Open-mid back unrounded vowel

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Open-mid back unrounded vowel
ʌ
IPA number 314
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʌ
Unicode (hex) U+028C
X-SAMPA V
Kirshenbaum V
Braille ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
Sound

The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is an open-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʌ⟩, graphically a rotated lowercase vee (called a turned V, though it was created as a small-capital ⟨ᴀ⟩ without the crossbar), and both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as either a wedge, a caret, or a hat. In transcriptions for some languages (including Danish and several dialects of English), this symbol is also used for the near-open central vowel.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, linguists[who?] are known to use the terms "high" and "low".

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Cape Town[2] lot [lʌ̟t] 'lot' Near-back.[2] It corresponds to a weakly rounded [ɒ̈] in all other South African dialects.
Natal[2]
Cardiff[3] thought [θʌ̟ːt] 'thought' Near-back,[3] for some speakers it may be rounded and closer. See English phonology
Cockney[4] no [nʌ̟ː] 'no, nah' Near-back,[4] often a diphthong. It corresponds to /əʊ̯/ in other dialects. See English phonology
General South African[5] [nʌː] May be a diphthong [ʌʊ̯] instead.[6]
Inland Northern American[7] gut About this sound [ɡʌt]  'gut' In most dialects, fronted to [ɜ], or fronted and lowered to [ɐ]. See English phonology and Northern Cities Vowel Shift
Multicultural London[8]
Newfoundland[9]
Older Received Pronunciation
Philadelphia[10]
Scottish[11]
German Chemnitz dialect[12] machen [ˈmʌχɴ̩] 'to do' Allophone of /ʌ, ʌː/ (which phonetically are central [ɜ, ɜː])[13] before and after /ŋ, kʰ, k, χ, ʁ/. Exact backness varies; it is most posterior before /χ, ʁ/.[14] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Haida[15] [qʰwʌʔáːj] 'the rock' Allophone of /a/ (sometimes also /aː/) after uvular and epiglottal consonants.[16]
Irish Ulster dialect[17] ola [ʌl̪ˠə] 'oil' See Irish phonology
Kaingang[18] [ˈɾʌ] 'mark' Varies between back [ʌ] and central [ɜ].[19]
Korean[20] /byeol [pjʌl] 'star' See Korean phonology
Lillooet [example needed] Retracted counterpart of /ə/.
Tamil[21] [example needed] Nasalized. Phonetic realization of the sequence /am/, may be [õ] or [ã] instead.[21] See Tamil phonology

Before World War II, the /ʌ/ of Received Pronunciation was phonetically close to a back vowel [ʌ]; this sound has since shifted forward towards [ɐ] (a near-open central unrounded vowel). Daniel Jones reports his speech (southern British), as having an advanced back vowel [ʌ̟] between his central /ə/ and back /ɔ/; however, he also reports that other southern speakers had a lower and even more advanced vowel approaching cardinal [a].[22] In American English varieties, e.g. the West and Midwest, and the urban South, the typical phonetic realization of the phoneme /ʌ/ is an open-mid central unrounded vowel [ɜ].[23][24] Truly backed variants of /ʌ/ that are phonetically [ʌ] can occur in Inland Northern American English, Newfoundland English, Philadelphia English, some African-American Englishes, and (old-fashioned) white Southern English in coastal plain and Piedmont areas.[25][26] Despite this, the letter ⟨ʌ⟩ is still commonly used to indicate this phoneme, even in the more common varieties with central variants [ɐ] or [ɜ]. This may be due to both tradition as well as the fact that some other dialects retain the older pronunciation.[27]

References

  1. Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Lass (2002), p. 115.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Coupland (1990), p. 95.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wells (1982a), p. 309.
  5. Wells (1982b), pp. 614, 621.
  6. Wells (1982b), p. 614.
  7. W. Labov, S. Ash and C. Boberg (1997), A national map of the regional dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved May 27, 2013<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  9. Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 61–63.
  10. Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 73–74.
  11. Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  12. Khan & Weise (2013), pp. 235, 238.
  13. Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  14. Khan & Weise (2013), p. 238.
  15. Lawrence (1977), pp. 32–33.
  16. Lawrence (1977), pp. 32–33, 36.
  17. Ní Chasaide (1999), pp. 114–115.
  18. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  19. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  20. Lee (1999).
  21. 21.0 21.1 Keane (2004), p. 114.
  22. Jones (1972), pp. 86–88.
  23. Gordon (2004b), p. 340.
  24. Tillery & Bailey (2004), p. 333.
  25. Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28, 112–115, 121, 134, 174.
  26. Gordon (2004a), pp. 294–296.
  27. Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 135.

Bibliography

  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, ISBN 1-85359-032-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gordon, Matthew (2004a), "New York, Philadelphia and other Northern Cities", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 294–296, ISBN 3-11-017532-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gordon, Matthew (2004b), "The West and Midwest: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 340, ISBN 3-11-017532-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jones, Daniel (1972), An outline of English phonetics (9th ed.), Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.), Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lawrence, Erma (1977), Haida dictionary, Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Irish". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–116. ISBN 0-521-63751-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Thomas, Erik R. (2001), "An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English", Publication of the American Dialect Society, Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society, 85, ISSN 0002-8207<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Tillery, Jan; Bailey, Guy (2004), "The urban South: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 333, ISBN 3-11-017532-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wells, J.C. (1982a). "Accents of English 2: The British Isles". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wells, J.C. (1982b). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28541-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>