2013, Michaloliakos was arrested on 28 September 2013, along with several other Golden Dawn members on the charges of being involved in a criminal organisation.[12] The charge sheet includes murder, extortion, and involvement in the disappearance of up to 100 immigrants.[13] After 18 months of pretrial detention, the maximum allowed, Michaloliakos was released from jail and placed under house arrest.[14] On July 29, 2015, his house arrest was lifted but is prohibited from leaving the Attica region.[15]

In April 2015 the trial of Michaloliakos and 68 other defendants began at the high-security Korydallos prison in Athens,[16] but was adjourned a number of times for technical reasons and to find a more suitable setting.[17]

Personal life

He is the husband of fellow Golden Dawn member Eleni Zaroulia.[18] His daughter Ourania was one of six people arrested during a motorcycle attack against immigrants, all six were later released.[19][20]


  • Enemies of the Regime (Εχθροί του Καθεστώτος), 2000
  • Against All (Εναντίον Όλων), 2001
  • The Last Loyals (Οι Τελευταίοι Πιστοί), 2002
  • For a Greater Greece in a Free Europe (Για μια Μεγάλη Ελλάδα σε μια Ελεύθερη Ευρώπη), 2000
  • Pericles Giannopoulos: The Apollonian Speech (Περικλής Γιαννόπουλος: Ο Απολλώνιος Λόγος), 2006
  • The Confession of a Heathen (Η Εξομολόγηση ενός Εθνικού), reprinted in 2008
  • From the Ashes of Berlin to Globalisation (Από τις Στάχτες του Βερολίνου στην Παγκοσμιοποίηση), 2008
  • Defending National Memory (Υπερασπίζοντας την Εθνική Μνήμη), 2009


  1. "Το κλούβιο «αβγό του φιδιού»".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Article about Michaloliakos published on Chrysi Avgi's website".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 11/9/2005 article published in To Vima. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ToVima" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ToVima" defined multiple times with different content
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 2/07/1998 article published in Eleftherotypia newspaper Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "IosHist" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "IosHist" defined multiple times with different content
  6. Article published on BBC News Online website
  7. Greek Embassy (Consulate General, Los Angeles, USA) website
  8. 8.0 8.1 01/12/05 article published by Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ingr" defined multiple times with different content
  9. Golden Dawn taps into voter anger and fear in Athens News
  10. "Wordpress suspends Chrysi Avgi's blog".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Neo-Nazi chief denies gas chambers existed Independent Online (South Africa)
  12. Lowen, Mark (28 September 2013). "Greece's Golden Dawn leader Nikolaos Michaloliakos held". BBC. Retrieved 28 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Channel 4 News. "Swastikas but no faces please - Golden Dawn in crisis". Retrieved 30 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Skordas, Aggelos (2015-03-20). "Extreme Right Golden Dawn Leader Michaloliakos and MP Lagos Released Ahead of Trial". GreekReporter. Greece. Retrieved 2015-05-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Golden Dawn chief, wife, released from house arrest". ekathimerini. Greece. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2015-09-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Ayiomamitis, Paris. "Trial of far-right Golden Dawn leaders starts in Greece". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Smith, Helena. "Golden Dawn leaders' trial adjourned until next week". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Rashty, Sandy (11 October 2012). "Greek neo-Nazi party on EU equality committee". Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 12 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Smith, Helena (7 June 2012). "Golden Dawn MP's live TV assault shocks Greece". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Houlakis, Pantelis; Souliotis, Yiannis (21 June 2012). "Violence against migrants in Greece intensifies". Ekathimerini. Retrieved 22 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links