Northern Mariana Islands
|Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas
|Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi (Chamorro)
Satil Matawal Pacifiko (Carolinian)
The Star-Spangled Banner[a]
|Capital||Capitol Hill (Saipan)
Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
|Demonym||Mariana Islander (formal)
|Sovereign state||United States|
|Government||Territorial presidential constitutional republic|
|•||President||Barack Obama (D)|
|•||Governor||Ralph Torres (R)|
|•||Lt. Governor||Victor Hocog (R)|
|•||Delegate||Gregorio Sablan (I)|
|•||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Commonwealth within the United States|
|•||End of trusteeship||1986|
|•||Total||464 km2 (n/a)
179 sq mi
|•||2015 estimate||52,344 (n/a)|
|•||2010 census||53,833 (n/a)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
|•||Total||$682 million (n/a)|
|•||Per capita||$13,300 (n/a)|
|Currency||United States dollar (USD)|
|Time zone||ChST (UTC+10)|
|Calling code||+1 670|
|ISO 3166 code||MP|
|a.||^ "The Star-Spangled Banner" serves as the national anthem for the United States of America and its territories.|
The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Chamorro: Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas), is one of five inhabited American insular areas. It is one of two territories with US "commonwealth" status; the other is Puerto Rico. It consists of fifteen islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The CNMI and Guam together comprise the Marianas archipelago.
The United States Department of the Interior cites a landmass of 183.5 square miles (475.26 km2). According to the 2010 United States Census, 53,883 people were living in the CNMI at that time. The vast majority of the population resides on Saipan, Tinian, and Rota. The other islands of the Northern Marianas are sparsely inhabited; the most notable among these is Pagan, which for various reasons over the centuries has experienced major population flux but has formerly had residents numbering in the thousands.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics and government
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Arrival of humans
The first people of the Mariana Islands immigrated at some point between 4000 BC to 2000 BC from Southeast Asia. After first contact with Spaniards, they eventually became known as the Chamorros, a Spanish word similar to Chamori, the name of the indigenous caste system's higher division.
The ancient people of the Marianas raised colonnades of megalithic capped pillars called latte stones upon which they built their homes. The Spanish reported that by the time of their arrival, the largest of these were already in ruins, and that the Chamorros believed the ancestors who had erected the pillars lived in an era when people possessed supernatural abilities.
Archeologists in 2013 posited that the first people to settle in the Marianas may have made what was at that point the longest uninterrupted ocean-crossing voyage in human history, and that archeological evidence indicates Tinian may have been the first Pacific island outside of Asia to have been settled.
The first European explorer of the area was Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. He landed on nearby Guam and claimed the islands for Spain. The Spanish ships were met offshore by the native Chamorros, who delivered refreshments and then helped themselves to a small boat belonging to Magellan's fleet. This led to a cultural clash: in Chamorro tradition there was little private property and taking something one needed, such as a boat for fishing, was not considered stealing. The Spanish did not understand this custom. The Spanish fought the Chamorros until the boat was recovered. Three days after he had been welcomed on his arrival, Magellan fled the archipelago under attack. Then the islands were considered by Spain for annexation and later, under its government, as part of the Spanish East Indies. The Spanish built a royal palace in Guam to the Governor of the Islands. Its remains are visible even in the 21st-century; see the Plaza de España (Hagåtña) article.
Guam was an important stopover from Mexico for galleons carrying gold between the Philippines and Spain. There are still some galleons sunk in Guam.
In 1668 the islands were renamed by Father Diego Luis de San Vitores as Las Marianas in honor of Mariana of Austria, widow of Felipe IV.
Most of the islands' native population (90–95%) died from Spanish diseases or married non-Chamorro settlers under Spanish rule. New settlers, primarily from the Philippines and the Caroline Islands, were brought to repopulate the islands. The Chamorro population gradually recovered, and Chamorro, Filipino and Carolinian languages and other ethnic differences remain in the Marianas.
During the 17th-century, Spanish colonists forcibly moved the Chamorros to Guam to encourage assimilation and conversion to Roman Catholicism. By the time they were allowed to return to the Northern Marianas, many Carolinians from present-day eastern Yap State and western Chuuk State had settled in the Marianas. Carolinians and Chamorros are now both considered as indigenous and both languages are official in the Commonwealth.
The Northern Marianas experienced an influx of immigration from the Carolines in the 19th-century. Both this Carolinian sub-ethnicity and Carolinians in the Carolines archipelago refer to themselves as the Refaluwasch. The indigenous Chamoru word for the same group of people is gu'palao. They are usually referred to simply as "Carolinians", though unlike the other two monikers, this can also mean those who actually live in the Carolines and may have no affiliation with the Marianas.
The conquering Spanish did not focus attempts at cultural suppression against Carolinian immigrants, whose immigration they allowed during a period when the indigenous Chamoru majority was being subjugated with land alienation, forced relocations and internment. Carolinians in the Marianas continue to be fluent in the language, and have maintained many of the cultural distinctions and traditions of their ethnicity's land of ancestral origin.
German and Japanese possession
Following its loss during the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded Guam to the United States and sold the remainder of the Marianas (i.e., the Northern Marianas), along with the Caroline Islands, to Germany under the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899. Germany administered the islands as part of its colony of German New Guinea and did little in terms of development.
Early in World War I, Japan declared war on Germany and invaded the Northern Marianas. In 1919, the League of Nations awarded all of Germany's islands in the Pacific Ocean located north of the Equator, including the Northern Marianas, under mandate to Japan. Under this arrangement, the Japanese thus administered the Northern Marianas as part of the South Pacific Mandate. During the Japanese period, sugar cane became the main industry of the islands. Garapan on Saipan was developed as a regional capital, and numerous Japanese (including ethnic Koreans, Okinawan and Taiwanese) migrated to the islands. In the December 1939 census, the total population of the South Pacific Mandate was 129,104, of whom 77,257 were Japanese (including ethnic Taiwanese and Koreans). On Saipan the pre-war population comprised 29,348 Japanese settlers and 3,926 Chamorro and Caroline Islanders; Tinian had 15,700 Japanese settlers (including 2700 ethnic Koreans and 22 ethnic Chamorro).
On December 8, 1941, hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces from the Marianas launched an invasion of Guam. Chamorros from the Northern Marianas, which had been under Japanese rule for more than 20 years, were brought to Guam to assist the Japanese administration. This, combined with the harsh treatment of Guamanian Chamorros during the 31-month occupation, created a rift that would become the main reason Guamanians rejected the reunification referendum approved by the Northern Marianas in the 1960s.
World War II
On June 15, 1944, near the end of World War II, the United States military invaded the Mariana Islands, starting the Battle of Saipan, which ended on July 9. Of the 30,000 Japanese troops defending Saipan, fewer than 1,000 remained alive at the battle's end. Over 20,000 Japanese civilians were also killed, or committed suicide rather than be captured. U.S. forces then recaptured Guam on July 21, and invaded Tinian on July 24; a year later Tinian was the takeoff point for the Enola Gay, the plane which dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Rota was left untouched (and isolated) until the Japanese surrender in August 1945, due to its military insignificance.
The war did not end for everyone with the signing of the armistice. The last group of Japanese holdouts surrendered on Saipan on December 1, 1945. On Guam, Japanese soldier Shoichi Yokoi, unaware that the war had ended, hid in a jungle cave in the Talofofo area until 1972.
Japanese nationals were eventually repatriated to the Japanese home islands.
After Japan's defeat in World War II, the Northern Marianas were administered by the United States pursuant to Security Council Resolution 21 as part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which gave responsibility for defense and foreign affairs to the United States. Four referenda offering integration with Guam or changes to the islands' status were held in 1958, 1961, 1963 and 1969. On each occasion, a majority voted in favor of integration with Guam. But, this did not happen: Guam rejected integration in a 1969 referendum. The people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in the 1970s not to seek independence, but instead to forge closer links with the United States. Negotiations for territorial status began in 1972 and a covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the United States was approved in a 1975 referendum. A new government and constitution came into effect in 1978 after being approved in a 1977 referendum. The United Nations approved this arrangement pursuant to Security Council Resolution 683. Like other U.S. territories, the islands do not have representation in the U.S. Senate, but, since 2009, are represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by a delegate who may vote in committee but not on the House floor.
The Northern Mariana Islands, together with Guam to the south, compose the Mariana Islands archipelago. The southern islands are limestone, with level terraces and fringing coral reefs. The northern islands are volcanic, with active volcanoes on several islands, including Anatahan, Pagan and Agrihan. The volcano on Agrihan has the highest elevation at 3,166 feet (965 m).
Anatahan Volcano is a small volcanic island 80 miles (130 km) north of Saipan. It is about 6 miles (10 km) long and 2 miles (3 km) wide. Anatahan began erupting from its east crater on May 10, 2003. It has since alternated between eruptive and calm periods. On April 6, 2005, about 1,800,000 cubic feet (51,000 m3) of ash and rock were ejected, causing a large, black cloud to drift south over Saipan and Tinian.
The North Mariana Islands have a tropical marine climate moderated by seasonal northeast trade winds. There is little seasonal temperature variation. The dry season runs from December to June; the rainy season runs from July to November and can include typhoons. The Guinness Book of World Records has cited Saipan as having the most equable temperature in the world.
Politics and government
The Northern Mariana Islands have a multi-party presidential representative democratic system. The Northern Mariana Islands are a Commonwealth of the United States. Federal funds to the Commonwealth are administered by the Office of Insular Affairs of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Replicating the separation of powers in other U.S. territories and state governments, executive power is exercised by the Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Legislature. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches.
Some critics, including the author of the political website Saipan Sucks, say that politics in the Northern Mariana Islands is often "more a function of family relationships and personal loyalties" where the size of one's extended family is more important than a candidate's personal qualifications. They charge that this is nepotism carried out within the trappings of democracy.
In April 2012, anticipating a loss of funding by 2014, the Commonwealth's public pension fund declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The retirement fund is a defined benefit type pension plan and was only partially funded by the government, with only $268.4 million in assets and $911 million in liabilities. The plan experienced low investment returns and a benefit structure that had been increased without raises in funding.
In August 2012, cries for impeachment arose, as the sitting governor Benigno Fitial (Republican) was being held responsible for withholding payments from the pension fund, not paying the local utility (Commonwealth Utilities or "CUC") for government offices, cutting off funding to the only hospital in the Northern Marianas, interfering with the delivery of a subpoena to his attorney general, withholding required funds from the public schools, and for signing a sole source $190 million contract for power generation.
The islands total 179.01 square miles (463.63 km2). The table gives an overview, with the individual islands from north to south:
|Northern Islands (Northern Islands Municipality)|
|1||Farallon de Pajaros (Urracas)||0.985||2.55||—||1,047||319||Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.|
|2||Maug Islands[n 1]||0.822||2.13||—||745||227||(North Island)||Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.|
|3||Asuncion||2.822||7.31||—||2,923||891||Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.|
|4||Agrihan (Agrigan)[n 2]||16.80||43.51||—||3,166||965||Mount Agrihan|
|5||Pagan[n 3]||18.24||47.24||—||1,900||579||Mount Pagan|
|11||Farallon de Medinilla||0.328||0.85||—||266||81|
|Southern Islands (3 municipalities)|
|13||Tinian||39.00||101.01||3,136||558||170||Kastiyu (Lasso Hill)|
|14||Aguijan (Agiguan)[n 5]||2.74||7.10||—||515||157||Alutom|
|Northern Mariana Islands||179.01||463.63||53,883||3,166||965||Mount Agrihan||14°08' to 20°33'N,
144°54° to 146°04'E
Administratively, the CNMI is divided into four municipalities:
The Northern Islands (north of Saipan) form the Northern Islands Municipality. The three main islands of the Southern Islands form the municipalities of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota, with uninhabited Aguijan forming part of Tinian municipality.
Because of volcanic threat, the northern islands have been evacuated. Human habitation was limited to Agrihan, Pagan, and Alamagan, but population varied due to various economic factors, including children's education. The 2010 census showed no residents in Northern Islands municipality and the Northern Islands' mayor office is located in "exile" on Saipan.
Saipan, Tinian, and Rota have the only ports and harbors, and are the only permanently populated islands.
In 1947, the Northern Mariana Islands became part of the post–World War II United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI). The United States became the TTPI's administering authority under the terms of a trusteeship agreement. In 1976, Congress approved the mutually negotiated Covenant to establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America. The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) government adopted its own constitution in 1977, and the constitutional government took office in January 1978. The Covenant was fully implemented November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents. This led to CNMI being represented in the United States (and especially Washington, D.C.) by a Resident Representative who was elected at-large by CNMI voters and whose office was paid for by the CNMI government. The Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 ("CNRA"), approved by the U.S. Congress on May 8, 2008, established a CNMI delegate's seat; Democrat Gregorio Sablan was elected in November 2008 as the first CNMI delegate and took office in the 111th Congress.
On December 22, 1990, the United Nations Trusteeship Council terminated the TTPI as it applied to the CNMI and five other of the TTPI's original seven districts (the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap)), this was acknowledged in United Nations Security Council Resolution 683 passed on the same day.
Under the Covenant, in general, United States federal law applies to CNMI. However, the CNMI is outside the customs territory of the United States and, although the internal revenue code does apply in the form of a local income tax, the income tax system is largely locally determined. According to the Covenant, the federal minimum wage and federal immigration laws "will not apply to the Northern Mariana Islands except in the manner and to the extent made applicable to them by the Congress by law after termination of the Trusteeship Agreement." The local control of minimum wage was superseded by the United States Congress in 2007.
Prior to November 28, 2009, U.S. immigration laws did not apply in the CNMI. Rather, a separate immigration system existed in the CNMI. This system was established under the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America ("Covenant"), which was signed in 1975 and codified as 48 U.S.C. § 1801. The Covenant was unilaterally amended by the CNRA, thus altering the CNMI's immigration system. Specifically, CNRA § 702(a) amended the Covenant to state that "the provisions of the 'immigration laws' (as defined in section 101(a)(17) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(17))) shall apply to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands." Further, under CNRA § 702(a), the "immigration laws," as well as the amendments to the Covenant, "shall...supersede and replace all laws, provisions, or programs of the Commonwealth relating to the admission of aliens and the removal of aliens from the Commonwealth." Transition to U.S. immigration laws began November 28, 2009.
The CNMI has a United States territorial court which exercises jurisdiction over the District of the Northern Mariana Islands (DNMI), which is coterminous with the CNMI. The District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands was established by act of Congress in 1977 and began operations in January 1978. The court sits on the island of Saipan, but may sit other places within the Commonwealth. The district court has the same jurisdiction as all other United States district courts, including diversity jurisdiction and bankruptcy jurisdiction. Appeals are taken to the Ninth Circuit.
The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands benefits from its trading relationship with the federal government of the United States and cheap trained labor from Asia. Historically, the CNMI's economy has relied on garment manufacturing sector and tourism, mostly from Japan. The economy has declined since quotas were lifted in 2005, eventually leading all the garment factories on Saipan to close by February 2009. Tourism also declined after 2005 when Japan Airlines stopped serving the Marianas.
The Northern Mariana Islands had successfully used its position as a free trade area with the U.S., while at the same time not being subject to the same labor laws. For example, the $3.05 per hour minimum wage in the Commonwealth, which lasted from 1997 to 2007, was lower than in the U.S. and some other worker protections are weaker, leading to lower production costs. That allowed garments to be labeled "Made in USA" without having to comply with all U.S. labor laws. However, the U.S. minimum wage law signed by President Bush on May 25, 2007, resulted in stepped increases in the Northern Marianas' minimum wage, which will allow it to reach the U.S. level by 2015. The first step (to $3.55) became effective July 25, 2007, and a yearly increase of $0.50 will take effect every May thereafter until the CNMI minimum wage equals the nationwide minimum wage. However, a law signed in December 2009 delayed the yearly increase from May to September. As of September 30, 2014, the minimum wage is $6.05 per hour.
An immigration system mostly outside of federal U.S. control (which ended on November 28, 2009) resulted in a large number of Chinese migrant workers (about 15,000 during the peak years) employed in the islands' garment trade. However, the lifting of World Trade Organization restrictions on Chinese imports to the U.S. in 2005 had put the Commonwealth-based trade under severe pressure, leading to a number of recent factory closures. Adding to the U.S.-imposed scheduled wage increases, the garment industry became extinct by 2009.
Non-native islanders are not allowed to own land, but can lease it.
The islands have over 220 miles (350 km) of highways, three airports with paved runways (one about 9,800 feet [3,000 m] long; two around 6,600 feet [2,000 m]), three airports with unpaved runways, and one heliport.
Mail service for the islands is provided by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Each major island has its own zip code in the 96950-96952 range, and the USPS two-letter abbreviation for the CNMI is "MP". For phone service, the islands are included in the North American Numbering Plan, using area code 670.
Television service is provided by KPPI-LP, Channel 7, which simulcasts Guam's ABC affiliate KTGM, as well as WSZE, Channel 10, which simulcasts Guam's NBC affiliate KUAM-TV. About 10 radio stations broadcast within the CNMI.
Exemptions from some federal regulations
Although the CNMI is part of the United States, several members of Congress have fought hard to keep labor regulation out of the CNMI.
Some extreme labor practices, not common elsewhere in the United States, had occurred. Some of these labor practices include forcing women to have abortions, as exposed in the March 18, 1998, episode of ABC News' 20/20, and enslaving women and forcing them into prostitution, as the U.S. Department of Justice conviction of several CNMI traffickers in 1999 attests. In 2005 and 2006, the issue of these regulatory exemptions in the CNMI was brought up during the American political scandals of Congressman Tom DeLay and lobbyist Jack Abramoff.
According to the 2010 census, the population of the CNMI as of April 1, 2010 was 53,883, down from 69,221 in 2000, a decrease of 22.2%. The decrease was reportedly due to a combination of factors including the demise of the garment industry (the vast majority of whose employees were females from China), economic crises, and a decline in tourism, one of the CNMI's primary sources of revenue.
- Asian (including Chinese, Filipino, Korean) 49.9%
- Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 34.9%
- Multiracial 12.7%
- White 2.1%
- NOTE: Black, Hispanic and Other together less than 1%
The Northern Mariana Islands are the least populous area in the United States (with fewer people than any of the other 55 states and territories).
The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Public School System operates public schools in the commonwealth and there are numerous private schools. Northern Marianas College is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and offers a range of programs similar to other small U.S. community colleges.
Much of the Chamorro culture in the Mariana Islands was heavily influenced by the Spanish during the Spanish era, as well as by the Germans and Japanese. In Chamorro culture, respect is the biggest thing taught, and one common display is the tradition of "manngingi'". This tradition has been around for centuries and involves an elder and a young Chamorro child. The child takes the hand of the elder, places it on their nose and says ñot to the men and ñora to the women with the elders responding diosti ayudi, meaning "walk with God".
Much of Chamorro cuisine is influenced by various cultures. Examples of popular foods of foreign origin include various types of sweet or savory empanada, originally introduced from Spain, and pancit, a noodle dish from the Philippines.
Archeological evidence reveals that rice has been cultivated in the Marianas since prehistoric times. Red rice made with achoti is a distinct staple food that strongly distinguishes Chamorro cuisine from that of other Pacific islands. It is commonly served for special events, such as parties (gupot or "fiestas"), novenas, and high school or college graduations. Fruits such as lemmai, mangga, niyok, and bilimbines are included in various local recipes. Korean, Chinese, Japanese, and American cuisine are also commonly available.
Local specialities include kelaguen, a dish in which meat is cooked in whole or in part by the action of citric acid rather than heat; Tinaktak, a meat dish made with coconut milk; and kå'du fanihi (flying fox/fruit bat soup). Fruit bats and local birds have become scarce in modern times, primarily due to the World War II-era introduction of the brown tree snake, which decimated the populations of local birds and threatens the fanihi population as well; hunting them is now illegal.
Guam has highest per capita consumption of tabasco sauce in the world: almost two 2-ounce bottles per person per year. Tabasco and Spam united to create Hot & Spicy Spam, which debuted on Guam. Cans of Hot & Spicy Spam sold throughout the world feature a recipe for Spam Fried Rice from Guam-based restaurant Shirley's.
The Marianas and the Hawaiian islands are the world's foremost consumers, per capita, of Spam, with Guam at the top of the list, and Hawaii second (details regarding the rest of the Marianas are often absent from statistics). Spam was introduced to the islands by the American military as war rations during the World War II era.
Due to the Spanish missionaries in the Marianas, a large majority of Chamorros and Carolinians practice Roman Catholicism, including the use of rosaries and novenas. The Japanese occupation had the effect of creating a sizable Buddhist community which remained even after their departure.
Team sports popular in the United States were introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands by American soldiers during World War II. Baseball is the islands' most popular sport. CNMI teams have made appearances in the Little League World Series (in the Little, Junior, Senior and Big league divisions) as well as winning gold medals in the Micronesian Games and South Pacific Games.
Basketball and mixed martial arts are also popular in the islands. Trench Wars is the CNMI's Mixed Martial Arts brand. Fighters from the CNMI have competed in the Pacific Xtreme Combat contest, and in 2012 a Chamorro fighter from Saipan, Frank "The Crank" Camacho, became the first Chamorro fighter to fight in the UFC[clarification needed] when he fought on the television program The Ultimate Fighter.
Other sports in the CNMI include volleyball, tennis, soccer, outrigger sailing, softball, beach volleyball, rugby, golf, boxing, kickboxing, tae kwon do, track and field, Swimming, Triathlon, and American football.
- Outline of the Northern Mariana Islands
- Index of Northern Mariana Islands-related articles
- List of National Register of Historic Places in the Northern Mariana Islands
- "AAPI - Asian American and Pacific Islander - Primer". Epa.gov. 2006-06-28. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- "Australia-Oceania :: Guam (Territory of the US)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Both may also be classified as unincorporated, organized territories of the United States.
-  Archived September 26, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived September 26, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Todiño, Junhan B. (10 Jun 2015). "US military 'not sensitive to indigenous, cultural factors,' says Mayor Aldan". Marianas Variety. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Villegas Zotomayor, Alexie (15 Jan 2015). "Pagan has 8 residents". Marianas Variety. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Zotomayor, Alexie (11 Mar 2013). "Archaeologist says migration to Marianas longest ocean-crossing in human history". Marianas Variety. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- "Culture of Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands". www.everyculture.com. Retrieved September 17, 2007.
- Cunningham, Lawrence J. (1992). Ancient Chamorro Society. Bess Press. pp. 193–195.
- "Battle Of Saipan". Historynet.com. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- The Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union With the United States of America, Pub.L. 94–241, 90 Stat. 263, enacted March 24, 1976
-  Archived September 26, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived September 6, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "Total resource sharing among collegiate and public libraries in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands : a narrative case study". worldcatlibraries.org.
- Charles P. Reyes Jr. (March 30, 1999). "Primitive tribalism". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Review & Outlook: The Mariana Pension Foreshock - WSJ". Online.wsj.com. 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- Mercado, Darla (April 19, 2012). "In apparent first, a public pension plan files for bankruptcy". Pensions and Investments. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "Impeach The Governor". Marianas Variety. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Retirement Fund in Disarray". Marianas Variety. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Gov't Owes CUC $8.9 million". Marianas Variety. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Hospital Needs To Move Away From Culture of Gov't Subsidy". Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "CHC Tailspin Continues". Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Wiseman issues $50K Bench Warrant for Buckingham". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Central Gov't owes PSS $11.8 million in unremitted maintenance of effort". Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "PSS to lawmakers: Some schools could have 'double sessions'". Saipantribune.com. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- "Maratita takes Fitial to court over 'unconstitutional' power agreement; seeks TRO". Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Buckingham, Fitial sign off on $190M power purchase deal". Retrieved August 20, 2012.
-  Archived June 14, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived September 26, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Robert J. Misulich. "A LESSER-KNOWN IMMIGRATION CRISIS : FEDERAL IMMIGRATION LAW IN THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS" (PDF). Digital.law.washington.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
-  Archived September 26, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- International Business Publications, USA (January 1, 2012). Northern Mariana Islands Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Int'l Business Publications. pp. 41–48. ISBN 978-1-4387-7068-0.
- Jayvee L. Vallejera (May 27, 2007). "NMI minimum wage hike OK'd". Saipan Tribune.
- Eugenio, Haidee V. (September 29, 2014). "$6.05 minimum wage tomorrow". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- Rebecca Clarren (May 9, 2006). "Sex, Greed And Forced Abortions". TomPaine.com. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
- Rebecca Clarren (Spring 2006). "Paradise Lost: Greed, Sex Slavery, Forced Abortions and Right-Wing Moralists". Ms.
- Haidee V. Eugenio (1 May 2014). "NMI economy generates $1.3B sales". Saipan Tribune.
- "Overseas Territories Review: Northern Marianas Retains constitutional land ownership provisions". Overseasreview.blogspot.com. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- "About the CNMI". CNMI Commonwealth Law Revision Commission. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Official USPS Abbreviations". United States Postal Service. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". census.gov.
-  Archived September 26, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- The World Factbook, 2000.
- Land areas and population data from United States Census Bureau.
- Northern Mariana Islands and constituent municipalities, United States Census Bureau
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- Gov.mp – Official Government Website
- The CNMI Covenant
- The CNMI Constitution
- CNMI Office of Resident Representative Pedro A. Tenorio
- H.R. 873 – The Northern Mariana Islands Delegate Act
- H.R. 5550 – The United States-Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Human Dignity Act
- U.S. Census Bureau: Island Areas Census 2000
- Northern Mariana Islands entry at The World Factbook
- Northern Mariana Islands at DMOZ
- Wikimedia Atlas of Northern Mariana Islands
- Northern Mariana Islands travel guide from Wikivoyage
- News media
- KSPN-TV Channel 2 News
- Saipan Tribune
- Marianas Variety
- The Pacific Times
- Food for Thought – Weekly commentary on CNMI society by KZMI and KCNM manager Harry Blalock
- The Insular Empire: America in the Mariana Islands, PBS documentary film & website
- Northern Mariana Islands Online Encyclopedia
- USA Department of the Interior – Insular Area Summary for the Northern Mariana Islands