Portal:Libertarianism

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Libertarianism is a set of related political philosophies that uphold liberty as the highest political end. This includes emphasis on the primacy of individual liberty, political freedom, and voluntary association. It is the antonym to authoritarianism. Libertarians advocate a society with either minimized government or no government at all.

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The Free State Project (FSP) is a political movement, founded in 2001, to get at least 20,000 libertarian-leaning people to move to New Hampshire in order to make the state a stronghold for libertarian ideas.

Those who join the Free State Project sign a statement of intent to move to New Hampshire within five years of the group reaching 20,000 participants or some other move trigger. Those who move to New Hampshire in advance of the FSP reaching 20,000 participants are referred to as "early movers". As of April 2011, 901 people had moved to the state, with 10,826 having signed the Project's statement of intent.

The Free State Project is a social movement generally based upon decentralized decision making. While there is a control group that performs various activities, most of the Free State Project's activities depend upon volunteers to promote the Free State Project in their own way.

Selected biography

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist and statistician at the University of Chicago, and recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

Among scholars, he is best known for his theoretical and empirical research, especially consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy.[1] He was an economic advisor to U.S. President Ronald Reagan. Over time, many governments practiced his restatement of a political philosophy that extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with little intervention by government. As a leader of the Chicago school of economics, based at the University of Chicago, he had great influence in determining the research agenda of the entire profession. Milton Friedman's works, which include many monographs, books, scholarly articles, papers, magazine columns, television programs, videos, and lectures, cover a broad range of topics of microeconomics, macroeconomics, economic history, and public policy issues. The Economist described him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century…possibly of all of it."[2]

Friedman was originally a Keynesian, a supporter of the New Deal and an advocate of government intervention in the economy. However, his 1950s reinterpretation of the Keynesian consumption function challenged the standard Keynesian model of that time. At the University of Chicago, Friedman became the main advocate opposing activist Keynesian government policies.[3] During the 1960s he promoted an alternative macroeconomic policy known as "monetarism". He theorized there existed a "natural rate of unemployment," and argued that governments could not change this natural rate. He argued that the Phillips Curve was not stable, and predicted that then-existing Keynesian policies would cause high inflation and minimal growth (later termed stagflation).[4] Friedman's claim that monetary policy could have prevented the Great Depression was an attempt to refute the analysis of Keynes, who argued that monetary policy is ineffective during depression conditions, and that large-scale deficit spending by the government is needed to decrease mass unemployment. Though opposed to the existence of the Federal Reserve, Friedman argued that, given that it does exist, a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the only wise policy, and he warned against efforts by a treasury or central bank to do otherwise.

Influenced by his close friend George Stigler, Friedman opposed government regulation of many types. He once stated that his role in eliminating U.S. conscription was his proudest accomplishment, and his support for school choice led him to found The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice. Friedman's political philosophy, which he considered classically liberal and libertarian, emphasized the advantages of free market economics and the disadvantages of government intervention and regulation, strongly influencing the opinions of American conservatives and libertarians. In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military, freely floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax, and education vouchers.[5] His books and essays were well read and were even circulated illegally in Communist countries.[6][7]

Most economists during the 1960s rejected Friedman's economic views, but since then they have had an increasing international influence (especially in the United States and United Kingdom). Some of his laissez-faire ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation, privatization and deregulation were used by governments, especially during the 1980s. His monetary theory has had a large influence on economists such as Ben Bernanke and the Federal Reserve's response to the financial crisis of 2007–2010.[8][9][10]

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  1. "Milton Friedman on nobelprize.org". Nobel Prize. 1976. Retrieved February 20, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Milton Friedman, a giant among economists". The Economist. November 23, 2006. Retrieved February 20, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Milton Friedman—Economist as Public Intellectual
  4. Nobel prize winner Paul Krugman stated that, "In 1968 in one of the decisive intellectual achievements of postwar economics, Friedman not only showed why the apparent tradeoff embodied in the idea of the Phillips curve was wrong; he also predicted the emergence of combined inflation and high unemployment...dubbed ‘stagflation.” Paul Krugman, Peddling Prosperity: Economic Sense and Nonsense in an Age of Diminished Expectations (1995) p 43 online
  5. Milton Friedman (1912–2006)
  6. "Capitalism and Friedman". The Wall Street Journal. November 17, 2006. Retrieved August 22, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Václav Klaus (January 29, 2007). "Remarks at Milton Friedman Memorial Service". Retrieved August 22, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Sullivan, Patricia (November 16, 2006). "Milton Friedman, tireless promoter of free markets, dies". Washington Post. Retrieved February 20, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Bullock, Penn (September 1, 2009), "Friedman Economics", Reason Magazine, retrieved February 4, 2010<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Bullock, Penn (November 17, 2009), "Bernanke's Philosopher", Reason Magazine, retrieved February 4, 2010<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>