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Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest and most populous country in South America, and the fifth largest in the world in both area and population. Its territory covers 8,514,876.599 km² between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean and it is the easternmost country of the Americas. It borders Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the département of French Guiana to the north, Uruguay to the south, Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, and Colombia to the northwest. The only South American countries not bordered by Brazil are Ecuador and Chile.
The Brazilian coastline covers 7,367km (4,655 mi) along the Atlantic ocean. Numerous archipelagos are part of the Brazilian territory, such as Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo, Fernando de Noronha, Trindade e Martim Vaz and Atol das Rocas. Tropical climate is predominant. In the south of the country, subtropical climate prevails. Brazil is traversed by the Equator and Tropic of Capricorn lines. It is home to varied fauna and flora and extensive natural resources.
The Brazilian population tends to concentrate along the coastline in large urban centers. While Brazil has one of the largest populations in the world, population density is low and the inner continental land has large demographical empty spaces. It is a multiracial country composed of European, Amerindian, African and Asian elements, more often combined in the same individual than separated into different communities. The official language is Portuguese, and it is the only Portuguese-speaking country in all the Americas. Catholicism is the predominant religion, though Protestant communities have experienced significant growth in the last decades. Brazil has the largest Roman Catholic population in the world.
(also called American trypanosomiasis
) is a human tropical parasitic disease
which occurs in the Americas
, particularly in South America
. Its pathogenic agent
is a flagellate protozoan
named Trypanosoma cruzi
, which is transmitted to humans and other mammals
mostly by blood-sucking assassin bugs
of the subfamily Triatominae
). Those insects are known by numerous common names varying by country, including benchuca, vinchuca, kissing bug, chipo, pito, chupança, chinchorro, and barbeiro. The most common insect species belong to the genera Triatoma
, and Panstrongylus
. However, other methods of transmission are possible, such as ingestion of food contaminated with parasites
, blood transfusion
The symptoms of Chagas' disease vary over the course of the infection. In the early, acute stage symptoms are mild and are usually no more than local swelling at the site of infection. As the disease progresses, over as much as twenty years, the serious chronic symptoms appear, such as heart disease and malformation of the intestines. If untreated, the chronic disease is often fatal. Current drug treatments for this disease are generally unsatisfactory, with the available drugs being highly toxic and often ineffective, particularly in the chronic stage of the disease.
Gilberto Aparecido da Silva
(born October 7, 1976 in Lagoa da Prata
, Minas Gerais
), commonly known as Gilberto Silva
(Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒiwˈbɛʁtu ˈsiwvɐ]
), is a Brazilian footballer
. He currently plays for the Greek
, as a defensive midfielder
. Gilberto was raised in a poor family and as a child he balanced playing football with various labour jobs. He began his football career in 1997 with América Mineiro
, where good form earned him a move to Atlético Mineiro
in 2000. He became a star player for Atlético, playing for three years in the Brazilian Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
. He came to particular prominence when he helped the Brazilian national team
win the 2002 FIFA World Cup
, playing in all seven of Brazil's matches.
In August 2002, for a fee of £4.5 million, he joined Arsenal, with whom he won the 2004 FA Premier League, and two FA Cup trophies. In his first five seasons with the club, he played 208 games and scored 23 goals. On 19 August 2006 he scored Arsenal's first competitive goal at the newly built Emirates Stadium. He was made vice-captain of Arsenal in 2006. In 2007, he was selected as Brazil captain for the Copa América tournament, which Brazil went on to win.
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