Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, written in the late 1st century.[not verified in body] The surviving Parallel Lives (Greek: Βίοι Παράλληλοι, Bíoi Parállēloi) comprises twenty-three pairs of biographies, each pair consisting of one Greek and one Roman, as well as four unpaired, single lives. It is a work of considerable importance, not only as a source of information about the individuals described, but also about the times in which they lived.[not verified in body]
As he explains in the first paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with writing histories, but with exploring the influence of character, good or bad, on the lives and destinies of famous men. He wished to prove that the more remote past of Greece could show its men of action and achievement as well as the nearer, and therefore more impressive, past of Rome. His interest was primarily ethical, although the lives have significant historical value as well. The Lives was published by Plutarch late in his life after his return to Chaeronea and, if one may judge from the long lists of authorities given, it must have taken many years to compile.
The chief manuscripts of the Lives date from the 10th and 11th centuries, and the first printed edition appeared at Florence in 1517. Jacob Tonson printed several editions of the Lives in English in the late 17th century, beginning with a five-volume set printed in 1688, with subsequent editions printed in 1693, 1702, 1716, and 1727. The most generally accepted text is that of the minor edition of Carl Sintenis in the Bibliotheca Teubneriana (five volumes, Leipzig 1852-1855; reissued without much change in 1873–1875). There are annotated editions by I. C. Held, E. H. G. Leopold, Otto Siefert and Friedrich Blass and Carl Sintenis, all in German; and by Holden, in English.
Several of the lives, such as those of Epaminondas and Scipio Africanus, are lost, and many of the remaining lives are truncated, contain obvious lacunae and/or have been tampered with by later writers.
Plutarch's Life of Alexander is one of the five surviving secondary or tertiary sources about Alexander the Great, and it includes anecdotes and descriptions of incidents that appear in no other source. Likewise, his portrait of Numa Pompilius, an early Roman king, contains unique information about the early Roman calendar.
Plutarch has been criticized for his lack of judicious discrimination in his use of authorities, and consequent errors and inaccuracies, but he gives an abundance of citations and, incidentally, a large number of valuable pieces of information, which fill up numerous gaps in historical knowledge obtained elsewhere. He has been praised for the liveliness and warmth of his portrayals, and his moral earnestness and enthusiasm, and the Lives have attracted a large circle of readers throughout the ages.
Plutarch structured his Lives by alternating lives of famous Greeks with those of famous Romans. After such a set of two (and one set of four) lives he generally writes out a comparison of the preceding biographies. The table below links to several English translations of Plutarch's Lives available online; see also "Other links" section below. The LacusCurtius site has the complete set; the others are incomplete to varying degrees. There are also four paperbacks published by Penguin Books, two with Greek lives, two Roman, rearranged in chronological order and containing a total of 36 of the lives.
Key to abbreviations
- D = Dryden
Dryden is famous for having lent his name as editor-in-chief to the first complete English translation of Plutarch's Lives. This 17th-century translation is available at The MIT Internet Classics Archive.
These translations are linked with D in the table below; those marked (D) in parentheses are incomplete in the HTML version.
- G = Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg contains several versions of 19th-century translations of these Lives, see: https://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/authrec?fk_authors=342 and https://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14114
These translations are linked with G in the table below.
- L = LacusCurtius
LacusCurtius has the Loeb translation by Bernadotte Perrin (published 1914‑1926) of part of the Moralia and all the Lives; see http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/home.html
These translations are linked with L in the table below.
- LV = LibriVox
These translations are linked with LV in the table below.
- P = Perseus Project
The Perseus Project has several of the Lives, see: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html
The Lives available on the Perseus website are in Greek and English according to the Loeb edition by Bernadotte Perrin; and/or in English according to an abbreviated version of the Thomas North translations. This last edition concentrates on those of the Lives Shakespeare based his plays upon: Thomas North's translation of most of the Lives, based on a French version published in the 16th century, preceded Dryden's translation mentioned above.
These translations are linked with P in the table below.
- ^ The last line of the table contains the four "unpaired" lives, as mentioned above.
- ^ The Perseus project also contains a biography of Caesar Augustus appearing in the North translation, but not coming from Plutarch's Parallel Lives: P
- ^ Though the majority of the Parallel Lives were written with the Greek hero (or heroes) placed in the first position followed by the Roman hero, there are three sets of Lives where this order is reversed: Aemilius Paulus/Timoleon, Coriolanus/Alcibiades and Sertorius/Eumenes.
- ^ At the time of composing this table there appears some confusion in the internal linking of the Perseus project webpages, responsible for this split in two references.
Chronology of the lives
The following chronology of legendary and historical figures whose biographies appear in the Lives is organized by date of death, as birth dates in antiquity are more often uncertain. All dates are BC except Galba and Otho.
- Theseus 1264–1204 (mythological figure)
- Romulus 771–717 (mythological figure)
- Numa Pompilius d. 673 (semi-legendary figure)
- Lycurgus c. 700 – 630 (semi-legendary figure)
- Solon 638–558
- Poplicola d. 503
- Coriolanus c. 475
- Aristides 530–468
- Themistocles 524–459
- Cimon 510–450
- Pericles 495–429
- Nicias 470–413
- Alcibiades 450–404
- Lysander d. 395
- Camillus 446–365
- Pelopidas d. 364
- Agesilaus 444–360
- Artaxerxes c. 440 – 358
- Dion 408–354
- Timoleon 411–337
- Alexander the Great 356–323
- Demosthenes 384–322
- Phocion 402–318
- Eumenes 362–316
- Demetrius d. 283
- Pyrrhus 318–272
- Agis c. 245
- Cleomenes d. 219
- Aratus 271–213
- Marcellus 268–208
- Fabius Maximus 275–203
- Philopoemen 253–183
- Flamininus 228–174
- Aemilius Paulus 229–160
- Cato the Elder 234–149
- Tiberius Gracchus c. 164 – c. 133
- Gaius Gracchus 154–121
- Gaius Marius 157–86
- Sulla 138–78
- Sertorius c. 123 – 72
- Lucullus 118–56
- Crassus 115–53
- Pompey 106–48
- Cato the Younger 95–46
- Julius Caesar 100–44
- Cicero 106–43
- Brutus 85–42
- Mark Antony 83–30
- Galba 3 BC – 69 AD
- Otho 32 AD – 69 AD
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Lives, Parallel". Encyclopedia Americana.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Translator's Introduction". The Parallel Lives (Vol. I ed.). Loeb Classical Library Edition. 1914.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Works related to Lives at Wikisource
- Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Βίοι Παράλληλοι
- University of Chicago English text of Plutarch's Parallel Lives.