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Pluralism is used in different ways across a wide range of topics. It denotes a diversity of views and stands rather than a single approach or method of interpretation:

  • Benefice#Pluralism, a situation in the sense of holding multiple ecclesiastical offices
  • Cosmic pluralism, the belief in numerous other worlds beyond the Earth, which may possess the conditions suitable for life
  • Cultural pluralism, when small groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities (see Multiculturalism)
  • Legal pluralism, acknowledges the existence of differing legal systems in the world
  • Methodological pluralism, the view that some phenomena observed in science and social science require multiple methods to account for their nature
  • Pluralism (industrial relations), recognition of a multiplicity of legitimate interests and stakeholders in the employment relationship
  • Pluralism (political philosophy), the acknowledgment of a diversity of political systems
  • Pluralism (political theory), belief that there should be diverse and competing centres of power in society, so that there is a marketplace for ideas
  • Religious pluralism, the acceptance of all religious paths as equally valid, promoting coexistence
  • Scientific pluralism, the view that some phenomena observed in science require multiple explanations to account for their nature
  • Structural pluralism, a concept used to examine the way in which societies are structured

In philosophy

  • Epistemological pluralism, methodologies for determining what we know – a set of untold truths about the world
  • Pluralism (philosophy), a doctrine according to which many rather than one (monism) or two (dualism) basic substances make up reality
  • Pluralist school, a Greek school of pre-Socratic philosophers
  • Value pluralism, the idea that there are several values that may be equally correct, even fundamental, and yet in conflict with each other

See also