The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a sectional rebellion against the United States of America by the Confederate States, formed of eleven southern slave states' governments which moved to secede from the Union after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States. The Union's victory was eventually achieved by leveraging advantages in population, manufacturing and logistics and through a strategic naval blockade denying the Confederacy access to the world's markets.
In many ways, the conflict's central issues – the enslavement of African Americans, the role of constitutional federal government, and the rights of states – are still not completely resolved. Not surprisingly, the Confederate army's surrender at Appomattox on April 9, 1865 did little to change many Americans' attitudes toward the potential powers of central government. The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution in the years immediately following the war did not change the racial prejudice prevalent among Americans of the day; and the process of Reconstruction did not heal the deeply personal wounds inflicted by four brutal years of war and more than 970,000 casualties – 3 percent of the population, including approximately 560,000 deaths. As a result, controversies affected by the war's unresolved social, political, economic and racial tensions continue to shape contemporary American thought. The causes of the war, the reasons for the outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of much discussion even today.
(February 6, 1797 – May 25, 1877) was a United States Representative
and the second Confederate Governor of Kentucky
. He was part of an influential political family, with a brother, uncle, and cousin who also served as U.S. Representatives. He began his political career as an ardent Whig
and was a close friend of the party's founder, Henry Clay
. When the party declined and dissolved in the 1850s, Hawes became a Democrat
, and his relationship with Clay cooled.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Hawes was a supporter of Kentucky's doctrine of armed neutrality. When the Commonwealth's neutrality was breached in September 1861, Hawes fled to Virginia and enlisted as a brigade commissary under Confederate general Humphrey Marshall. When Kentucky's Confederate government was formed in Russellville, Hawes was offered the position of state auditor, but declined. Months later, he was elected Confederate governor of the Commonwealth following the late George W. Johnson's death at the Battle of Shiloh.
Hawes and the Confederate government traveled with Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee, and when Bragg invaded Kentucky in October 1862, he captured Frankfort and held an inauguration ceremony for Hawes. The ceremony was interrupted, however, by forces under Union general Don Carlos Buell, and the Confederates were driven from the Commonwealth following the Battle of Perryville. Hawes relocated to Virginia, where he continued to lobby President Jefferson Davis to attempt another invasion of Kentucky.
Following the war, the Confederate government of Kentucky collapsed, and Hawes returned to his home in Paris, Kentucky. He swore an oath of allegiance to the Union, and was allowed to return to his law practice. He was elected county judge of Bourbon County, a post he held until his death in 1877.
was a border state
which sent troops, officers, and supplies to both opposing sides, had its star on both flags, had state governments representing each side, and endured a neighbor-against-neighbor intrastate war even within the larger national war.
By the end of the Civil War, Missouri had supplied nearly 110,000 troops for the Union Army and about 40,000 troops for the Confederate Army. Counting minor engagements, actions and skirmishes, Missouri saw over 1,200 distinct fights occurring in all areas of the state, from the Iowa and Illinois border in the northeast to the edge of the state in the southeast and southwest on the Arkansas border. Only Virginia and Tennessee exceeded Missouri in the number of engagements within the state boundaries. Conflicts and battles in the war were divided into three phases, starting with the Union eviction of Governor Jackson and pursuit of Sterling Price and his Missouri State Guard in 1861; a period of neighbor-versus-neighbor bushwhacking guerrilla warfare from 1862 to 1864; and finally Sterling Price's attempt to retake the state in 1864. The biggest battle in the war west of the Mississippi River was the Battle of Westport at Kansas City in 1864.
Caleb Blood Smith
(April 16, 1808 – January 7, 1864) was an American
journalist and politician, serving in the Cabinet
of Abraham Lincoln
during the American Civil War
. Born in Boston, Massachusetts
, he emigrated with his parents to Ohio
in 1814, was educated at Cincinnati College
and Miami University
, studied law in Cincinnati
and in Connersville, Indiana
, and was admitted to the bar in 1828. He began practice at the latter place, established and edited the Sentinel
in 1832, served several terms in the Indiana legislature
, and was in the United States Congress
in 1843–1849, having been elected as a Whig
. During his congressional career, he was one of the Mexican
claims commissioners. He returned to the practice of law in 1850, residing in Cincinnati and subsequently in Indianapolis
. He was influential in securing the nomination of Abraham Lincoln
for the presidency at the Chicago Republican National Convention
Lincoln appointed Smith as the United States Secretary of the Interior in 1861 as a reward for his work in the presidential campaign. He was the first citizen of Indiana to hold a Presidential Cabinet position. However, Smith had little interest in the job and, with declining health, delegated most of his responsibilities to Assistant Secretary of the Interior John Palmer Usher. In 1862, he was interested in the empty seat in the United States Supreme Court vacated by John Archibald Campbell's resignation the previous year. However, Lincoln nominated David Davis for the position instead. After Smith resigned in December 1862 as the result of his discord with the Emancipation Proclamation, Usher became Secretary. Smith went home to become the United States circuit judge for Indiana. He died January 7, 1864, from his ill health. President Lincoln ordered that government buildings be draped in black for two weeks in a sign of mourning for Smith's death.