Penza (English)
Пенза (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Penza 2013.png
Top to bottom, left to right: Historical city centre on Sura, Penza Oblast Theater of Drama, Suspension bridge over Sura River, Monument of Military and Labour Glory, Memorial complex of Glory, Kind Angel of Peace and State Emblem of the USSR monuments on Pushkin st.
Map of Russia - Penza Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Penza Oblast in Russia
Penza is located in Penza Oblast
Location of Penza in Penza Oblast
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Coat of Arms of Penza (Penza oblast) (2001).png
Coat of arms
Anthem none[2]
Administrative status (as of November 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Penza Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Penza[1]
Administrative center of Penza Oblast,[1] city of oblast significance of Penza[1]
Municipal status (as of March 2015)
Urban okrug Penza Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Penza Urban Okrug[3]
Head[5] Yury Krivov[4]
Representative body City Duma[5]
Population (2010 Census) 517,311 inhabitants[6]
Rank in 2010 34th
Population (January 2015 est.) 522,823 inhabitants[7]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[8]
Founded 1663[9]
Postal code(s)[10] 440000, 440001, 440003–440005, 440007–440009, 440011–440015, 440018, 440020, 440022, 440023, 440025, 440026, 440028, 440031–440035, 440039, 440040, 440042, 440044–440047, 440049, 440052, 440054, 440056, 440058, 440060–440062, 440064, 440066–440068, 440071, 440072, 440700, 440890, 440899, 440960, 440961, 440999
Dialing code(s) +7 8412[citation needed]
Official website
[[:commons:Category:{{#property:Commons category}}|Penza]] on Wikimedia Commons

Penza (Russian: Пенза; IPA: [ˈpʲɛnzə]) is a city and the administrative center of Penza Oblast, Russia, located on the Sura River, 625 kilometers (388 mi) southeast of Moscow. Population: 517,311 (2010 Census);[6] 518,025 (2002 Census);[11] 542,612 (1989 Census).[12]



Penza was founded as a Russian frontier fortress-city,[9] and to this day, remnants of the Lomovskaya sentry line built in 1640 have been preserved at the western edge of the city, and remains of earth ramparts dating from the mid-16th century are preserved in the city center. Until 1663, Penza was a wooden stockade with only a small settlement. Then in May 1663, the architect Yuri Kontransky arrived in Penza on the Tsar's orders to direct the construction of a fortress city,[citation needed] as part of a wider fortress building program to protect Russia from attacks by Crimean Tatars. The initial construction consisted of a wooden Kremlin, a village, and quarters for the nobility, small tradesmen, and merchants.

In 1774, the insurgent army led by Yemelyan Pugachev occupied Penza after the citizens of the city welcomed the rebellious Cossacks. The first stone houses started to appear after 1801, and by 1809 Penza's population had grown to more than 13,000 people.

In 1918, Vladimir Lenin sent a telegram to communists in the Penza area, complaining about the "insurrection of five kulak districts". He urged the public hanging of 100 "landlords, richmen, bloodsuckers", grain seizure, and hostage taking. This telegram has been used in several historical works on the period and on Lenin.[13][14][15][16][17] During the Russian Civil War, the Czechoslovak Legions launched an anti-Bolshevik uprising in Penza.

During the Soviet period, the city developed as a regional industrial center. The Ural mainframe was made here between 1959 and 1964.

The confluence of the Penza and Sura Rivers

Administrative and municipal status

Penza Oblast Administration building

Penza is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Penza—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Penza is incorporated as Penza Urban Okrug.[3]


Penza is a major railway junction and lies on the M5 highway linking Moscow and Chelyabinsk. Penza Airport serves domestic flights. Local public transport includes buses, trolleybuses and marshrutkas (routed taxis).

Penza as seen from the highest point of the city

Education and culture

An 18th-century house in Penza

Currently, the city of Penza is seen as a regional center for higher education. It has six universities (the Penza State University, the Pedagogic University, the Academy of Agriculture, the Technology Institute, the University of Architecture and Construction, and the Artillery and Engineering Institute), 13 colleges and 77 public schools. Besides this, Penza is home to three theatres, four museums, and three art galleries including The Museum of One Painting named after G. V. Myasnikov.

Facilities of higher education include:

  • Penza State University
  • Penza State Pedagogical University (unified with Penza State University in 2012)
  • Penza State University of Architecture and Construction
  • Penza Artillery Engineering Institute
  • Penza State Technological Academy
  • Penza State Agricultural Academy
  • Penza branch of the Moscow's Institute of Economics, Management and Law
  • Penza branch of the Russian State University of Innovative Technologies and Entrepreneurship


Penza has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long, cold winters and warm summers. A heat wave in the months of June, July, and August 2010, raised temperatures from previous norms often by 15 °C (27 °F) in Penza. Some of the higher fluctuations in temperatures were recorded with seven straight days of temperatures +40 °C (104 °F) and higher compared to the previous year where the higher temperatures for the same period were, on average, 20 °C (36 °F) lower.[18][19]

Climate data for Penza (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
Average high °C (°F) −5.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.7
Average low °C (°F) −11.9
Record low °C (°F) −39.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38
Average relative humidity (%) 84 82 79 68 61 67 69 70 73 79 86 85 75.3
Source: Погода и Климат


Penza first hosted the Russian Sidecarcross Grand Prix in 2009, and did so again in 2010, on August 15.[20]

The city football team FC Zenit Penza was established in 1918 but now plays in the Russian Amateur League. Penza has also a professional rugby union club, Imperia-Dynamo Penza, from Russia's Professional Rugby League.


A minor planet, 3189 Penza, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh in 1978, is named after the city.[21]

Notable residents

Twin towns and sister cities

See also



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Law #774-ZPO
  2. Article 2 of the Charter of Penza states that the city may have an anthem, providing one is adopted by the City Duma. As of 2015, no anthem has been adopted.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Law #690-ZPO
  4. Official website of Penza. Biography of Yury Ivanovich Krivov, Head of Penza (Russian)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Charter of Penza, Article 18
  6. 6.0 6.1 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1". Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Penza Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Пензенской области на 1.01.2015 (Russian)
  8. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Большая Советская Энциклопедия (Great Soviet Encyclopedia). Гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров, 3-е изд. Т. 19. Отоми — Пластырь. 1975. 648 стр., илл.; 29 л. илл. и карт. "Город основан в 1663 году как крепость на юго-восточной окраине Русского царства."
  10. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  11. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Hanging order". 2010-07-22. Retrieved 2014-05-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1971, Moscow, Volume 36, page 489. "Telegram to Yevgenia Bosch"". 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2014-05-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "An exchange of letters on the BBC documentary Lenin's Secret Files"
  16. Telegram to the Penza Gubernia Executive Committee of the Soviets in J. Brooks and G. Chernyavskiy's, p.77, Lenin and the Making of the Soviet State: A Brief History with Documents (2007). Bedford/St Martin's: Boston and New York: p.77
  17. Translation of 'hanging order' by Robert Service, p. 365, Lenin a Biography (2000). London: Macmillan
  18. "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Пензе". Retrieved 2014-05-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Пензе". Retrieved 2014-05-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. FIM Sidecarcross World Championship – 2010 Calendar FIM website, accessed: October 30, 2009
  21. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – p.264. Retrieved 2014-05-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Official site of Penza". Archived from the original on July 15, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Penza City (Russia, sister city of Lanzhou Municipality) Archived June 23, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. "Ramat Gan sister cities". July 19, 2007. Retrieved May 18, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  • Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №774-ЗПО от 9 марта 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2484-ЗПО от 28 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 15 Закона Пензенской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №6, стр. 49, 18 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #774-ZPO of March 9, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2484-ZPO of November 28, 2013 On Amending Article 15 of the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast". Effective as of the day ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №690-ЗПО от 2 ноября 2004 г. «О границах муниципальных образований Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2681-ЗПО от 4 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Пензенской области "О границах муниципальных образований Пензенской области"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №17 (без приложения), 16 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #690-ZPO of November 2, 2004 On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2681-ZPO of March 4, 2015 On Amending the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast". Effective as of after 10 days from the official publication.).

External links