Panarthropoda

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Panarthropoda
Temporal range: Cambrian - Recent
31-Velvet Worm.JPG
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
(unranked): Panarthropoda
Nielsen, 1997
Phyla and unplaced genera

Panarthropoda is an animal taxon combining the phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and the genus Thelxiope.[1] Not all studies support it,[2] but most do, including neuroanatomical,[3] mitogenomic[4] and palaeontological[5] studies. Originally, they were considered to be closely related to the annelids, grouped together as the Articulata, but newer studies place them among the Ecdysozoa.

Common characteristics of the Panarthropoda include the presence of legs and claws, a ventral nervous system, and a segmented body.

References

  1. Telford, M. J (2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1529–1537. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. PMC 2614232. PMID 18192181.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Matus, D. Q.; Pang, K.; Browne, W. E.; Smith, S. A.; Seaver, E.; Rouse, G. W.; Obst, M.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Sørensen, M. V.; Haddock, S. H. D.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.; Okusu, A.; Kristensen, R. M. B.; Wheeler, W. C.; Martindale, M. Q.; Giribet, G. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature. 452 (7188): 745–749. doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID 18322464.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Persson, Dennis K. (2012). "Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade panarthropoda". Journal of Morphology. 273 (11): 1227–1245. doi:10.1002/jmor.20054.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Rota-Stabelli, O.; Kayal, E.; Gleeson, D.; Daub, J.; Boore, J.; Telford, M.; Pisani, D.; Blaxter, M.; Lavrov, D. (2010). "Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda". Genome biology and evolution. 2: 425–440. doi:10.1093/gbe/evq030. PMC 2998192. PMID 20624745.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Ou, Qiang (2012). "Cambrian lobopodians and extant onychophorans provide new insights into early cephalization in Panarthropoda". Nature Communications. 3: 1261. doi:10.1038/ncomms2272.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>