The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a sectional rebellion against the United States of America by the Confederate States, formed of eleven southern slave states' governments which moved to secede from the Union after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States. The Union's victory was eventually achieved by leveraging advantages in population, manufacturing and logistics and through a strategic naval blockade denying the Confederacy access to the world's markets.
In many ways, the conflict's central issues – the enslavement of African Americans, the role of constitutional federal government, and the rights of states – are still not completely resolved. Not surprisingly, the Confederate army's surrender at Appomattox on April 9, 1865 did little to change many Americans' attitudes toward the potential powers of central government. The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution in the years immediately following the war did not change the racial prejudice prevalent among Americans of the day; and the process of Reconstruction did not heal the deeply personal wounds inflicted by four brutal years of war and more than 970,000 casualties – 3 percent of the population, including approximately 560,000 deaths. As a result, controversies affected by the war's unresolved social, political, economic and racial tensions continue to shape contemporary American thought. The causes of the war, the reasons for the outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of much discussion even today.
The Battle of Corydon
was a minor engagement that took place July 9, 1863, just south of Corydon
, which had been the original capital of Indiana
until 1825, and was the seat
of Harrison county
. The attack occurred during Morgan's Raid
in the American Civil War
as a force of 2,500 cavalry invaded the North
in support of the Tullahoma Campaign
. It was the only pitched battle
of the Civil War that occurred in Indiana, and no battle has occurred within Indiana
Although the short battle cost the cavalry twice as many casualties as the outnumbered militia units, the battle resulted in a Confederate victory, which enabled Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan to secure supplies and money before continuing his raid through Indiana and into Ohio. The delay, however, proved critical in helping the pursuing Union army overtake and later capture Morgan and his forces.
Though no major battles were fought in New Jersey
, the state provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union
during the American Civil War
. Soldiers and volunteers from New Jersey played an important part in the war, including Philip Kearny
and George B. McClellan
, who led the Army of the Potomac
early in the Civil War and unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States
in 1864 against his former commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln
The Quaker population of New Jersey was especially intolerant of slavery. However, New Jersey ended up becoming the last of the northern states to abolish slavery by enacting legislation which caused the slow abolishment of slavery. Though New Jersey passed an act for the gradual abolition of slavery in 1804, it wasn't until 1830 that most blacks were free in the state. However, by the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African-Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen. New Jersey at first refused to ratify the Constitutional Amendments that banned slavery. New Jersey was a major part of the extensive Underground Railroad system.
Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell Marsh
(November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949), popularly known as Margaret Mitchell
was an American author
, who won the Pulitzer Prize
in 1937 for her novel
, Gone with the Wind,
published in 1936. The novel is one of the most popular books of all time, selling more than 30 million copies (see list of best-selling books
). An American film adaptation
, released in 1939, became the highest-grossing film in the history of Hollywood
, and received a record-breaking number of Academy Awards
Margaret Mitchell was born in Atlanta, Georgia to Eugene Mitchell, a lawyer, and Mary Isabelle, much referred to as May Belle, a suffragist of Irish Catholic origin. Her childhood was spent in the laps of Civil War veterans and of her maternal relatives, who had lived through the Civil War. After graduating from Washington Seminary (now The Westminster Schools), she attended Smith College, but withdrew following her final exams in 1918. She returned to Atlanta to take over the household after her mother's death earlier that year from the great Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 (Mitchell later used this pivotal scene from her own life to dramatize Scarlett's discovery of her mother's death from typhoid when Scarlett returns to Tara Plantation).
Shortly afterward, she defied the conventions of her class and times by taking a job at the Atlanta Journal, where she wrote a weekly column for the newspaper's Sunday edition as one of the first woman columnists at the South's largest newspaper. Mitchell's first professional writing assignment was an interview with an Atlanta socialite, whose couture-buying trip to Italy was interrupted by the Fascist takeover.