|Born||uncertain, ~1300-1380 CE
Allahabad, present day Uttar Pradesh, India
|Died||uncertain, ~1400-1475 CE
Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
|Denomination||Vaishnavism (deity Rama), Hinduism|
|Notable disciple(s)||2 poetess-sants and 10 poet-sants including Kabir, Ravidas, Bhagat Pipa, Sukhanand|
|Known for||Ramanandi Sampradaya,
Guru of major poet-sants,
a pioneer of Bhakti movement in north India, Social reformer
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Ramananda (IAST: Rāmānanda) was a 14th-century Vaishnava devotional poet sant, in the Ganges river region of Northern India. The Hindu tradition recognizes him as the founder of the Ramanandi Sampradaya, the largest monastic Hindu renunciant community in modern times. Ramananda is also known as Jagadguru Ramanandacharya, and revered by his followers to be an incarnation of Hindu god Rama.
Born in a Brahmin family, Ramananda for the most part of his life lived in the holy city of Varanasi. His year of birth or death are uncertain, but historical evidence suggests he was one of the earliest sants and a pioneering figure of the Bhakti movement as it rapidly grew in north India, sometime between the 14th and mid 15th century during its Islamic rule period. Tradition asserts that Ramananda developed his philosophy and devotional themes inspired by the south Indian Vedanta philosopher Ramanuja, however evidence also suggests that Ramananda was influenced by Nathpanthi ascetics of the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy.
An early social reformer, Ramananda accepted disciples without discriminating anyone by gender, class, caste or religion (he accepted Muslims). Traditional scholarship holds that his disciples included later Bhakti movement poet-sants such as Kabir, Ravidas, Bhagat Pipa and others, however some postmodern scholars have questioned some of this spiritual lineage while others have supported this lineage with historical evidence. His ideas also influenced the founding of Sikhism in 15th century, and his verse and he are mentioned in the Sikh scripture Adi Granth.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Literary works
- 3 Philosophy
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Historical sources and controversies
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Little is known with certainty about the life of Ramananda, including year of birth and death, as well as the place of birth. His biography has been derived from mentions of him in secondary literature and inconsistent hagiographies.
The most accepted version holds that Ramananda was born in a Brahmin family, about mid 14th-century, and died about mid 15th-century. There are two competing theories for his place of birth. One version, based on Agastya-samhita, states that he was born in Prayag, a place now known as Allahabad, to Sushila and Punyasadan. Another version states that he was born in south India, and settled in the holy city of Varanasi to launch the Bhakti movement already established in southern regions of India.
According to the medieval era Bhaktamala text by Nabhadas, Ramananda studied under Raghavananda, a guru (teacher) in Vedanta-based Vatakalai (northern, Rama-avatar) school of Vaishnavism. Other scholars state that Ramananda's education started in Adi Shankara's Advaita Vedanta school, before he met Raghavananda and began his studies in Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita Vedanta school.
Ramananda is credited as the author of many devotional poems, but like most Bhakti movement poets, whether he actually was the author of these poems is unclear. Two treatises in Hindi, Gyan-lila and Yog-cintamani are also attributed to Ramanand, as are the Sanskrit works Vaisnava Mata Bhajabhaskara and Ramarcana paddhati. However, poems found in the original and well preserved manuscripts of Sikhism and handwritten Nagari-pracarini Sabha are considered authentic and highlight the Nirguna (attributeless god) stream of thought in Ramananda.
Ramananda developed his philosophy and devotional themes inspired by the south Indian Vedanta philosopher Ramanuja, however evidence also suggests that Ramananda was influenced by Nathpanthi ascetics of the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy.
Antonio Rigopoulos states Ramananda's teachings were "an attempt towards a synthesis between Advaita Vedanta and Vaishnava bhakti". He adds that the same link can be found in the 15th-century text of Adhyatma Ramayana, but there is no historical proof that Ramananda's teachings inspired that text.
Shastri has proposed the theory that Ramananda's complex theological schooling in two distinct Hindu philosophies explains why he accepted both Saguna Brahman and Nirguna Brahman, or god with attributes and god without attributes respectively. Shastri suggests his theory offers an explanation why Ramananda's disciples co-developed saguna and nirguna as the two parallel currents in the Bhakti movement. However, this theory lacks historical evidence and has not gained wide acceptance by scholars.
The Ramananda literature that is considered authentic, states Enzo Turbiani, suggest a milestone development in metaphysical principles of the Bhakti movement. Ramananda asserts that austerity and penances through asceticism are meaningless, if an individual does not realize Hari (Vishnu) as their inner self. He criticizes fasting and rituals, stating that the mechanics are not important, and that these are useless if the individual does not take the opportunity to reflect and introspect on the nature of Brahman (supreme being). Ramananda states that rote reading of a sacred text is of no benefit, if the person fails to understand what the text is trying to communicate.
Ramananda is often honored as the founder of Sant-parampara (literally, the tradition of bhakti sants) in north India. His efforts, in a time when Ganges river plains of north India was under Islamic rule, helped revive and refocus Hindus to a personalized, direct devotional form of Rama worship, his liberalism and focus on the devotee's commitment rather than birth or gender set a precedent that attracted people to spirituality from various walks of life, and his use of vernacular language instead of Sanskrit for spiritual ideas made sharing and reflection easier for the masses.
Twelve disciples of Jagadguru Ramanandacharya
Largest ascetic community in India: Ramanandi Sampraday
Ramananda is the founder of the eponymous Ramanandi Sampraday (Shri Ramavat or Shri Sampraday). This is the largest ascetic community in India, and their members are known as Ramanandis, Vairagis or Bairagis. They are known for their self-imposed highly disciplined, austere, structured and simple lifestyle. Richard Burghart acknowledges that Ramananda is revered as the founder in the Ramanandi Sampraday's tradition, but adds that historical evidence about its origin is meager and India's largest monastic community may have gathered strength a few centuries after Ramananda's death.
The current leader of Ramanandi Sampraday is Jagadguru Rambhadracharya.
Ramananda was an influential social reformer of Northern India. His championed the pursuit of knowledge and direct devotional spirituality, and did not discriminate based on birth family, gender or religion.
Sikhism: Guru Granth Sahib
One poem of Swami Ramanand is recorded in the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book of the Sikhs, as Raag Basant. This poem, originally written in Hindi, is a response to an invitation to go to a temple, and the answer states there is no need to visit a temple because God is within a person, all pervasive in everything and everyone.
Where should I go?
I am happy at home.
My heart will not go with me,
My mind has become crippled.
One day, a desire welled up in my mind,
I ground up sandalwood, along with several fragrant oils.
I went to the temple, to worship Him there,
Then my Guru showed me Brahman [Ultimate Reality, God], within my heart.
Wherever I go, I find only water and stones,
But Brahman is in everything.
I have searched through all the Vedas and the Puranas,
You go there, only if Brahman were not here.
I am a sacrifice to You, O True Guru.
You have dispelled all my confusion and doubt.
Ramanand's Lord is the all-pervading Brahman,
The word of the Guru ends millions of karma.
Historical sources and controversies
Controversy about his literary works – Of the few books written by Ramananda himself, some may have been written by his followers and then accredited to Ramananda.
Just after the death of Swami Ramananda, Swami Chetan-Dasji composed a book called Prasang Paarijaat in Paishachi language in the year 1574 AD. This was a long poem containing the major events of Ramananda's life.
- Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447024136, pages 42-44
- Schomer and McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120802773, pages 4-6
- William Pinch (1996), Peasants and Monks in British India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520200616, pages 53-89
- Selva Raj and William Harman (2007), Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791467084, pages 165-166
- James G Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931804, pages 553-554
- David Lorenzen, Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History, ISBN 978-8190227261, pages 104-106
- Gerald James Larson (1995), India's Agony Over Religion, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791424124, page 116
- Schomer and McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120802773, page 54
- Julia Leslie (1996), Myth and Mythmaking: Continuous Evolution in Indian Tradition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700703036, pages 117-119
- Winnand Callewaert (2015), The Hagiographies of Anantadas: The Bhakti Poets of North India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1138862463, pages 405-407
- Enzo Turbiani (Editor: RS McGregor, 1992), Devotional Literature in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521413114, page 51
- Max Arthur Macauliffe (2013 Reprint), The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors, Volume 6, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1108055482, pages 100-101
- Charlotte Vaudeville (1974), Kabir, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198265269, pages 110-117
- Selva Raj and William Harman (2007), Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791467084, pages 165-185
- Nirmal Dass (2000), Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791446843, page 160-164
- Antonio Rigopoulos (1993), The Life And Teachings Of Sai Baba Of Shirdi, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791412671, page 34
- Karen Pechelis (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195351903, page 36
- Edmour J Babineau (2008), Love of God and Social Duty in the Rāmcaritmānas, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120823990, pages 65-66
- Antonio Rigopoulos (1993), The Life And Teachings Of Sai Baba Of Shirdi, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791412671, page 264
- Edmour J Babineau (2008), Love of God and Social Duty in the Rāmcaritmānas, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120823990, pages 66-67
- Enzo Turbiani (Editor: RS McGregor, 1992), Devotional Literature in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521413114, pages 52-54
- Antonio Rigopoulos (1993), The Life And Teachings Of Sai Baba Of Shirdi, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791412671, page 37
- Edmour J Babineau (2008), Love of God and Social Duty in the Rāmcaritmānas, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120823990, pages 65-68
- Rekha Pande (2014), Divine Sounds from the Heart—Singing Unfettered in their Own Voices, Cambridge Scholars, ISBN 978-1443825252, page 77
- Ramdas Lamb (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut A Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 317-330
- Richard Burghart (1978), The Founding of the Ramanandi Sect, Ethnohistory, Vol. 25, No. 2, pages 121-139
- Antoinette Elizabeth DeNapoli (2014), Real Sadhus Sing to God, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199940035, page 124
- Max Arthur Macauliffe (2013 Reprint), The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors, Volume 6, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1108055482, pages 105-106
- JS Hawley (2015), A Storm of Songs: India and the Idea of the Bhakti Movement, Harvard University Press, Chapter 3
- William Pinch (1996), Peasants and Monks in British India, University of California Press
- David Lorenzen (1995), Bhakti Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action, State University of New York Press
- Richard Burghard (1978), The Founding of the Ramanandi Sect, London: London School of Economics and Political Science